943.201(1)(b)7. 7. An identification number assigned to an individual by his or her employer.
943.201(1)(b)8. 8. The maiden name of an individual's mother.
943.201(1)(b)9. 9. The identifying number of a depository account, as defined in s. 815.18 (2) (e), of an individual.
943.201(1)(b)10. 10. An individual's taxpayer identification number.
943.201(1)(b)11. 11. An individual's deoxyribonucleic acid profile, as defined in s. 939.74 (2d) (a).
943.201(1)(b)12. 12. Any of the following, if it can be used, alone or in conjunction with any access device, to obtain money, goods, services, or any other thing of value or benefit, or if it can be used to initiate a transfer of funds:
943.201(1)(b)12.a. a. An individual's code or account number.
943.201(1)(b)12.b. b. An individual's electronic serial number, mobile identification number, personal identification number, or other telecommunications service, equipment, or instrument identifier.
943.201(1)(b)12.c. c. Any other means of account access.
943.201(1)(b)13. 13. An individual's unique biometric data, including fingerprint, voice print, retina or iris image, or any other unique physical representation.
943.201(1)(b)14. 14. Any other information or data that is unique to, assigned to, or belongs to an individual and that is intended to be used to access services, funds, or benefits of any kind to which the individual is entitled.
943.201(1)(b)15. 15. Any other information that can be associated with a particular individual through one or more identifiers or other information or circumstances.
943.201(2) (2)Whoever, for any of the following purposes, intentionally uses, attempts to use, or possesses with intent to use any personal identifying information or personal identification document of an individual, including a deceased individual, without the authorization or consent of the individual and by representing that he or she is the individual, that he or she is acting with the authorization or consent of the individual, or that the information or document belongs to him or her is guilty of a Class H felony:
943.201(2)(a) (a) To obtain credit, money, goods, services, employment, or any other thing of value or benefit.
943.201(2)(b) (b) To avoid civil or criminal process or penalty.
943.201(2)(c) (c) To harm the reputation, property, person, or estate of the individual.
943.201(3) (3)It is an affirmative defense to a prosecution under this section that the defendant was authorized by law to engage in the conduct that is the subject of the prosecution. A defendant who raises this affirmative defense has the burden of proving the defense by a preponderance of the evidence.
943.201(4) (4)If an individual reports to a law enforcement agency for the jurisdiction which is the individual's residence that personal identifying information or a personal identifying document belonging to the individual reasonably appears to be in the possession of another in violation of this section or that another has used or has attempted to use it in violation of this section, the agency shall prepare a report on the alleged violation. If the law enforcement agency concludes that it appears not to have jurisdiction to investigate the violation, it shall inform the individual which law enforcement agency may have jurisdiction. A copy of a report prepared under this subsection shall be furnished upon request to the individual who made the request, subject to payment of any reasonable fee for the copy.
943.201 History History: 1997 a. 101; 2001 a. 109; 2003 a. 36.
943.201 AnnotationA violation of sub. (2) is a continuing offense. State v. Ramirez, 2001 WI App 158, 246 Wis. 2d 802, 633 N.W.2d 656, 00-2605.
943.201 Annotation Because bail is statutorily defined as “monetary conditions of release," and can be expressed as cash, a bond, or both, one who misappropriates another's identity and uses it to obtain lower bail in a criminal case has done so to obtain credit or money within the meaning of this section. State v. Peters, 2003 WI 88, 263 Wis. 2d 475, 665 N.W.2d 171, 01-3267.
943.201 Annotation A violation of this section is a continuing offense that is complete when the defendant performs the last act that, viewed alone, is a crime. An offense continues after fraudulently obtained phone and credit accounts are closed only if the defendant received a “thing of value or benefit" after the accounts are closed. Here, once those accounts were closed, the benefits to the defendant ended. State v. Lis, 2008 WI App 82, 311 Wis. 2d 691, 751 N.W.2d 891, 07-2357.
943.201 Annotation Although the purpose of harming an individual's reputation is an element of identity theft, the statute does not directly punish for the intent to defame and indirectly punish for disclosure of defamatory information, in violation of the 1st amendment. This section criminalizes the whole act of using someone's identity without permission plus using the identity for one of the enumerated purposes, including harming another's reputation. The statute does not criminalize each of its component parts standing alone. This section neither prohibits the defendant from disseminating information about a public official nor prevents the public from receiving that information. State v. Baron, 2008 WI App 90, 312 Wis. 2d 789, 754 N.W.2d 175, 07-1289.
943.201 Annotation As applied in this case, sub. (2) (c) is content based and regulates speech because whether the defendant's conduct was prohibited depended entirely upon whether the defendant's speech, i.e., the content of e-mails sent using another individual's identity, was intended to be reputation-harming to that other individual. The statute survives strict scrutiny because the statute is narrowly tailored to apply only when the defendant intentionally uses an individual's personal information to harm that individual's reputation. The statute does not prevent revealing reputation-harming information so long as the method chosen does not entail pretending to be the targeted individual. State v. Baron, 2009 WI 58, 318 Wis. 2d 60, 769 N.W.2d 34, 07-1289.
943.201 Annotation Use of a stolen credit card at a gas pump constituted a representation that the defendant was the cardholder or that he was authorized to use the card for the purposes of proving a violation of this section. The conduct of presenting certain documents containing an entity's identifying information carries with it the representation of permission to use that entity's information, and no additional overt act or affirmative express representation is required. State v. Mason, 2018 WI App 57, 384 Wis. 2d 111, 918 N.W.2d 78, 17-0620.
943.202 943.202 Unauthorized use or possession of a credit card scanner.
943.202(1)(1)In this section:
943.202(1)(a) (a) “Access” means access, read, scan, intercept, obtain, memorize, or temporarily or permanently store.
943.202(1)(b) (b) “Credit card” means a credit card, charge card, debit card, or other card that allows an authorized user to obtain, purchase, or receive credit, money, goods, services, or any other thing of value.
943.202(1)(c) (c) “Reencoder” means an electronic device that places encoded information from a computer chip or magnetic strip or stripe of a credit card onto the computer chip or magnetic strip or stripe of a credit card or any electronic medium that allows a transaction to occur.
943.202(1)(d) (d) “Scanning device” means a scanner, reader, or any other electronic device that can access information encoded on a computer chip or magnetic strip or stripe of a credit card.
943.202(2) (2)
943.202(2)(a)(a) Whoever possesses a reencoder or a scanning device, with the intent to violate s. 943.201 (2) or 943.203 (2) or to access information encoded on a credit card without the permission of an authorized user of the credit card, is guilty of a Class I felony.
943.202(2)(b) (b) Whoever does any of the following is guilty of a Class H felony:
943.202(2)(b)1. 1. Possesses a reencoder or a scanning device with the intent to transfer it to another person if the person knows or should know the transferee will use the reencoder or scanning device to violate s. 943.201 (2) or 943.203 (2) or to access information encoded on a credit card without the permission of an authorized user of the credit card.
943.202(2)(b)2. 2. Uses or attempts to use a reencoder or a scanning device to violate s. 943.201 (2) or 943.203 (2) or to access information encoded on a credit card without the permission of an authorized user of the credit card.
943.202(2)(c) (c) Whoever uses a reencoder or scanning device to violate s. 943.201 (2) or 943.203 (2) or to access information encoded on a credit card without the permission of an authorized user of the credit card is guilty of a Class G felony if the person obtains, purchases, or receives credit, money, goods, services, or any other thing of value from the use.
943.202 History History: 2017 a. 54.
943.203 943.203 Unauthorized use of an entity's identifying information or documents.
943.203(1)(1)In this section:
943.203(1)(a) (a) “Entity" means a person other than an individual.
943.203(1)(b) (b) “Identification document" means any of the following:
943.203(1)(b)1. 1. A document containing identifying information.
943.203(1)(b)2. 2. An entity's card or plate, if it can be used, alone or in conjunction with another access device, to obtain money, goods, services, or any other thing of value or benefit, or if it can be used to initiate a transfer of funds.
943.203(1)(b)3. 3. Any other device that is unique to, assigned to, or belongs to an entity and that is intended to be used to access services, funds, or benefits of any kind to which the entity is entitled.
943.203(1)(c) (c) “Identifying information" means any of the following information:
943.203(1)(c)1. 1. An entity's name.
943.203(1)(c)2. 2. An entity's address.
943.203(1)(c)3. 3. An entity's telephone number.
943.203(1)(c)4. 4. An entity's employer identification number.
943.203(1)(c)5. 5. The identifying number of an entity's depository account, as defined in s. 815.18 (2) (e).
943.203(1)(c)6. 6. Any of the following, if it can be used, alone or in conjunction with any access device, to obtain money, goods, services, or any other thing of value or benefit, or if it can be used to initiate a transfer of funds:
943.203(1)(c)6.a. a. An entity's code or account number.
943.203(1)(c)6.b. b. An entity's electronic serial number, mobile identification number, entity identification number, or other telecommunications service, equipment, or instrument identifier.
943.203(1)(c)6.c. c. Any other means of account access.
943.203(1)(c)7. 7. Any other information or data that is unique to, assigned to, or belongs to an entity and that is intended to be used to access services, funds, or benefits of any kind to which the entity is entitled.
943.203(1)(c)8. 8. Any other information that can be associated with a particular entity through one or more identifiers or other information or circumstances.
943.203(2) (2)Whoever, for any of the following purposes, intentionally uses, attempts to use, or possesses with intent to use any identifying information or identification document of an entity without the authorization or consent of the entity and by representing that the person is the entity or is acting with the authorization or consent of the entity is guilty of a Class H felony:
943.203(2)(a) (a) To obtain credit, money, goods, services, or anything else of value or benefit.
943.203(2)(b) (b) To harm the reputation or property of the entity.
943.203(3) (3)It is an affirmative defense to a prosecution under this section that the defendant was authorized by law to engage in the conduct that is the subject of the prosecution. A defendant who raises this affirmative defense has the burden of proving the defense by a preponderance of the evidence.
943.203(4) (4)If an entity reports to a law enforcement agency for the jurisdiction in which the entity is located that identifying information or an identification document belonging to the entity reasonably appears to be in the possession of another in violation of this section or that another has used or has attempted to use it in violation of this section, the agency shall prepare a report on the alleged violation. If the law enforcement agency concludes that it appears not to have jurisdiction to investigate the violation, it shall inform the entity which law enforcement agency may have jurisdiction. A copy of a report prepared under this subsection shall be furnished upon request to the entity that made the request, subject to payment of any reasonable fee for the copy.
943.203 History History: 2003 a. 36, 320.
943.203 Annotation Sub. (2) does not require an express verbal representation from the offerer that the document is authorized. By the act of presenting the documents, the defendant was implicitly saying they were real and he had consent to use them. State v. Stewart, 2018 WI App 41, 383 Wis. 2d 546, 916 N.W.2d 188, 17-1587.
943.203 Annotation “Anything else of value or benefit” under sub. (2) (a) is not limited to commercial or financial benefits. State v. Stewart, 2018 WI App 41, 383 Wis. 2d 546, 916 N.W.2d 188, 17-1587.
943.205 943.205 Theft of trade secrets.
943.205(1)(1)Whoever with intent to deprive or withhold from the owner thereof the control of a trade secret, or with intent to appropriate a trade secret to his or her own use or the use of another not the owner, and without authority of the owner, does any of the following may be penalized as provided in sub. (3):
943.205(1)(a) (a) Takes, uses, transfers, conceals, exhibits or retains possession of property of the owner representing a trade secret.
943.205(1)(b) (b) Makes or causes to be made a copy of property of the owner representing a trade secret.
943.205(1)(c) (c) Obtains title to property representing a trade secret or a copy of such property by intentionally deceiving the owner with a false representation which is known to be false, made with intent to defraud, and which does defraud the person to whom it is made. “False representation" includes a promise made with intent not to perform if it is a part of a false and fraudulent scheme.
943.205(2) (2)In this section:
943.205(2)(a) (a) “Copy" means any facsimile, replica, photograph or other reproduction of any property and any notation, drawing or sketch made of or from any property.
943.205(2)(b) (b) “Owner" includes a co-owner of the person charged and a partnership of which the person charged is a member, unless the person charged and the victim are husband and wife.
943.205(2)(c) (c) “Property" includes without limitation because of enumeration any object, material, device, substance, writing, record, recording, drawing, sample, specimen, prototype, model, photograph, micro-organism, blueprint or map, or any copy thereof.
943.205(2)(d) (d) “Representing" means disclosing, embodying, describing, depicting, containing, constituting, reflecting or recording.
943.205(2)(e) (e) “Trade secret" has the meaning specified in s. 134.90 (1) (c).
943.205(3) (3)Anyone who violates this section is guilty of a Class I felony.
943.205(4) (4)In a prosecution for a violation of this section it shall be no defense that the person charged returned or intended to return the property involved or that the person charged destroyed all copies made.
943.205(5) (5)This section does not prevent anyone from using skills and knowledge of a general nature gained while employed by the owner of a trade secret.
943.205 Annotation An insurance agency's customer list was not a trade secret. Corroon & Black v. Hosch, 109 Wis. 2d 290, 325 N.W.2d 883 (1982).
943.205 Annotation Pricing policies, cost markups, and the amount of a company's bid for a particular project were not trade secrets. Wisconsin Electric Power Co. v. PSC, 110 Wis. 2d 530, 329 N.W.2d 178 (1983).
943.205 Annotation 21st Century White Collar Crime: Intellectual Property Crimes in the Cyber World. Simon & Jones. Wis. Law. Oct. 2004.
943.206 943.206 Definitions. In this section and ss. 943.207 to 943.209:
943.206(1) (1)“Manufacturer" means a person who transfers sounds to a recording.
943.206(2) (2)“Owner" means the person who owns sounds in or on a recording from which the transferred recorded sounds are directly or indirectly derived.
943.206(3) (3)“Performance" means a recital, rendering or playing of a series of words or other sounds, either alone or in combination with images or physical activity.
943.206(4) (4)“Performance owner" means the performer or performers or the person to whom the performer or performers have transferred, through a contract, the right to sell recordings of a performance.
943.206(5) (5)“Recording" means a medium on or in which sounds or images or both are stored.
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2017-18 Wisconsin Statutes updated through 2019 Wis. Act 18 and through all Supreme Court and Controlled Substances Board Orders filed before and in effect on October 1, 2019. Published and certified under s. 35.18. Changes effective after October 1, 2019, are designated by NOTES. (Published 10-1-19)