“ASTM" means the American Society for Testing and Materials. Copies of ASTM standards referenced in this chapter are available for inspection at the offices of the department of natural resources, the secretary of state's office and the legislative reference bureau. ASTM standards may be obtained from the American Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103.
“Base course" means the layer or layers of specified or selected material of designed thickness placed on a subbase or subgrade to support a surface course.
“Bedrock" means the rocks that underlie soil material or are at the earth's surface which are encountered when the weathered in-place consolidated material, larger than 2 mm in size, is greater than 50% by volume.
“By-product solids" means waste solid products, including but not limited to cuttings or peelings generated at processing facilities, fresh or actively fermenting sweet corn silage, other food wastes and paunch manure.
“Coefficient of permeability" means the rate of discharge of water under laminar flow conditions, through a unit cross-sectional area of porous medium, under a unit hydraulic gradient and standard temperature.
“Community public water supply system" means a water supply system having at least 15 service connections used by year-round residents or regularly serving at least 25 year-round residents. Any water supply system serving 7 or more homes, 10 or more mobile homes, 10 or more apartment units, or 10 or more condominium units shall be considered a community public water supply system unless information is available to indicate that 25 year-round residents will not be served.
“Detrimental effect" means contamination of the lands or waters of the state, or making the same injurious to public health, harmful for commercial or agricultural use, or deleterious to animal or plant life.
“Groundwater" means any of the waters of the state, as defined in s. 281.01 (18)
, Stats., occurring in a saturated subsurface geological formation of rock or soil.
“Groundwater monitoring" means measuring the groundwater level and analyzing samples of water taken from the ground.
“Lagoon" means a natural or human-made containment structure, constructed primarily of earthen materials and used for the treatment or storage of industrial, commercial or agricultural wastewater, biological fermentation leachates or sludge.
“Pavement structure" means the combination of subbase, base and surface courses placed on a subgrade.
“Potable water supply well" means a well supplying water for human consumption, sanitary use or food product preparation.
“Storage structure" means either an earthen containment structure or a storage tank used for the storage of wastewater or biological fermentation leachates or a structure constructed for stacking and storage of by-product solids or other material.
“Storage tank" means a containment vessel fabricated of concrete, glass-reinforced plastic or steel for the purpose of storage or treatment of wastewater or biological fermentation leachates.
“Subbase" means the layer or layers of specified or selected material of designed thickness placed on a subgrade to support a base course.
“Subgrade" means the ground surface upon which the pavement structure is constructed.
“Surface course" means the layer or layers of specified material of designed thickness placed on a base course and forming the upper portion of a pavement structure. If more than one layer is specified, the bottom layer is referred to as the binder course.
“Treatment structure" means either an earthen treatment structure or a treatment tank used for the chemical, physical or biological treatment of wastewater or biological fermentation of leachates or a structure constructed for chemical, physical or biological treatment of by-product solids or other material.
“WDOT standards for roads and bridge construction" means the Wisconsin department of transportation standard specifications for road and bridge construction, edition of 1989.
NR 213.04 Note
Note: Copies of the WDOT standards may be inspected at the offices of the department, the secretary of state and the legislative reference bureau.
NR 213.04 History
Cr. Register, July, 1984, No. 343
, eff. 8-1-84; r. and recr. Register, June, 1990, No. 414
, eff. 7-1-90; correction in (1) made under s. 13.92 (4) (b) 6.
NR 213.05 Additional requirements.
The design standards, material requirements or performance criteria of this chapter may be supplemented or superseded by more stringent requirements, including pretreatment requirements, more stringent design limitations, and more frequent or stringent effluent or groundwater monitoring requirements, if:
There is an increased possibility of groundwater contamination due to structure location, soil types, geologic condition or other conditions, or
The stored or treated material may contain any substance or concentration of substances not normally associated with the type of discharges identified in s. NR 213.02 (1)
, such as toxic substances or hazardous wastes, or
The storage structure or treatment unit may cause a public nuisance.
NR 213.05 History
Cr. Register, June, 1990, No. 414
, eff. 7-1-90.
NR 213.06 Exemptions from ch. NR 213. NR 213.06(1)
The department may allow exemptions from the design standards and material requirements described in this chapter if the owner or operator can demonstrate that such design standards and material requirements are more stringent than necessary to comply with the provisions of ch. NR 140
and chs. 160
, Stats. The owner or operator shall justify such an exemption from the design standards and material requirements of this chapter by demonstrating that the alternative design will comply with the following performance criteria:
That pollutant dilution, dispersion or degradation will occur within the design management zone as defined in ch. NR 140
That increases of substances in the groundwater from lagoons, storage structures and treatment structures at the site will be minimized to the extent technically and economically feasible; and
That applicable groundwater and surface water standards will not be exceeded.
The department shall consider the following factors when reviewing an alternative design in consideration of granting an exemption:
Physical characteristics of the site, such as soil texture, soil permeability, depth to groundwater and depth to and type of bedrock.
Analytical data from existing groundwater monitoring wells or any that may be installed as part of the demonstration.
The quantity and composition of the materials stored or treated at the facility.
The compatibility between the materials stored or treated and the lining of the storage or treatment unit.
Any other information relevant to the environmental impacts of the facility's operations.
(3) Submitting an exemption request-new or modified structures.
The owner or operator of a new or modified lagoon, storage structure or treatment structure may request an exemption from the design standards and material requirements of this chapter by submitting facts to the department:
In the application for issuance, reissuance or modification of WPDES permit, or
In plans and specifications for a new or expanded lagoon, storage structure or during the 90-day plan approval period as specified in s. 281.41
, Stats., or
During the 30-day public comment period following public notice by the department of intent to issue, reissue or modify a WPDES permit under s. 283.39
, Stats., or
(4) Submitting an exemption request-existing structures.
The owner or operator of a lagoon, storage structure or treatment structure in existence prior to July 1, 1990 may request an exemption from the design standards and material requirements of this chapter. If an exemption is not granted, the department shall propose to issue a new WPDES permit or modify the existing WPDES permit to include a schedule of compliance to achieve the purpose of this chapter.
NR 213.06 History
Cr. Register, June, 1990, No. 414
, eff. 7-1-90.
NR 213.07 Abandonment.
Lagoons, storage structures and treatment structures which will no longer be used, shall be properly abandoned within 2 years of the date on which waste material was last stored or treated. A plan outlining the proposed method of abandonment shall be submitted to the department for approval. This plan shall contain a procedure to properly identify the presence and characteristics of any accumulated solid waste and provide appropriate removal, disposal or recycling or treatment alternatives in accordance with applicable solid and hazardous waste laws. All recycling, treatment and disposal shall be conducted so as to protect public health and the environment. Unless otherwise directed by the department, all abandonment plans shall comply with ch. NR 720
for soils that have been contaminated by the contents of the lagoon, storage structure or treatment structure. The plan shall also address site restoration and any landscaping that will prevent accumulation of standing water or runoff. The department may require groundwater monitoring for a period of time after abandonment of the land treatment system to assess groundwater impacts. The design, installation, construction, abandonment and documentation of all monitoring wells shall be in accordance with the requirements of ch. NR 141
NR 213.07 History
Cr. Register, June, 1990, No. 414
, eff. 7-1-90; am., Register, April, 1994, No. 460
, eff. 5-1-94; am., Register, March, 1995, No. 471
, eff. 4-1-95.
NR 213.08 General design requirements. NR 213.08(1)(a)(a)
Lagoons, storage structures and treatment structures may not be located closer than:
1,000 feet from a well serving a community public water supply system.
500 feet from an inhabited dwelling except that this distance may be reduced with written permission from the owner and occupants of the residence. The department may require a greater distance depending on the type of lagoon, storage structure or treatment structure and potential for aesthetic impacts and public health impacts.
Lagoons, storage structures and treatment structures may not be located in the floodway and shall conform with the requirements of ch. NR 116
Lagoons, storage structures and treatment structures may not be located within wetlands.
Lagoons, storage structures and treatment structures shall be designed and operated to minimize the level of substances in the groundwater and to prevent exceedance of the groundwater preventive action limits (PAL) to the extent technically and economically feasible. Groundwater preventive action limits are listed in ss. NR 140.10
Effective erosion protection of exterior slopes of lagoons shall be provided by appropriate means, such as riprap or seeding with grass.
Lagoons shall be maintained as necessary to prevent scouring of the liner and liner cover, discourage vegetative growth, and avoid desiccation and cracking of the liner.
A minimum separation of 5 feet shall be maintained between the bottom of the lagoon liner or subbase of a storage structure and either bedrock or the groundwater level, whichever is higher.
A groundwater monitoring system designed and constructed in accordance with ch. NR 141
may be required by the department to provide information on the long term effects of a lagoon, storage structure or treatment structure on groundwater.
When a groundwater monitoring system is required, the parameters to be monitored and the monitoring frequency will be established on a case-by-case basis.
(4) Additional design requirements.
In cases where critical groundwater, geologic or construction conditions warrant, the department may require construction specifications or testing requirements more stringent than those described in this chapter if necessary to preclude detrimental effects to the groundwater.
NR 213.08 History
Cr. Register, July, 1984, No. 343
, eff. 8-1-84; renum. from NR 213.05 and am. Register, June, 1990, No. 414
, eff. 7-1-90.
NR 213.09 General submittal requirements. NR 213.09(1)(1)
An engineering report and plans and specifications shall be submitted to the department for approval in accordance with s. 281.41
, Stats., prior to initiating construction.
The department recommends, whenever possible, a preliminary engineering report outlining the project and including any available information required under par. (b)
be made prior to submittal of final plans.
The engineering report shall outline the entire project and include, at a minimum, the following information: subsurface site conditions, waste sources, waste analysis and waste volume; materials and specifications of the proposed liner required under ss. NR 213.10
; compatibility of the waste and proposed liner and estimated life of the liner required under sub. (4)
; the proposed method of installation, and the equipment and testing methods to be used for quality control both during and after construction.
The plans and specifications shall include the existing and finished elevations and adequate details to fully illustrate the proposed installation.
When a groundwater monitoring system is required under s. NR 213.08 (3)
, an engineering report and plans and specifications shall be submitted and shall include: a discussion of the installation, the proposed materials to be used, and the method of construction and location of all proposed wells.
Reports on subsurface site conditions shall include boring logs, particle size distribution and soil classifications for each major lithologic unit and the depths to groundwater and bedrock when encountered. When on-site soil is proposed as the lining material, compaction curves, permeabilities and Atterberg limits shall be established for the soil proposed for the lining material.
Sufficient soil borings shall be performed at each proposed lagoon site to adequately define the subsurface soil conditions and depth to groundwater and bedrock at the site. A minimum of 3 borings for the first acre and one boring for each additional acre or portion of an acre shall be performed. The borings should be distributed in a grid pattern over the entire site. In no case may less than 3 borings be performed. The department may require additional borings depending upon the size of the lagoon, proposed liner, waste material, or known or anticipated critical hydrogeologic conditions at the site.
All soil borings shall extend a minimum of 10 feet below the proposed base grade of the lagoon, or to groundwater or bedrock, whichever is less.
Soil borings shall be performed by or under the supervision of a qualified soil testing laboratory, engineering firm, or other individual or firm which has demonstrated the capability to perform such work.
Measurement of the resistance of the soil to penetration and the collection of soil samples shall be performed every 5 feet and at all significant changes in soil type or lithology in each soil boring.
All soil samples shall be analyzed for particle size distribution and classified texturally.
When required under s. NR 213.08 (3)
, groundwater monitoring wells may be installed in the soil boring holes provided these holes are located adequately to assure representative monitoring of both upgradient and downgradient groundwater conditions.
Representative samples of all wastewater, sludge or other materials to be placed in the lagoon shall be analyzed to determine the composition of the samples. Past analyses may be used, provided they are representative of the wastewater, sludge or other materials to be discharged to the lagoon.
Sludge shall be analyzed on both a total solids and an extracted pore water basis.
The parameters analyzed for may include BOD5
, COD, pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, chloride, sulfate, sodium, calcium, magnesium, total dissolved solids, hardness, or any other constituents or properties known or suspected to be detrimental to the integrity of the proposed liner.
For all facilities, estimated wastewater characterization shall be provided, along with the basis for the estimates.
Compatibility between the waste and the proposed liner shall be addressed and documented. Prior research or data from similar existing sites shall be included when available. If specific testing is performed, all test procedures used shall be detailed and the results provided.