The department may allow exemptions from the design standards and material requirements described in this chapter if the owner or operator can demonstrate that such design standards and material requirements are more stringent than necessary to comply with the provisions of ch. NR 140
and chs. 160
, Stats. The owner or operator shall justify such an exemption from the design standards and material requirements of this chapter by demonstrating that the alternative design will comply with the following performance criteria:
That pollutant dilution, dispersion or degradation will occur within the design management zone as defined in ch. NR 140
That increases of substances in the groundwater from lagoons, storage structures and treatment structures at the site will be minimized to the extent technically and economically feasible; and
That applicable groundwater and surface water standards will not be exceeded.
The department shall consider the following factors when reviewing an alternative design in consideration of granting an exemption:
Physical characteristics of the site, such as soil texture, soil permeability, depth to groundwater and depth to and type of bedrock.
Analytical data from existing groundwater monitoring wells or any that may be installed as part of the demonstration.
The quantity and composition of the materials stored or treated at the facility.
The compatibility between the materials stored or treated and the lining of the storage or treatment unit.
Any other information relevant to the environmental impacts of the facility's operations.
(3) Submitting an exemption request-new or modified structures.
The owner or operator of a new or modified lagoon, storage structure or treatment structure may request an exemption from the design standards and material requirements of this chapter by submitting facts to the department:
In the application for issuance, reissuance or modification of WPDES permit, or
In plans and specifications for a new or expanded lagoon, storage structure or during the 90-day plan approval period as specified in s. 281.41
, Stats., or
During the 30-day public comment period following public notice by the department of intent to issue, reissue or modify a WPDES permit under s. 283.39
, Stats., or
(4) Submitting an exemption request-existing structures.
The owner or operator of a lagoon, storage structure or treatment structure in existence prior to July 1, 1990 may request an exemption from the design standards and material requirements of this chapter. If an exemption is not granted, the department shall propose to issue a new WPDES permit or modify the existing WPDES permit to include a schedule of compliance to achieve the purpose of this chapter.
NR 213.06 History
Cr. Register, June, 1990, No. 414
, eff. 7-1-90.
NR 213.07 Abandonment.
Lagoons, storage structures and treatment structures which will no longer be used, shall be properly abandoned within 2 years of the date on which waste material was last stored or treated. A plan outlining the proposed method of abandonment shall be submitted to the department for approval. This plan shall contain a procedure to properly identify the presence and characteristics of any accumulated solid waste and provide appropriate removal, disposal or recycling or treatment alternatives in accordance with applicable solid and hazardous waste laws. All recycling, treatment and disposal shall be conducted so as to protect public health and the environment. Unless otherwise directed by the department, all abandonment plans shall comply with ch. NR 720
for soils that have been contaminated by the contents of the lagoon, storage structure or treatment structure. The plan shall also address site restoration and any landscaping that will prevent accumulation of standing water or runoff. The department may require groundwater monitoring for a period of time after abandonment of the land treatment system to assess groundwater impacts. The design, installation, construction, abandonment and documentation of all monitoring wells shall be in accordance with the requirements of ch. NR 141
NR 213.07 History
Cr. Register, June, 1990, No. 414
, eff. 7-1-90; am., Register, April, 1994, No. 460
, eff. 5-1-94; am., Register, March, 1995, No. 471
, eff. 4-1-95.
NR 213.08 General design requirements. NR 213.08(1)(a)(a)
Lagoons, storage structures and treatment structures may not be located closer than:
1,000 feet from a well serving a community public water supply system.
500 feet from an inhabited dwelling except that this distance may be reduced with written permission from the owner and occupants of the residence. The department may require a greater distance depending on the type of lagoon, storage structure or treatment structure and potential for aesthetic impacts and public health impacts.
Lagoons, storage structures and treatment structures may not be located in the floodway and shall conform with the requirements of ch. NR 116
Lagoons, storage structures and treatment structures may not be located within wetlands.
Lagoons, storage structures and treatment structures shall be designed and operated to minimize the level of substances in the groundwater and to prevent exceedance of the groundwater preventive action limits (PAL) to the extent technically and economically feasible. Groundwater preventive action limits are listed in ss. NR 140.10
Effective erosion protection of exterior slopes of lagoons shall be provided by appropriate means, such as riprap or seeding with grass.
Lagoons shall be maintained as necessary to prevent scouring of the liner and liner cover, discourage vegetative growth, and avoid desiccation and cracking of the liner.
A minimum separation of 5 feet shall be maintained between the bottom of the lagoon liner or subbase of a storage structure and either bedrock or the groundwater level, whichever is higher.
A groundwater monitoring system designed and constructed in accordance with ch. NR 141
may be required by the department to provide information on the long term effects of a lagoon, storage structure or treatment structure on groundwater.
When a groundwater monitoring system is required, the parameters to be monitored and the monitoring frequency will be established on a case-by-case basis.
(4) Additional design requirements.
In cases where critical groundwater, geologic or construction conditions warrant, the department may require construction specifications or testing requirements more stringent than those described in this chapter if necessary to preclude detrimental effects to the groundwater.
NR 213.08 History
Cr. Register, July, 1984, No. 343
, eff. 8-1-84; renum. from NR 213.05 and am. Register, June, 1990, No. 414
, eff. 7-1-90.
NR 213.09 General submittal requirements. NR 213.09(1)(1)
An engineering report and plans and specifications shall be submitted to the department for approval in accordance with s. 281.41
, Stats., prior to initiating construction.
The department recommends, whenever possible, a preliminary engineering report outlining the project and including any available information required under par. (b)
be made prior to submittal of final plans.
The engineering report shall outline the entire project and include, at a minimum, the following information: subsurface site conditions, waste sources, waste analysis and waste volume; materials and specifications of the proposed liner required under ss. NR 213.10
; compatibility of the waste and proposed liner and estimated life of the liner required under sub. (4)
; the proposed method of installation, and the equipment and testing methods to be used for quality control both during and after construction.
The plans and specifications shall include the existing and finished elevations and adequate details to fully illustrate the proposed installation.
When a groundwater monitoring system is required under s. NR 213.08 (3)
, an engineering report and plans and specifications shall be submitted and shall include: a discussion of the installation, the proposed materials to be used, and the method of construction and location of all proposed wells.
Reports on subsurface site conditions shall include boring logs, particle size distribution and soil classifications for each major lithologic unit and the depths to groundwater and bedrock when encountered. When on-site soil is proposed as the lining material, compaction curves, permeabilities and Atterberg limits shall be established for the soil proposed for the lining material.
Sufficient soil borings shall be performed at each proposed lagoon site to adequately define the subsurface soil conditions and depth to groundwater and bedrock at the site. A minimum of 3 borings for the first acre and one boring for each additional acre or portion of an acre shall be performed. The borings should be distributed in a grid pattern over the entire site. In no case may less than 3 borings be performed. The department may require additional borings depending upon the size of the lagoon, proposed liner, waste material, or known or anticipated critical hydrogeologic conditions at the site.
All soil borings shall extend a minimum of 10 feet below the proposed base grade of the lagoon, or to groundwater or bedrock, whichever is less.
Soil borings shall be performed by or under the supervision of a qualified soil testing laboratory, engineering firm, or other individual or firm which has demonstrated the capability to perform such work.
Measurement of the resistance of the soil to penetration and the collection of soil samples shall be performed every 5 feet and at all significant changes in soil type or lithology in each soil boring.
All soil samples shall be analyzed for particle size distribution and classified texturally.
When required under s. NR 213.08 (3)
, groundwater monitoring wells may be installed in the soil boring holes provided these holes are located adequately to assure representative monitoring of both upgradient and downgradient groundwater conditions.
Representative samples of all wastewater, sludge or other materials to be placed in the lagoon shall be analyzed to determine the composition of the samples. Past analyses may be used, provided they are representative of the wastewater, sludge or other materials to be discharged to the lagoon.
Sludge shall be analyzed on both a total solids and an extracted pore water basis.
The parameters analyzed for may include BOD5
, COD, pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, chloride, sulfate, sodium, calcium, magnesium, total dissolved solids, hardness, or any other constituents or properties known or suspected to be detrimental to the integrity of the proposed liner.
For all facilities, estimated wastewater characterization shall be provided, along with the basis for the estimates.
Compatibility between the waste and the proposed liner shall be addressed and documented. Prior research or data from similar existing sites shall be included when available. If specific testing is performed, all test procedures used shall be detailed and the results provided.
For synthetic and soil-bentonite liners, written confirmation of compatibility, as well as the estimated design life of the liner against the waste in question, shall be provided by the manufacturer of the synthetic liner or bentonite.
The department may require controlled long term compatibility testing such as column studies, permeability or immersion tests to determine long-term changes in permeability, soil structure or physical properties of the liner.
Soil samples taken to determine soil classification, particle size distribution or permeability shall be taken in accordance with ASTM D1586 (1984), ASTM D1587 (1983) or ASTM D3550 (1984).
Coefficient of permeability of the constructed soil or soil-bentonite liner shall be determined using a laboratory permeability test on hydrated and saturated specimens of the liner material, compacted at the same approximate density as exists in the in-field condition. Tests may be performed on remolded or core samples. The permeability shall be based on stabilized inflow and outflow rates during the test. Separate tests shall be performed using tap water and the wastewater or sludge extract, and the results compared. All preparation work and information detailing the test apparatus shall be submitted along with all results obtained.
Particle size analyses to determine particle size distribution of soil samples shall be performed in accordance with ASTM D422 (1972).
Plasticity index shall be determined in accordance with ASTM D4318 (1984).
Measurement of the resistance of soil to penetration shall be determined in accordance with ASTM D1558 (1984) or ASTM D1586 (1984).
Standard proctor densities shall be determined in accordance with ASTM D698 (1978).
Soils shall be classified texturally according to the Unified Classification System.
In-place density may be determined in accordance with ASTM D2922 (1981) or ASTM D2937 (1983).
Other methods of sampling and testing may be approved by the department on a case-by-case basis.
NR 213.09 Note
Note: Copies of ASTM D1586, D1587, D3550, D422, D424, D15558, D698, D2922 and D2937 may be inspected at the office of the department, the secretary of state and the legislative reference bureau. Copies of ASTM standards may also be obtained from the American Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103.
NR 213.09 History
Cr. Register, July, 1984, No. 343
, eff. 8-1-84; renum. from NR 213.06 and am. (1) (a), (b) and (d), (2) (g), (3) (a), (d) and (5) (i), Register, June, 1990, No. 414
, eff. 7-1-90; am. (5) (a), (d), (e) and (h), Register, April, 1991, No. 424
, eff. 5-1-91.
NR 213.10 General liner specifications. NR 213.10(1)(a)(a)
All lagoons shall be sealed to prevent excessive exfiltration.
Natural soil materials, soil-bentonite mixtures or synthetic liners approved by the department may be used as lagoon liners.
All liners shall be constructed with materials compatible with the wastewater to be contained by the lagoon.
Prior to installation of any type of liner, the lagoon bottom shall be compacted to a depth of 6 inches, at a minimum to 95% of the maximum standard proctor dry density, at or above optimum moisture.
All liners shall be constructed to provide a uniform barrier to exfiltration across the lagoon bottom, interior dike walls and extending up the dike wall to the berm.
The department may require a liner to be protected by an inorganic layer of soil or crushed stone if necessary to protect against such things as photochemical reaction, ice or wave action, freeze-thaw action, liner floatation or vehicular traffic on the liner. This layer shall have a minimum thickness of one foot and be uniformly graded and free from large rocks, soil clumps and sticks. If a granular noncohesive soil is used, the department may require that a soil fabric securely attached to the berm be placed between the liner and the cover material to prevent slumping of the cover material.
Riprap may be required along the air-water interface if necessary to minimize rodent activity or exposure and erosion of the liner or subgrade.
For lagoons which will be empty for extended periods of time, a synthetic lining material shall be used to prevent liner degradation as a result of desiccation.
The design standard for the co-efficient of permeability of soil or soil-bentonite liners may not exceed 1 x 10-7
The thickness of soil or soil-bentonite liners shall be determined according to Darcy's equation and shall include an appropriate safety factor for construction variability. See Table 1.
- See PDF for table
To a depth of 6 inches, a minimum of 15% of the unmodified soil upon which a soil or soil-bentonite liner is to be constructed shall pass a No. 200 sieve. If this requirement cannot be met, a soil filter fabric designed to retain those particles passing a No. 200 sieve shall be placed between the liner and the existing
Soil or soil-bentonite liners shall be compacted at or above optimum moisture.