NR 811.42(2)(c) (c) Additional treatment may be required by the department as provided in s. NR 810.35.
NR 811.42(2)(d) (d) The department may approve any request for a deviation from required treatment methods based on data which shows that the requirements of this chapter are unnecessary in the specific case.
NR 811.42(3) (3)Redundancy. All critical treatment components shall be provided with redundancy.
NR 811.42(4) (4)CT values. CT values for the inactivation of Giardia Lamblia, Cryptosporidium, and viruses can be found in ss. NR 810.47 to 810.62.
NR 811.42(5) (5)Chlorine residual requirements. The free chlorine concentration in the water entering the distribution system shall be at least 0.2 mg/1 at the entry point to the distribution system and detectable throughout the distribution system or the total combined chlorine concentration shall be at least 1.0 mg/l at the entry point to the distribution system and detectable throughout the distribution system. Continuous chlorine residual monitoring of the water entering the distribution system shall be provided as required in ss. NR 809.74 (2) and 810.38 (2) (c).
NR 811.42 History History: CR 09-073: cr. Register November 2010 No. 659, eff. 12-1-10.
NR 811.43 NR 811.43Treatment of water from groundwater sources. Treatment of water from groundwater sources shall meet the following requirements:
NR 811.43(1) (1)Disinfection capability required. All existing and new municipal water systems and all other-than-municipal water systems constructed or modified after December 1, 2010, shall be provided with equipment and the necessary appurtenances which can continuously disinfect the water. The department may require the installation of disinfection equipment at existing other-than-municipal water systems if necessary to ensure a safe water supply.
NR 811.43(2) (2)Disinfectant residual requirements. Disinfection of water drawn from groundwater sources is to supplement and not replace proper well location, construction, and source protection. When disinfection of water drawn from a groundwater source is required to maintain bacteriologically safe water, the residual maintained in the distribution system and the residual monitoring is the same as that required for surface water in s. NR 811.42 (5).
NR 811.43(3) (3)Disinfection requirements for wells. Specific disinfection requirements for wells are provided in subch. II. Any additional disinfection requirements for wells will be developed by the department if necessary on a case by case basis.
NR 811.43(4) (4)Disinfection of groundwater exposed to the atmosphere. Disinfection of water drawn from groundwater sources shall be required in facilities which expose the water to the atmosphere, such as open basins, open filters, air stripping towers, or gravity aerators.
NR 811.43(5) (5)Required actions for wells with non-complying water quality. One of the following actions shall be taken after consulting with the department if untreated water drawn from a groundwater source exceeds one or more of the primary maximum contaminant levels in ch. NR 809 or a department health advisory:
NR 811.43(5)(a) (a) The well shall be removed from service and permanently abandoned.
NR 811.43(5)(b) (b) The well shall be removed from service and either reconstructed or provided with permanent treatment to provide complying water quality. Wells may temporarily continue in service without reconstruction or providing permanent treatment only as approved by the department. Department approval is required prior to reconstructing the well or providing water treatment. Under emergency conditions, the department may allow temporary use of a well from which bacteriologically contaminated groundwater is drawn if disinfection adequate to ensure safe water is provided. In such cases, disinfection measures meeting the requirements of sub. (3) shall be provided. A continuous boil water notice may be required by the department during all or part of this interim period if deemed necessary by the department to protect public health.
NR 811.43(6) (6)Groundwater under the direct influence of surface water. The department may allow the use of water drawn from a groundwater source that has been determined by the department to be under the direct influence of surface water provided that treatment facilities meeting the requirements of subch. II of ch. NR 810 are provided as approved by the department. The total plant removal and inactivation shall provide a minimum 3-log inactivation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia Lamblia plus 4-log inactivation of viruses. The disinfectant residual maintained in the distribution system and residual monitoring shall be the same as required for treatment of water drawn from a surface water source in s. NR 811.42 (5). The department may approve modified treatment requirements for other-than-municipal public water systems if surface water treatment is impractical and if sufficient treatment can be provided. The supplier of water shall contact the department to determine what modified treatment will be approved.
NR 811.43(7) (7)Redundancy. All critical treatment components shall be provided with redundancy.
NR 811.43(8) (8)CT values. CT values for the inactivation of Giardia Lamblia, Cryptosporidium, and viruses can be found in ss. NR 810.47 to 810.62.
NR 811.43 History History: CR 09-073: cr. Register November 2010 No. 659, eff. 12-1-10.
NR 811.44 NR 811.44Pilot testing. Pilot testing is required to establish effective treatment and operation requirements for new treatment methods, if revisions are proposed to existing treatment methods, if the water quality poses significant treatment issues, and if design parameters need to be determined for the first time or for the specific site conditions. The department may waive the pilot testing requirement if information on other locations where the proposed treatment methods using similar water quality are already in place and operating successfully is available or if other justification necessary to support the proposed treatment processes is submitted to the department. Pilot testing shall address the following requirements:
NR 811.44(1) (1) Plans, specifications, and an engineering report detailing the proposed pilot plant design, operation, sampling, lab analyses, and any waste disposal shall be submitted to the department and the written approval of the department shall be obtained prior to constructing or operating the pilot plant. At minimum, the pilot plant proposal shall address the following issues, where they apply:
NR 811.44(1)(a) (a) Pilot plant treatment design including all operating parameters.
NR 811.44(1)(b) (b) Length of pilot plant operation. The pilot plant shall operate long enough to establish the treatment effectiveness, media run lengths, wastewater volumes and characteristics, and any other necessary operating parameters. The pilot plant shall operate through a minimum of 2 treatment cycles or as determined by the department.
NR 811.44(1)(c) (c) Chemicals and chemical feed equipment to be used along with chemical addition rates.
NR 811.44(1)(d) (d) Waste disposal.
NR 811.44(1)(e) (e) Operator safety.
NR 811.44(1)(f) (f) Backflow or back-siphon protection for any water system facilities that the pilot plant may be connected to.
NR 811.44(1)(g) (g) Pilot plant security.
NR 811.44(2) (2) A report summarizing the results of the pilot plant testing and making recommendations for any full scale water system improvements shall be submitted to the department for review and comment by the owner or the owner's representative prior to or along with the submittal of plans and specifications for any permanent installations.
NR 811.44 History History: CR 09-073: cr. Register November 2010 No. 659, eff. 12-1-10.
NR 811.45 NR 811.45Aeration. Aeration treatment devices described in this section may be used for oxidation, separation of gases, or for taste and odor control. Air stripping towers shall meet the requirements of s. NR 811.53 (2), which can be used for the removal or reduction of some volatile organic compounds. The following requirements shall be met:
NR 811.45(1) (1)Natural draft aeration. The design for natural draft aeration shall provide that:
NR 811.45(1)(a) (a) Water is distributed uniformly over the top tray.
NR 811.45(1)(b) (b) Water is discharged through a series of 3 or more trays with separation of trays not less than 6 inches.
NR 811.45(1)(c) (c) Trays are loaded at a rate of one to 5 gallons per minute for each square foot of total tray area.
NR 811.45(1)(d) (d) Trays have slotted, heavy woven wire mesh with 0.5-inch openings or perforated bottoms.
NR 811.45(1)(e) (e) Perforations are 3/16 to 1/2 inches in diameter, spaced one to 3 inches on centers, when perforations are used.
NR 811.45(1)(f) (f) Construction is of durable material resistant to the aggressiveness of the water and dissolved gasses.
NR 811.45(1)(g) (g) Contamination from sources such as those listed is sub. (7) is minimized by providing down-turned, louvered or hooded, screened air inlet or outlet openings. Screens shall be constructed of 24-mesh corrosion resistant material.
NR 811.45(1)(h) (h) Exhaust air is discharged directly to the outside atmosphere and in a location that will be protective of public health.
NR 811.45(2) (2)Forced or induced draft aeration. The design for forced or induced draft aeration shall provide that:
NR 811.45(2)(a) (a) Water is distributed uniformly over the top tray.
NR 811.45(2)(b) (b) The blower and blower motor are weatherproof and are installed in a weather-tight, screened enclosure.
NR 811.45(2)(c) (c) There is an adequate countercurrent flow of air through the enclosed aeration column.
NR 811.45(2)(d) (d) Aerator trays are loaded at a rate of one to 5 gallons per minute for each square foot of total tray area.
NR 811.45(2)(e) (e) Water will discharge through a series of 5 or more trays with separation of trays not less than 6 inches or as approved by the department.
NR 811.45(2)(f) (f) Construction is of durable material resistant to the aggressiveness of the water and dissolved gasses.
NR 811.45(2)(g) (g) The aerator is insect-proof, watertight, and light-proof.
NR 811.45(2)(h) (h) The air intake is located above grade and the air introduced into the column is as free as possible from contamination sources such as those listed in sub. (7).
NR 811.45(2)(i) (i) The water outlet is adequately sealed to prevent unwanted loss of air.
NR 811.45(2)(j) (j) Interior and exterior sections of the aerator can be easily reached or removed for maintenance.
NR 811.45(2)(k) (k) Contamination from sources such as those listed in sub. (7) is minimized by providing down-turned, louvered or hooded, screened air inlet or outlet openings. Screens shall be constructed of 24-mesh corrosion resistant material.
NR 811.45(2)(L) (L) Exhaust air is discharged directly to the outside atmosphere and in a location that will be protective of public health.
NR 811.45(3) (3)Pressure aeration. Pressure aeration installations shall meet the following requirements:
NR 811.45(3)(a) (a) Pressure aeration may be used for oxidation purposes. Pressure aeration will not be approved for removal of dissolved gases.
NR 811.45(3)(b) (b) Filters following pressure aeration shall be provided with adequate exhaust devices for release of air.
NR 811.45(3)(c) (c) Pressure aeration devices shall be designed to cause a thorough mixing of compressed air with the water being treated.
NR 811.45(3)(d) (d) Pressure aeration devices shall provide screened and filtered air that is free of obnoxious fumes, dust, dirt, and other contaminants.
NR 811.45(3)(e) (e) Air compressors supplying pressure aerators shall be oil-less.
NR 811.45(4) (4)Other methods of aeration. Other methods of aeration may be approved by the department only if a pilot plant study conducted in accordance with s. NR 811.44 demonstrates the method's effectiveness. Methods include spraying, diffused air, and mechanical aeration. The treatment processes shall be designed to meet the particular needs of the water to be treated.
NR 811.45(5) (5)Disinfection. Aerated water other than from pressure aeration shall receive continuous disinfection treatment. A corporation stop shall be provided on the inlet piping to all non-pressure aerators to allow disinfection for emergency or maintenance purposes.
NR 811.45(6) (6)Protection from wind. Aerators that discharge through the atmosphere shall be protected by being placed in a louvered enclosure designed to provide easy access to the interior.
NR 811.45(7) (7)Protection from contamination. Aerators that are used for oxidation or removal of dissolved gases from waters that will be given no further treatment other than chlorination shall be protected from contamination from insects and birds, obnoxious fumes, all types of precipitation and condensation, and windborne debris or dust.
NR 811.45(8) (8)Bypass piping. Bypass piping and any associated valves or other appurtenances shall be installed to allow water to be bypassed around a non-pressure aerator unless the aerator is necessary to comply with primary maximum contaminant levels or the requirement is waived by the department because the water system has access to other water sources that can provide at least an average day supply of water.
NR 811.45(9) (9)Redundancy. Redundant aeration systems shall be provided for units installed to comply with primary maximum contaminant levels unless the requirement is waived by the department because the water system has access to other water sources that can provide at least an average day supply of water.
NR 811.45(10) (10)Water quality. A metal smooth-end sampling faucet installed on the aerator outlet piping and test equipment shall be provided to test for appropriate water quality parameters following aeration such as dissolved oxygen, pH, iron, manganese, radon gas, and carbon dioxide when required by the department to insure proper operation of the aeration equipment.
NR 811.45 History History: CR 09-073: cr. Register November 2010 No. 659, eff. 12-1-10.
NR 811.46 NR 811.46Arsenic removal. The following minimum requirements shall be met when the following treatment methods are employed for arsenic removal:
NR 811.46(1) (1)Pilot testing. All process designs shall be based on information from a pilot study unless waived by the department based upon previous demonstration that the process design will effectively remove arsenic based upon the water quality to be treated. Documentation shall be submitted to the department to support any pilot test waiver.
NR 811.46(2) (2)Oxidation and filtration. Arsenic III shall be oxidized by chemical or physical processes or both to arsenic V and then filtered out.
NR 811.46(2)(a) (a) Adequate detention time shall be provided if necessary to complete the conversion to arsenic V before filtration.
NR 811.46(2)(b) (b) Ferric chloride or ferric sulfate shall be added to the water supply for water with less than a 20 to 1 ratio of iron to arsenic if necessary in order to provide adequate arsenic removal efficiency.
NR 811.46(3) (3)Adsorptive media. Metal oxide coated adsorptive media may be used as the sole means of removing arsenic or in cooperation with or as a polishing unit after oxidation and filtration of arsenic.
NR 811.46(3)(a) (a) The adsorptive media shall be NSF/ANSI Standard 61 approved in accordance with s. NR 810.09 (5).
NR 811.46(3)(b) (b) The pilot study and final design shall address the following issues:
NR 811.46(3)(b)1. 1. Pre- and post-filtration adjustment of pH to enhance the arsenic removal rate and reduce water corrosivity.
NR 811.46(3)(b)2. 2. Conversion of the arsenic III to arsenic V prior to filtration.
NR 811.46(3)(b)3. 3. Oxidation and filtration of iron and manganese to prevent fouling of the media.
NR 811.46(3)(b)4. 4. Concentrations of sulfate and dissolved solids in the source water and the need to remove or reduce the concentrations in order to maintain treatment efficiency and minimize media fouling.
NR 811.46(4) (4)Other acceptable treatment methods. Coagulation and filtration, anion exchange, electrodialysis, membrane filtration, and lime softening are treatment methods that may also be used to remove arsenic. The pilot study and final design shall address the following issues, if applicable:
NR 811.46(4)(a) (a) Pre- and post-treatment adjustment of pH to enhance the arsenic removal rate, prevent scaling, or fouling of the treatment equipment, and reduce water corrosivity.
NR 811.46(4)(b) (b) Conversion of the arsenic III to arsenic V prior to removal.
NR 811.46(4)(c) (c) Oxidation and filtration of iron and manganese to prevent fouling of the treatment equipment.
NR 811.46(4)(d) (d) The use of ferric chloride, ferric sulfate, alum, or a polymer as coagulant aids.
NR 811.46(4)(e) (e) Concentrations of sulfate and dissolved solids in the source water and the need to remove or reduce the concentrations in order to maintain treatment efficiency and minimize treatment equipment fouling.
NR 811.46 History History: CR 09-073: cr. Register November 2010 No. 659, eff. 12-1-10.
NR 811.47 NR 811.47Clarification. Plants designed to reduce suspended solids concentrations prior to filtration shall:
NR 811.47(1) (1) Provide a minimum of 2 units each for rapid mix, flocculation and sedimentation.
NR 811.47(2) (2) Permit operation of the units either in series or parallel.
NR 811.47(3) (3) Be constructed to permit units to be taken out of service without disrupting operation with drains or pumps sized to allow dewatering in a reasonable period of time.
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Published under s. 35.93, Stats. Updated on the first day of each month. Entire code is always current. The Register date on each page is the date the chapter was last published.