NR 812.16(4)(d) (d) For potable wells, the gravel pack may not extend closer to the ground surface than the minimum depth for the upper enlarged drillhole specified in s. NR 812.152 (3).
NR 812.16(4)(e) (e) For nonpotable high capacity wells, the gravel pack may not extend more than 20 feet above the top of the screen.
NR 812.16(5) (5)   Thickness. The diameter of the upper enlarged drillhole shall be sized to accommodate the thickness of the gravel pack. The gravel pack shall be at least 2 inches greater than the nominal radius of the screen.
NR 812.16 History History: CR 18-095: r. and recr. Register June 2020 No. 774, eff. 7-1-20.
NR 812.18 NR 812.18Welding procedures. Plain end well casing pipe shall be welded watertight using welding procedures for plain end well casing pipe in accordance with the specifications in the American Welding Society manual AWS D10.12, “Guide for Welding Mild Steel Pipe." Well casing pipe to be welded shall conform to the specifications in s. NR 812.11 (6). Pitless adapter connections to well casing pipe shall be made watertight in accordance with welding procedures in the American Welding Society manual AWS D1.1, “Structural Welding Code-Steel.”
NR 812.18 Note Note: Copies of AWS manuals may be obtained directly from the American Welding Society's website at www.aws.org. Copies are also on file at the offices of the department and the legislative reference bureau.
NR 812.18 History History: CR 18-095: r. and recr., Register June 2020 No. 774, eff. 7-1-20.
NR 812.19 NR 812.19Well plumbness and alignment. A well driller or well constructor shall construct a well to meet all of the following requirements:
NR 812.19(1) (1)   Plumbness. The deviation per 100 feet of well depth from plumb of the center line of the well may not exceed 75% of the well diameter for any well with casing that is 10 inches in diameter or larger.
NR 812.19(2) (2)   Alignment.
NR 812.19(2)(a)(a) The well shall allow the free passage of the pump to be permanently installed in the well to the depth of pump setting plus 25% of that depth.
NR 812.19(2)(b) (b) The well shall be aligned so that it does not cause damage to the bearings of a lineshaft turbine pump.
NR 812.19 History History: CR 18-095: r. and recr. Register June 2020 No. 774, eff. 7-1-20.
NR 812.20 NR 812.20Grouting and sealing. A well driller or well constructor shall complete the grouting or sealing of annular spaces and drillholes using all of the following methods and materials as are applicable:
NR 812.20(1) (1)  Grouting and sealing material. Materials used for grouting and sealing shall meet the requirements specified in s. NR 812.11.
NR 812.20(2) (2)   General requirements.
NR 812.20(2)(a)(a) Tremie pipes. All of the following general requirements apply to the use of tremie pipes during grouting:
NR 812.20(2)(a)1. 1. The tremie pipe shall be placed to the bottom of the upper enlarged drillhole.
NR 812.20(2)(a)2. 2. When a tremie pipe is placed on the outside of a casing string, it may not be permanently attached to the casing during setting.
NR 812.20(2)(a)3. 3. The tremie pipe shall move freely in the annulus prior to the start of grouting.
NR 812.20(2)(a)4. 4. If the tremie pipe is pulled back during grouting, the bottom of the tremie pipe shall remain submerged in grout.
NR 812.20(2)(a)5. 5. The tremie pipe shall be removed after grouting. If the entire length of tremie pipe cannot be removed after grouting, the driller shall note the reason that the tremie pipe could not be fully removed on the well construction report for the well.
NR 812.20(2)(b) (b) Grouting and sealing. All of the following general requirements apply to the grouting and sealing of wells:
NR 812.20(2)(b)1. 1. Grout shall be placed from the bottom of the annular space to the ground surface.
NR 812.20(2)(b)2. 2. The density of the grout flowing from the annular space at the ground surface shall be the same as the density of the grout being placed.
NR 812.20(2)(b)3. 3. Grout shall be placed in one operation. When grout fails to come to the ground surface in fractured bedrock formations after pumping more than the calculated amount of grout to fill the annulus, the grouting operation may be interrupted to allow the grout to set, or bentonite chips may be used as allowed under s. NR 812.14 (8), and grouting shall continue as soon as possible. If circumstances prevent completing the grouting work in one operation, the well driller or well constructor shall report the reason on the well construction report.
NR 812.20(2)(b)4. 4. Any settling of the grout more than 6 feet below the ground surface shall be made up by adding grout until it comes back up to the ground surface.
NR 812.20(2)(b)5. 5. Cement grouts shall be allowed to set for a minimum of 12 hours before drilling operations continue.
NR 812.20(2)(c) (c) Temporary casing removal. When a temporary outer casing is used to construct the upper enlarged drillhole, a well driller or well constructor shall make an attempt to remove the temporary outer casing during or after the grouting process. If possible, the temporary outer casing shall be removed. The grout level shall remain above the bottom of the casing during removal of the casing.
NR 812.20(3) (3)   Pressure grout placement methods. A well driller or well constructor shall complete the pressure grouting of wells using any of the following methods:
NR 812.20(3)(a) (a) Tremie pipe-pumped. The grout material shall be placed by a pump through a tremie pipe into the annular space between the well casing pipe and the upper enlarged drillhole wall or inside surface of the temporary outer casing.
NR 812.20(3)(b) (b) Grout shoe-continuous injection. The grout shoe-continuous injection method of grouting shall be completed in accordance with all of the following:
NR 812.20(3)(b)1. 1. The bottom of the well casing pipe shall be fitted with a grout shoe equipped with a check valve.
NR 812.20(3)(b)2. 2. A tremie pipe or drill stem shall be connected to the grout shoe and shall extend up through the well casing pipe to a grout pump at the ground surface.
NR 812.20(3)(b)3. 3. The well casing pipe shall be suspended a short distance above the bottom of the upper enlarged drillhole.
NR 812.20(3)(b)4. 4. Grout material shall be pumped through the tremie pipe and the grout shoe until the entire annular space is filled with grout.
NR 812.20(3)(b)5. 5. The tremie pipe or drill stem shall be removed and the well casing pipe shall be set to the bottom of the upper enlarged drillhole.
NR 812.20(3)(d) (d) Braden-head method. All of the following requirements apply to the use of the Braden-head method of grouting:
NR 812.20(3)(d)1. 1. The well casing pipe shall be suspended a short distance above the bottom of the upper enlarged drillhole.
NR 812.20(3)(d)2. 2. The well casing pipe and annulus shall be filled with water, drilling mud, or bentonite slurry. A tremie pipe shall be set inside the well casing pipe to the bottom and shall extend watertight through a sanitary well seal installed securely in the top of the well casing pipe. A packer may be installed inside the well casing pipe, at depth, as an alternative to using a well seal at the top.
NR 812.20(3)(d)3. 3. The grout shall be pumped down the tremie pipe and up the annular space.
NR 812.20(3)(d)4. 4. Immediately following grout flow at the surface, the well casing pipe shall be set to the bottom of the upper enlarged drillhole of an unconsolidated formation well or driven to a firm seat in bedrock.
NR 812.20(3)(e) (e) Grout displacement method. The grout displacement method may only be used for wells when the upper enlarged drillhole is less than or equal to 200 feet deep or when drilling mud or bentonite slurry has been circulated in the upper enlarged drillhole from the bottom up to the ground surface prior to the grouting. All of the following requirements apply to the use of the grout displacement method:
NR 812.20(3)(e)1. 1. The well driller or well constructor shall place a measured volume of grout that is equal to the volume of the annular space plus at least 15% into the upper enlarged drillhole through a tremie pipe.
NR 812.20(3)(e)2. 2. The well casing pipe shall be fitted with centering guides and a drillable plug at the bottom and shall be lowered through the grout to the bottom of the upper enlarged drillhole allowing the grout to be forced up into the annular space.
NR 812.20(3)(e)3. 3. If necessary, pressure shall be applied and maintained on the top of the well casing pipe to hold it in place for at least 12 hours or until the grout sets, whichever is longer. Water may be added to the well casing pipe to provide extra weight.
NR 812.20(3)(e)4. 4. If the grout does not flow at the ground surface, the remainder of the annular space shall be filled with grout placed through a tremie pipe that shall be at the drill site.
NR 812.20(4) (4)   Non-pressure grouting. The tremie pipe-gravity method of non-pressure grouting may be used when the upper enlarged drillhole is less than 100 feet deep and is at least 4 inches larger in diameter than the nominal diameter of the well casing pipe. Grout material may flow by gravity through a funnel or hopper connected to a tremie pipe that extends to the bottom of the upper enlarged drillhole.
NR 812.20 History History: CR 18-095: r. and recr. Register June 2020 No. 774, eff. 7-1-20.
NR 812.21 NR 812.21Liners. A well driller or well constructor shall install a liner in accordance with all of the following requirements:
NR 812.21(1) (1)   Liners installed to correct contamination. Any liner installed to address a water supply with contaminant levels in excess of the standards specified in s. NR 812.06 or to prevent cross-migration between aquifers shall be grouted in place using the procedures under sub. (5).
NR 812.21(2) (2)   Pipe material. Pipe used to line a well shall meet the requirements specified in s. NR 812.11 (6) or (7). Ungrouted steel liner pipe may have a lesser wall thickness than is required in Table B for the diameter of well casing pipe but shall have a wall thickness of at least 0.216 inches.
NR 812.21(3) (3)   Diameter of pipe. Liner pipe shall be the largest practical diameter allowing installation in the well. When a liner is grouted in place, it shall have a nominal diameter at least 2 inches smaller than the nominal diameter of the permanent well casing pipe or the diameter of the drillhole.
NR 812.21(4) (4)  Liner installation. Liner pipe shall extend at least 10 feet above the static water level or packers shall be installed far enough above and below the caving zone to prevent further entrance of material into the well. When the liner pipe does not extend to the bottom of the well, the liner pipe shall be supported on the bottom and top with a pipe flange or packer installed between the outside of the liner and the inside of the drillhole.
NR 812.21(5) (5)   Grouting procedures. A well driller or well constructor shall grout a liner to meet all of the following requirements:
NR 812.21(5)(a) (a) The liner pipe shall be centered within the drillhole and casing during grouting.
NR 812.21(5)(b) (b) When the liner pipe does not extend to the bottom of the well, a flange or approved packer shall be provided at the bottom of the liner between the outside of the liner and the inside of the drillhole or the inside of the well casing pipe, or the liner shall rest on backfill material to be later drilled or bailed out.
NR 812.21(5)(c) (c) The liner pipe shall extend to the ground surface or shall extend at least to the bottom of the pitless adapter when one is used.
NR 812.21(5)(d) (d) The liner pipe shall be completely sealed in place from the bottom of the liner to the top of the liner with neat cement grout using a pressure grouting method according to the grouting requirements specified in s. NR 812.20. The liner shall be supported until the grout has set.
NR 812.21 History History: CR 18-095: r. and recr. Register June 2020 No. 774, eff. 7-1-20.
NR 812.22 NR 812.22Well rehabilitation and batch chlorination.
NR 812.22(1)(1)   Rehabilitation. All of the following requirements apply to the rehabilitation of a well by a well driller or well constructor:
NR 812.22(1)(a) (a) Redevelopment. The methods described for development under s. NR 812.12 (15) may be used to redevelop a well.
NR 812.22(1)(b) (b) Chemical conditioning.
NR 812.22(1)(b)1.1. Noncontinuous chemical treatment of a well, except for batch chlorination, shall be conducted under the supervision of a licensed water well driller or a Wisconsin registered professional engineer. Acidation of a well shall be done with materials approved for use under s. NR 812.091 and in a manner to prevent damage to the well or pump and to prevent any hazard to humans or property. The acid shall be inhibited and shall be neutralized upon removal from the well.
NR 812.22(1)(b)2. 2. Noncontinuous chemical treatment of pumps or pump intake screens shall be conducted under the supervision of a licensed pump installer or a Wisconsin registered professional engineer. Acidation of a pump or pump intake screen shall be done in a manner described under subd. 1.
NR 812.22(1)(c) (c) Physical conditioning. Wells may be physically conditioned using any of the following methods:
NR 812.22(1)(c)1. 1. `Blasting.' When using explosives to increase or recover the yield of a well, the explosive charge shall be set at least 10 feet below the bottom of the well casing pipe, which shall be filled with water or sand. A licensed water well driller shall supervise blasting work, which shall be performed by a blaster certified by the department of safety and professional services according to the requirements specified in ch. SPS 307. The well driller shall submit a report of results of the blasting within 30 days following the work on a well construction report form.
NR 812.22(1)(c)2. 2. `Hydrofracturing or hydroflushing.' Hydrofracturing or hydroflushing of an aquifer by injecting potable chlorinated water into a crystalline bedrock formation well under high pressure is allowed. Clean washed inert, nontoxic material such as sand may be added to the water for the purpose of holding the joints and fractures open after the pressure is reduced. Hydrofracturing or hydroflushing may only be performed under the supervision of a licensed water well driller. The upper packer may not extend up into the bottom of the well casing pipe nor higher than 40 feet below the ground surface. Hydrofracturing or hydroflushing in limestone or dolomite formations may be undertaken only after prior department notification. The well driller shall submit a report of the results of the hydrofracturing or hydroflushing no later than 30 days after completion of the work on a form specified by the department.
NR 812.22(1)(c)3. 3. `Mechanical brushing.' A well may be mechanically brushed to loosen material attached to the inside of a casing, screen, or open drillhole.
NR 812.22(2) (2)   Batch chlorination. All of the following requirements apply to the batch chlorination of a water system by a well driller or well constructor:
NR 812.22(2)(a) (a) The entire water system shall be thoroughly disinfected with a chlorine solution having a concentration of at least 100 mg/L, prepared according to Table D.
NR 812.22(2)(b) (b) The volume of chlorine solution shall be equal to or greater than the volume of water standing in the well.
NR 812.22(2)(c) (c) The chlorine solution shall be brought into contact with the entire inside of the well casing pipe by continuous circulation from the water system.
NR 812.22(2)(d) (d) A contact time of at least 12 hours shall be provided for the disinfectant.
NR 812.22(2)(e) (e) The well and water system shall be thoroughly flushed.
NR 812.22 History History: CR 18-095: r. and recr. Register June 2020 No. 774, eff. 7-1-20.
NR 812.23 NR 812.23Driven point wells. Driven point wells are typically constructed in sandy soil areas with a high water table and groundwater in these areas is very susceptible to contamination. If a driven point well is constructed, the well driller or well constructor shall ensure that all of the following requirements are met:
NR 812.23(1) (1)   Location. A driven point well shall be constructed to meet the location requirements and minimum separation distances specified in s. NR 812.08, and may not be constructed in a floodway.
NR 812.23(2) (2)   Material. Well casing pipe and screens used for driven point wells shall meet the requirements specified in s. NR 812.11 (6) and (11).
NR 812.23(3) (3)   Final casing height. The final height of a driven point well shall comply with s. NR 812.12 (12).
NR 812.23(4) (4)   Minimum diameter. The minimum diameter of a driven point well is 1-1/4 inches.
NR 812.23(5) (5)   Depth of casing. The well drive pipe, not including the screen, of a driven point well shall extend to a depth of 25 feet or to a depth 10 feet below the static water level in the well, whichever is greater.
NR 812.23(6) (6)   Frost protection. Driven point wells, when protected against freezing, may be installed with a protective outer sleeve below frost depth. When installed in this manner, the top of the annular space between the well and the protective sleeve shall be sealed watertight with a sanitary well seal.
NR 812.23(7) (7)   Pump installation. Pump installations for driven point wells shall be completed according to s. NR 812.32.
NR 812.23(8) (8)   Screen replacement. Screen replacement is considered new well construction and shall meet all the requirements of this chapter. Screens may not be replaced on driven point wells that do not comply with the location requirements of this chapter.
NR 812.23(10) (10)   Starter drillholes. Starter drillholes not exceeding 10 feet deep may be constructed to facilitate driving the pipe. If a starter drillhole is constructed, the annular space shall be sealed using the materials and methods specified in s. NR 812.13 (8) following completion. The temporary outer casing shall be removed if possible.
NR 812.23(11) (11)   Flowing wells. The construction of a flowing driven point well shall meet the requirements specified in s. NR 812.15 (1).
NR 812.23 History History: CR 18-095: r. and recr. Register June 2020 No. 774, eff. 7-1-20.
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Published under s. 35.93, Stats. Updated on the first day of each month. Entire code is always current. The Register date on each page is the date the chapter was last published.