NR 812.20(2)(b)3. 3. Grout shall be placed in one operation. When grout fails to come to the ground surface in fractured bedrock formations after pumping more than the calculated amount of grout to fill the annulus, the grouting operation may be interrupted to allow the grout to set, or bentonite chips may be used as allowed under s. NR 812.14 (8), and grouting shall continue as soon as possible. If circumstances prevent completing the grouting work in one operation, the well driller or well constructor shall report the reason on the well construction report.
NR 812.20(2)(b)4. 4. Any settling of the grout more than 6 feet below the ground surface shall be made up by adding grout until it comes back up to the ground surface.
NR 812.20(2)(b)5. 5. Cement grouts shall be allowed to set for a minimum of 12 hours before drilling operations continue.
NR 812.20(2)(c) (c) Temporary casing removal. When a temporary outer casing is used to construct the upper enlarged drillhole, a well driller or well constructor shall make an attempt to remove the temporary outer casing during or after the grouting process. If possible, the temporary outer casing shall be removed. The grout level shall remain above the bottom of the casing during removal of the casing.
NR 812.20(3) (3)   Pressure grout placement methods. A well driller or well constructor shall complete the pressure grouting of wells using any of the following methods:
NR 812.20(3)(a) (a) Tremie pipe-pumped. The grout material shall be placed by a pump through a tremie pipe into the annular space between the well casing pipe and the upper enlarged drillhole wall or inside surface of the temporary outer casing.
NR 812.20(3)(b) (b) Grout shoe-continuous injection. The grout shoe-continuous injection method of grouting shall be completed in accordance with all of the following:
NR 812.20(3)(b)1. 1. The bottom of the well casing pipe shall be fitted with a grout shoe equipped with a check valve.
NR 812.20(3)(b)2. 2. A tremie pipe or drill stem shall be connected to the grout shoe and shall extend up through the well casing pipe to a grout pump at the ground surface.
NR 812.20(3)(b)3. 3. The well casing pipe shall be suspended a short distance above the bottom of the upper enlarged drillhole.
NR 812.20(3)(b)4. 4. Grout material shall be pumped through the tremie pipe and the grout shoe until the entire annular space is filled with grout.
NR 812.20(3)(b)5. 5. The tremie pipe or drill stem shall be removed and the well casing pipe shall be set to the bottom of the upper enlarged drillhole.
NR 812.20(3)(d) (d) Braden-head method. All of the following requirements apply to the use of the Braden-head method of grouting:
NR 812.20(3)(d)1. 1. The well casing pipe shall be suspended a short distance above the bottom of the upper enlarged drillhole.
NR 812.20(3)(d)2. 2. The well casing pipe and annulus shall be filled with water, drilling mud, or bentonite slurry. A tremie pipe shall be set inside the well casing pipe to the bottom and shall extend watertight through a sanitary well seal installed securely in the top of the well casing pipe. A packer may be installed inside the well casing pipe, at depth, as an alternative to using a well seal at the top.
NR 812.20(3)(d)3. 3. The grout shall be pumped down the tremie pipe and up the annular space.
NR 812.20(3)(d)4. 4. Immediately following grout flow at the surface, the well casing pipe shall be set to the bottom of the upper enlarged drillhole of an unconsolidated formation well or driven to a firm seat in bedrock.
NR 812.20(3)(e) (e) Grout displacement method. The grout displacement method may only be used for wells when the upper enlarged drillhole is less than or equal to 200 feet deep or when drilling mud or bentonite slurry has been circulated in the upper enlarged drillhole from the bottom up to the ground surface prior to the grouting. All of the following requirements apply to the use of the grout displacement method:
NR 812.20(3)(e)1. 1. The well driller or well constructor shall place a measured volume of grout that is equal to the volume of the annular space plus at least 15% into the upper enlarged drillhole through a tremie pipe.
NR 812.20(3)(e)2. 2. The well casing pipe shall be fitted with centering guides and a drillable plug at the bottom and shall be lowered through the grout to the bottom of the upper enlarged drillhole allowing the grout to be forced up into the annular space.
NR 812.20(3)(e)3. 3. If necessary, pressure shall be applied and maintained on the top of the well casing pipe to hold it in place for at least 12 hours or until the grout sets, whichever is longer. Water may be added to the well casing pipe to provide extra weight.
NR 812.20(3)(e)4. 4. If the grout does not flow at the ground surface, the remainder of the annular space shall be filled with grout placed through a tremie pipe that shall be at the drill site.
NR 812.20(4) (4)   Non-pressure grouting. The tremie pipe-gravity method of non-pressure grouting may be used when the upper enlarged drillhole is less than 100 feet deep and is at least 4 inches larger in diameter than the nominal diameter of the well casing pipe. Grout material may flow by gravity through a funnel or hopper connected to a tremie pipe that extends to the bottom of the upper enlarged drillhole.
NR 812.20 History History: CR 18-095: r. and recr. Register June 2020 No. 774, eff. 7-1-20.
NR 812.21 NR 812.21Liners. A well driller or well constructor shall install a liner in accordance with all of the following requirements:
NR 812.21(1) (1)   Liners installed to correct contamination. Any liner installed to address a water supply with contaminant levels in excess of the standards specified in s. NR 812.06 or to prevent cross-migration between aquifers shall be grouted in place using the procedures under sub. (5).
NR 812.21(2) (2)   Pipe material. Pipe used to line a well shall meet the requirements specified in s. NR 812.11 (6) or (7). Ungrouted steel liner pipe may have a lesser wall thickness than is required in Table B for the diameter of well casing pipe but shall have a wall thickness of at least 0.216 inches.
NR 812.21(3) (3)   Diameter of pipe. Liner pipe shall be the largest practical diameter allowing installation in the well. When a liner is grouted in place, it shall have a nominal diameter at least 2 inches smaller than the nominal diameter of the permanent well casing pipe or the diameter of the drillhole.
NR 812.21(4) (4)  Liner installation. Liner pipe shall extend at least 10 feet above the static water level or packers shall be installed far enough above and below the caving zone to prevent further entrance of material into the well. When the liner pipe does not extend to the bottom of the well, the liner pipe shall be supported on the bottom and top with a pipe flange or packer installed between the outside of the liner and the inside of the drillhole.
NR 812.21(5) (5)   Grouting procedures. A well driller or well constructor shall grout a liner to meet all of the following requirements:
NR 812.21(5)(a) (a) The liner pipe shall be centered within the drillhole and casing during grouting.
NR 812.21(5)(b) (b) When the liner pipe does not extend to the bottom of the well, a flange or approved packer shall be provided at the bottom of the liner between the outside of the liner and the inside of the drillhole or the inside of the well casing pipe, or the liner shall rest on backfill material to be later drilled or bailed out.
NR 812.21(5)(c) (c) The liner pipe shall extend to the ground surface or shall extend at least to the bottom of the pitless adapter when one is used.
NR 812.21(5)(d) (d) The liner pipe shall be completely sealed in place from the bottom of the liner to the top of the liner with neat cement grout using a pressure grouting method according to the grouting requirements specified in s. NR 812.20. The liner shall be supported until the grout has set.
NR 812.21 History History: CR 18-095: r. and recr. Register June 2020 No. 774, eff. 7-1-20.
NR 812.22 NR 812.22Well rehabilitation and batch chlorination.
NR 812.22(1)(1)   Rehabilitation. All of the following requirements apply to the rehabilitation of a well by a well driller or well constructor:
NR 812.22(1)(a) (a) Redevelopment. The methods described for development under s. NR 812.12 (15) may be used to redevelop a well.
NR 812.22(1)(b) (b) Chemical conditioning.
NR 812.22(1)(b)1.1. Noncontinuous chemical treatment of a well, except for batch chlorination, shall be conducted under the supervision of a licensed water well driller or a Wisconsin registered professional engineer. Acidation of a well shall be done with materials approved for use under s. NR 812.091 and in a manner to prevent damage to the well or pump and to prevent any hazard to humans or property. The acid shall be inhibited and shall be neutralized upon removal from the well.
NR 812.22(1)(b)2. 2. Noncontinuous chemical treatment of pumps or pump intake screens shall be conducted under the supervision of a licensed pump installer or a Wisconsin registered professional engineer. Acidation of a pump or pump intake screen shall be done in a manner described under subd. 1.
NR 812.22(1)(c) (c) Physical conditioning. Wells may be physically conditioned using any of the following methods:
NR 812.22(1)(c)1. 1. `Blasting.' When using explosives to increase or recover the yield of a well, the explosive charge shall be set at least 10 feet below the bottom of the well casing pipe, which shall be filled with water or sand. A licensed water well driller shall supervise blasting work, which shall be performed by a blaster certified by the department of safety and professional services according to the requirements specified in ch. SPS 307. The well driller shall submit a report of results of the blasting within 30 days following the work on a well construction report form.
NR 812.22(1)(c)2. 2. `Hydrofracturing or hydroflushing.' Hydrofracturing or hydroflushing of an aquifer by injecting potable chlorinated water into a crystalline bedrock formation well under high pressure is allowed. Clean washed inert, nontoxic material such as sand may be added to the water for the purpose of holding the joints and fractures open after the pressure is reduced. Hydrofracturing or hydroflushing may only be performed under the supervision of a licensed water well driller. The upper packer may not extend up into the bottom of the well casing pipe nor higher than 40 feet below the ground surface. Hydrofracturing or hydroflushing in limestone or dolomite formations may be undertaken only after prior department notification. The well driller shall submit a report of the results of the hydrofracturing or hydroflushing no later than 30 days after completion of the work on a form specified by the department.
NR 812.22(1)(c)3. 3. `Mechanical brushing.' A well may be mechanically brushed to loosen material attached to the inside of a casing, screen, or open drillhole.
NR 812.22(2) (2)   Batch chlorination. All of the following requirements apply to the batch chlorination of a water system by a well driller or well constructor:
NR 812.22(2)(a) (a) The entire water system shall be thoroughly disinfected with a chlorine solution having a concentration of at least 100 mg/L, prepared according to Table D.
NR 812.22(2)(b) (b) The volume of chlorine solution shall be equal to or greater than the volume of water standing in the well.
NR 812.22(2)(c) (c) The chlorine solution shall be brought into contact with the entire inside of the well casing pipe by continuous circulation from the water system.
NR 812.22(2)(d) (d) A contact time of at least 12 hours shall be provided for the disinfectant.
NR 812.22(2)(e) (e) The well and water system shall be thoroughly flushed.
NR 812.22 History History: CR 18-095: r. and recr. Register June 2020 No. 774, eff. 7-1-20.
NR 812.23 NR 812.23Driven point wells. Driven point wells are typically constructed in sandy soil areas with a high water table and groundwater in these areas is very susceptible to contamination. If a driven point well is constructed, the well driller or well constructor shall ensure that all of the following requirements are met:
NR 812.23(1) (1)   Location. A driven point well shall be constructed to meet the location requirements and minimum separation distances specified in s. NR 812.08, and may not be constructed in a floodway.
NR 812.23(2) (2)   Material. Well casing pipe and screens used for driven point wells shall meet the requirements specified in s. NR 812.11 (6) and (11).
NR 812.23(3) (3)   Final casing height. The final height of a driven point well shall comply with s. NR 812.12 (12).
NR 812.23(4) (4)   Minimum diameter. The minimum diameter of a driven point well is 1-1/4 inches.
NR 812.23(5) (5)   Depth of casing. The well drive pipe, not including the screen, of a driven point well shall extend to a depth of 25 feet or to a depth 10 feet below the static water level in the well, whichever is greater.
NR 812.23(6) (6)   Frost protection. Driven point wells, when protected against freezing, may be installed with a protective outer sleeve below frost depth. When installed in this manner, the top of the annular space between the well and the protective sleeve shall be sealed watertight with a sanitary well seal.
NR 812.23(7) (7)   Pump installation. Pump installations for driven point wells shall be completed according to s. NR 812.32.
NR 812.23(8) (8)   Screen replacement. Screen replacement is considered new well construction and shall meet all the requirements of this chapter. Screens may not be replaced on driven point wells that do not comply with the location requirements of this chapter.
NR 812.23(10) (10)   Starter drillholes. Starter drillholes not exceeding 10 feet deep may be constructed to facilitate driving the pipe. If a starter drillhole is constructed, the annular space shall be sealed using the materials and methods specified in s. NR 812.13 (8) following completion. The temporary outer casing shall be removed if possible.
NR 812.23(11) (11)   Flowing wells. The construction of a flowing driven point well shall meet the requirements specified in s. NR 812.15 (1).
NR 812.23 History History: CR 18-095: r. and recr. Register June 2020 No. 774, eff. 7-1-20.
NR 812.24 NR 812.24Dug type well design and construction. The department discourages the use of dug wells because they often pose a safety hazard and a threat to groundwater quality. Dug wells may only be constructed with the written approval of the department. A well driller or well constructor shall ensure that a dug well is constructed to meet the requirements of the approval and all of the following requirements:
NR 812.24(1) (1)   Curbing wall.
NR 812.24(1)(a)(a) Depth. The curbing wall of a dug well shall be watertight to a depth of 25 feet below the established ground surface, or 10 feet below the top of the water table when the water table is encountered more than 15 feet below the ground surface. The curbing wall through the intake area shall be constructed to withstand any external pressure to which it may be subjected and shall be seated firmly enough to prevent settling.
NR 812.24(1)(b) (b) Concrete curbing wall. A concrete curbing wall shall be circular and at least 6 inches thick with concrete placed so as to be free from voids. The concrete mixture shall conform to the requirements of s. NR 812.20 (1). The curbing wall shall be reinforced vertically and horizontally with 3/8-inch metal rods on 12-inch centers. Rods shall overlap by 12 inches and be staggered, but the overlap may not occur at construction joints. The curbing wall shall be poured in one operation. There may not be a construction joint within 10 feet of the ground surface. Construction joints shall be left rough and shall be washed and brushed with neat cement grout before pouring of concrete is continued, if possible.
NR 812.24(1)(c) (c) Steel curbing wall. A steel curbing wall shall have a thickness of at least 1/4 inch and be assembled with welded joints.
NR 812.24(1)(d) (d) Curbing wall installation. The curbing wall shall be constructed at the surface and carried down by excavating from the interior. If wood forms are used on the exterior of a concrete curbing wall, they shall be removed before the curbing is lowered. Exterior wood forms may not be used below the ground surface. Metal forms may be left in place.
NR 812.24(1)(e) (e) Annular opening. The opening between the face of the excavation and the curbing wall shall be filled with clean clay slurry.
NR 812.24(1)(f) (f) Upper terminal. The curbing wall shall extend at least 12 inches above the established ground surface. The ground shall be graded up around the curbing wall to a height of at least 6 inches above the ground surface so surface water will flow away from the well.
NR 812.24(2) (2)   Dug well cover. The cover of the well curbing shall be made of reinforced watertight concrete at least 5 inches thick and of a diameter large enough to overlap the curbing wall by at least 2 inches. A drip groove shall be provided within one inch of the outer edge of the underside of the cover. The cover shall be free from joints. A pump installation access sleeve comprising a section of steel well casing pipe conforming to s. NR 812.11 (6) shall be installed in the cover at the time of pouring the concrete to fabricate the cover and shall terminate at least 12 inches above the top of the cover. The top of the cover shall be sloped to drain away from the access sleeve. A manhole, if installed, shall be provided with a 4-inch high metal curb equipped with an overlapping metal cover, the sides of which extend downward at least 1 1/2 inches. A tight joint shall be provided between the top of the curbing and the cover using a nontoxic plastic sealing compound. The manhole cover shall be locked or bolted in place to prevent entrance of water and to be safe from vandalism and accidents.
NR 812.24(3) (3)   Equipment location. All pump piping, including the pump discharge or suction pipe, shall extend watertight through an access sleeve in the dug well cover.
NR 812.24 History History: CR 18-095: r. and recr. Register June 2020 No. 774, eff. 7-1-20.
NR 812.25 NR 812.25Springs. The use of a spring as a source of potable water shall comply with all of the following requirements:
NR 812.25(1) (1)   The placement or driving of a casing pipe into an undeveloped spring in a location easily accessible to the public regardless of the intended use of the spring water is prohibited.
NR 812.25(2) (2)   The unprotected nature of springs subjects them to wide fluctuations in water quality. The department discourages their use as a source of potable water. Springs vary from the standpoint of sources, locations, surrounding land uses, and elevation. Each spring considered for use as a source of potable water shall be evaluated by the department prior to use as a potable source. Development of a spring as a source of potable water may be approved only after a department evaluation and approval under s. NR 812.09 (4) (i) and sub. (3).
NR 812.25(3) (3)   The department may approve using a spring as a source of potable water only if the spring meets all of the following requirements:
NR 812.25(3)(a) (a) Location.
NR 812.25(3)(a)1.1. The area surrounding the spring to a distance of at least 100 feet laterally and 50 feet downgrade and the area immediately upslope from the spring to a point beyond the crest of the slope or to a distance of at least 200 feet upslope from the spring is not used for any activity, including human habitation, that may contaminate the spring.
NR 812.25(3)(a)2. 2. The spring outlet is at least 2 feet above the regional flood water level.
NR 812.25(3)(a)3. 3. The spring water flows from an underground source having enough overburden so that a horizontal plane extending back into the slope of the hill 100 feet will be at least 25 feet below the ground surface.
NR 812.25(3)(a)4. 4. The spring meets the minimum separation distance requirements from potential contamination sources specified in s. NR 812.08.
NR 812.25(3)(b) (b) Construction. The spring outlet shall be completely protected against the entrance of surface water runoff, insects, rodents, and contaminants and shall be constructed to meet all of the following requirements:
NR 812.25(3)(b)1. 1. A poured concrete box structure reinforced with 3/8-inch metal bars each way shall be constructed to house the spring outlet. This spring box shall meet all of the following minimum construction requirements:
NR 812.25(3)(b)1.a. a. Five-inch thick walls and roof with no cracks or holes, except for the overflow pipe in the wall and the access openings in the roof.
NR 812.25(3)(b)1.b. b. A width of 4 feet, with a 24-square foot cross section.
NR 812.25(3)(b)1.c. c. A 20-inch diameter round, or a 20-inch square access opening in the roof with a 4-inch thick concrete curbing wall that extends 8 inches above the roof.
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Published under s. 35.93, Stats. Updated on the first day of each month. Entire code is always current. The Register date on each page is the date the chapter was last published.