Creation and organization.
Powers of authority.
Duties of authority.
Maintenance of records.
Cooperation with governmental units.
Issuance of bonds.
Bonds not public debt.
Limit on amount of outstanding bonds.
Bonds exempt from taxation.
Funding of certain project costs.
In this chapter:
“Department" means the department of transportation.
“Division of hearings and appeals" means the division of hearings and appeals in the department of administration.
“Secretary" means the secretary of transportation.
History: 1977 c. 29
; 1993 a. 16
As used in this chapter, unless the context otherwise requires:
“Aeronautics" means the science and art of aircraft flight and including but not limited to transportation by aircraft; the operation, construction, repair or maintenance of aircraft, aircraft power plants and accessories, including the repair, packing and maintenance of parachutes; the design, establishment, construction, extension, operation, improvement, repair or maintenance of airports or other air navigation facilities; and instruction in flying or ground subjects pertaining thereto.
“Aeronautics instructor" means any individual who for hire or reward engages in giving instruction or offering to give instruction in flying or ground subjects pertaining to aeronautics; but excludes any instructor in a public school, university or institution of higher learning duly accredited and approved for carrying on collegiate work, who instructs in flying or ground subjects pertaining to aeronautics, only in the performance of his or her duties at such school, university or institution.
“Aircraft" means any contrivance invented, used, or designed for navigation of or flight in the air, but does not include spacecraft.
“Airman" means any individual who engages, as the person in command, or as pilot, mechanic or member of the crew, in the navigation of aircraft while under way, and any individual who is directly in charge of the inspection, maintenance, overhauling or repair of aircraft engines, propellers or appliances, and any individual who serves in the capacity of aircraft dispatcher, or air-traffic control-tower operator; but does not include any individual employed outside the United States, or any individual employed by a manufacturer of aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers or appliances to perform duties as inspector or mechanic in connection therewith, or any individual performing inspection or mechanical duties in connection with aircraft owned or operated by the individual.
“Air navigation facility" means any facility, other than one owned or operated by the United States, used in, available for use in, or designed for use in aid of air navigation, including any structures, mechanisms, lights, beacons, markers, communicating systems, or other instrumentalities, or devices used or useful as an aid, or constituting an advantage or convenience to the safe takeoff, navigation, and landing of aircraft, or the safe and efficient operation or maintenance of an airport, and any combination of any or all of such facilities.
“Airport" means any area of land or water which is used, or intended for use, for the landing and take-off of aircraft, and any appurtenant areas which are used, or intended for use, for airport buildings or other airport facilities or rights-of-way, together with all airport buildings and facilities located thereon.
“Airport hazard" means any structure, object of natural growth, or use of land which obstructs the airspace required for the flight of aircraft in landing or taking off at an airport or is otherwise hazardous to such landing or taking off.
“Air school" means any aeronautics instructor who advertises, represents or holds out as giving or offering to give instruction in flying or ground subjects pertaining to aeronautics; and any person who advertises, represents or holds out as giving or offering to give instruction in flying or ground subjects pertaining to aeronautics whether for or without hire or reward; but excludes any public school, or university, or institution of higher learning duly accredited and approved for carrying on collegiate work.
“Amateur built aircraft" means an aircraft the major portion of which has been fabricated and assembled by a person who undertook the construction project solely for education or recreation.
“Antique aircraft" means an aircraft which has a date of manufacture of 1955 or earlier and which is used solely for recreational or display purposes.
“Astronautics" means the science and art of spacecraft flight and all activities related thereto.
“Dealer aircraft" means an aircraft held as business inventory for sale and used only for demonstration purposes.
“Gross weight" means the gross or maximum takeoff weight for an aircraft make and model as designated by the manufacturer.
“Municipality" means any county, city, town or village of this state.
“Museum aircraft" means an aircraft designated under s. 114.20 (4)
and which is owned or held by a museum owned or operated by an organization qualified as a tax exempt organization under section 501
of the internal revenue code.
“Operation of aircraft" or “operate aircraft" means the use, navigation or piloting of aircraft in the airspace over this state or upon any airport within this state.
“Person" means any individual, firm, partnership, corporation, company, association, joint stock association or body politic; and includes any trustee, receiver, assignee or other similar representative thereof.
Any privately owned airport used for public purposes and determined by the secretary of the U.S. department of transportation to enplane annually 2,500 or more passengers and receive scheduled passenger service of aircraft.
“Spacecraft" means any contrivance invented, used, or designed for navigation or flight beyond the earth's atmosphere, including rockets, missiles, capsules, modules, and other vehicles, whether with or without passengers.
“Spacecraft launch or landing area" means any area used, or intended for use, for launching or landing spacecraft or for surface maneuvering, positioning, or preparation of spacecraft for imminent launching or immediately after landing, including any launch pad, landing area, or launch or landing control center.
“Spaceport" means any area of land or water that is used, or intended for use, as a spacecraft launch or landing area and any appurtenant areas that are used, or intended for use, for spaceport buildings or other spaceport facilities or rights-of-way, together with all spaceport buildings and facilities located thereon.
“State airway" means a route in the navigable airspace over and above the lands or waters of this state, designated by the department as a route suitable for air navigation.
“Unairworthy aircraft" means an aircraft that is in a severely damaged condition or in a state of major deterioration as determined under s. 114.20 (5)
State airport system.
The department is directed to cooperate with and assist any federal aeronautical agency in the preparation and annual revision of the national airport plan and to lay out a comprehensive state system of airports adequate to provide for the aeronautical needs of the people of all parts of the state. Such state system shall include every airport on the national system and such additional airports as may be deemed necessary. In selecting the general location of the airports on the system and determining their capacity, due regard shall be given to aeronautical necessity as evidenced by the population of the locality to be served, its commerce and industry and such other factors as the department deems pertinent. In selecting the specific sites, due regard shall be given to general suitability for service and economy of development as evidenced by convenience of access, adequacy of available area, character of topography and soils, freedom from hazards and obstructions to flight and other pertinent consideration.
Sovereignty in the space above the lands and waters of this state is declared to rest in the state, except where granted to and assumed by the United States.
Landowner's rights skyward.
The ownership of the space above the lands and waters of this state is declared to be vested in the several owners of the surface beneath, subject to the right of flight described in s. 114.04
Flying and landing, limitations.
Subject to ss. 114.105 (3)
, and except as provided in ss. 114.045
, flight of or in aircraft or spacecraft over the lands and waters of this state is lawful, unless at such a low altitude as to intentionally interfere with the then existing use to which the land or water, or the space over the land or water, is put by the owner, or unless so conducted as to be imminently dangerous or damaging to persons or property lawfully on the land or water beneath. The landing of an aircraft or spacecraft on the lands or waters of another, without the person's consent, is unlawful, except in the case of a forced landing. For damages caused by a forced landing, however, the owner or lessee of the aircraft or spacecraft or the aeronaut or astronaut shall be liable, as provided in s. 114.05
Since federal laws and regulations preempt local control of aircraft flights, s. 114.04 cannot be invoked to make unlawful flights that are in accordance with federal laws and regulations. Luedtke v. County of Milwaukee, 521 F.2d 387
to the extent it holds that all common law remedies for airport noise and pollution have been preempted by federal law, is overruled. Bieneman v. Chicago 1, 864 F.2d 463
Limitation on the operation of drones. 114.045(2)
Any person who violates sub. (1)
may be required to forfeit not more than $5,000.
A law enforcement officer investigating an alleged violation of sub. (1)
shall seize and transfer to the department of corrections or authority in charge of the correctional institution any photograph, motion picture, other visual representation, or data that represents a visual image that was created or recorded by a drone during an alleged violation of sub. (1)
History: 2015 a. 318
; 2017 a. 365
Damages by aircraft or spacecraft.
The liability of the owner, lessee and pilot of every aircraft or spacecraft operating over the lands or waters of this state for injuries or damage to persons or property on the land or water beneath, caused by the ascent, descent or flight of such aircraft or spacecraft, or the dropping or falling of the aircraft or spacecraft or of any object or material therefrom, shall be determined by the law applicable to torts on land, except that there shall be a presumption of liability on the part of the owner, lessee or pilot, as the case may be, where injury or damage is caused by the dropping or falling of the aircraft or spacecraft or of any object or material therefrom, which presumption may be rebutted by proof that the injury or damage was not caused by negligence on the part of the owner, lessee or pilot and the burden of proof in such case shall be upon such owner, lessee or pilot to show absence of negligence on his or her part.
History: 1993 a. 492
; 2005 a. 335
The liability of the owner of one aircraft, to the owner of another aircraft, or to aeronauts or passengers on either aircraft, for damage caused by collision on land or in the air shall be determined by the rules of law applicable to torts on land.
This section does not make rules of the road under ch. 346 applicable to airplanes. Air Wisconsin, Inc. v. North Central Airlines, Inc. 98 Wis. 2d 301
, 296 N.W.2d 749
All crimes, torts and other wrongs committed by or against an aeronaut, astronaut, or passenger while in flight over this state shall be governed by the laws of this state; and the question whether damage occasioned by or to an aircraft or spacecraft while in flight over this state constitutes a tort, crime or other wrong by or against the owner of such aircraft or spacecraft, shall be determined by the laws of this state.
History: 2005 a. 335
Contracts made in flight.
All contractual and other legal relations entered into by aeronauts or passengers while in flight over this state shall have the same effect as if entered into on the land or water beneath.
Intoxicated and reckless flying; penalty. 114.09(1)(a)2.
“Prohibited alcohol concentration" means an alcohol concentration of 0.04 or more if there is no passenger in the aircraft, more than 0.00 if there is a passenger in the aircraft.
No person may operate an aircraft in the air or on the ground or water while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or controlled substances or controlled substance analogs under ch. 961
or a combination thereof, under the influence of any other drug to a degree which renders him or her incapable of safely operating an aircraft, or under the combined influence of intoxicating liquor and any other drug to a degree which renders him or her incapable of safely operating an aircraft.
No person may operate an aircraft in the air or on the ground if the person has a prohibited alcohol concentration.
No person may operate an aircraft in the air or on the ground or water in a careless or reckless manner so as to endanger the life or property of another. In determining whether the operation was careless or reckless the court shall consider the standards for safe operation of aircraft prescribed by federal statutes or regulations governing aeronautics.
The court shall make a written report of all convictions, including bail or appearance money forfeitures, obtained under this section to the department, which shall send the report to the proper federal agency.
Shall forfeit not less than $150 nor more than $300, except as provided in subds. 6.
Except as provided in subd. 6.
, shall be fined not less than $350 nor more than $1,100 and imprisoned for not less than 5 days nor more than 6 months if the number of convictions under ss. 940.09 (1)
in the person's lifetime, plus the total number of suspensions, revocations, and other convictions counted under s. 343.307 (1)
within a 10-year period, equals 2, except that suspensions, revocations, or convictions arising out of the same incident or occurrence shall be counted as one.
Except as provided in subds. 6.
, shall be fined not less than $600 nor more than $2,000 and imprisoned for not less than 30 days nor more than one year in the county jail if the number of convictions under ss. 940.09 (1)
in the person's lifetime, plus the total number of suspensions, revocations, and other convictions counted under s. 343.307 (1)
, equals 3, except that suspensions, revocations, or convictions arising out of the same incident or occurrence shall be counted as one.