345.40 345.40 Pleading. A citation which complies with s. 345.11 or a complaint which complies with the appropriate provisions of ch. 968 may be used as the initial pleading, or the municipal judge, clerk or a deputy of the clerk may enter upon the records of the court a statement of the offense charged, which shall stand as a complaint, unless the court directs that formal complaint be made. Several counts may be joined in one complaint or a separate complaint may be prepared for each separate violation. The defendant's plea shall be guilty, no contest or not guilty and shall be entered as not guilty upon failure to plead. A plea of not guilty shall put all matters in such case at issue.
345.40 History History: 1971 c. 278; 1985 a. 332.
345.41 345.41 Motion to dismiss. Defenses which could be taken by pleas in abatement, in bar, demurrers and motions to quash shall be raised by motion to dismiss, which motion shall be made before any trial on the merits, or be waived.
345.41 History History: 1971 c. 278.
345.42 345.42 Preliminary proceedings.
345.42(1) (1) In civil actions under this chapter, oral argument permitted on motions under s. 345.41 or 345.421 may be heard by telephone under s. 807.13 (1). Any pretrial or scheduling conference may be conducted by telephone under s. 807.13 (3) and any pretrial conference may be conducted on the trial date.
345.42(2) (2) There shall be no preliminary examination.
345.42 History History: 1971 c. 278; Sup. Ct. Order, 141 Wis. 2d xiii (1987).
345.42 Annotation Summary judgment procedure is inconsistent with, and unworkable in, ch. 345 forfeiture proceedings. State v. Schneck, 2002 WI App 239, 257 Wis. 2d 704, 652 N.W.2d 434, 02-0513.
345.421 345.421 Discovery. Neither party is entitled to pretrial discovery except that if the defendant moves within 10 days after the alleged violation and shows cause therefor, the court may order that the defendant be allowed to inspect and test under s. 804.09 and under such conditions as the court prescribes, any devices used by the plaintiff to determine whether a violation has been committed, including without limitation, devices used to determine presence of alcohol in breath or body fluid or to measure speed, and may inspect under s. 804.09 the reports of experts relating to those devices.
345.421 History History: 1971 c. 278; Sup. Ct. Order, 67 Wis. 2d 585, 776 (1975); 1975 c. 218.
345.421 Annotation This section applies to civil as well as criminal traffic charges. City of Lodi v. Hine, 107 Wis. 2d 118, 318 N.W.2d 383 (1982).
345.421 Annotation When blood alcohol content is tested under statutory procedures, the results of the test are mandatorily admissible. The physical sample tested is not evidence intended, required, or even susceptible of being produced by the state under s. 971.23. State v. Ehlen, 119 Wis. 2d 451, 351 N.W.2d 503 (1984).
345.422 345.422 No guardian ad litem. No guardian ad litem need be appointed for any defendant.
345.422 History History: 1971 c. 278.
345.425 345.425 Mode of trial.
345.425(1)(1) The defendant shall be informed of his or her right to a jury trial in circuit court on payment of fees required by s. 345.43 (1).
345.425(2) (2) If both parties, in a court of record, request a trial by the court or if neither demands a trial by jury, the right to a trial by jury is waived.
345.425 History History: 1971 c. 278; 1977 c. 305; 1977 c. 449 s. 497.
345.43 345.43 Jury trial.
345.43(1)(1) If a case has been transferred under s. 800.035 (5) (c), or if in circuit court either party files a written demand for a jury trial within 10 days after the defendant enters a plea of not guilty under s. 345.34 and immediately pays the fee prescribed in s. 814.61 (4), the court shall place the case on the jury calendar of the circuit court. The number of jurors shall be 6. If no party demands a trial by jury, the right to trial by jury is permanently waived.
345.43(3) (3)
345.43(3)(a)(a) In counties having a population of 500,000 or more, the jury shall be selected from the circuit court prospective juror list as set forth under chs. 801 to 847. In all other counties, juries shall be selected as provided in par. (b), except that the clerk shall randomly select the names of sufficient persons qualified to serve as jurors as will provide to each party entitled to peremptory challenges 5 peremptory challenges.
345.43(3)(b) (b) If a timely demand for a jury is made, the judge shall direct the clerk of the court to select at random from the prospective juror list the names of a sufficient number of prospective jurors, from which list either party may strike 5 names. If either party neglects to strike out names, the clerk shall strike out names for the party. The judge shall permit voir dire examinations and challenges for cause. The clerk shall summon a sufficient number of persons whose names are not struck out, to appear at the time and place named in the summons.
345.43(5) (5) In a jury trial of a traffic regulation case, the court is not required to provide the jury with one complete set of written instructions under s. 805.13 (4).
345.43 History History: 1971 c. 278; 1973 c. 218; Sup. Ct. Order, 67 Wis. 2d 585, 773 (1975); 1975 c. 231, 291; 1977 c. 187 s. 135; 1977 c. 305, 318, 447, 449; 1979 c. 32 s. 92 (17); 1979 c. 89, 128; 1981 c. 317; 1985 a. 170; 1987 a. 389; 1991 a. 271, 315; 1995 a. 427; Sup. Ct. Order No. 96-08, 207 Wis. 2d xv (1997); 2009 a. 402.
345.43 Annotation The requirement that the defendant prepay jury fees in civil traffic forfeiture actions is constitutional. State v. Graf, 72 Wis. 2d 179, 240 N.W.2d 387 (1976).
345.43 Annotation The 10-day period for a jury demand did not begin at the initial appearance when the accused requested a continuance rather than entering plea under s. 345.34 (1). City of Madison v. Donohoo, 118 Wis. 2d 646, 348 N.W.2d 170 (1984).
345.43 Annotation The provision under this section for a 6, rather than 12, person jury for a speeding violation does not violate Art. I, s. 5, which provides that the right of trial by jury shall remain inviolate. Dane County v. McGrew, 2005 WI 130, 285 Wis. 2d 519, 699 N.W.2d 890, 03-1794
345.45 345.45 Burden of proof. The standard of proof for conviction of any person charged with violation of any traffic regulation shall be evidence that is clear, satisfactory and convincing.
345.45 History History: 1973 c. 218.
345.46 345.46 Verdict. A verdict is valid if agreed to by five-sixths of the jury. If a verdict relates to more than one count, it shall be valid as to any count if any five-sixths of the jury agree thereto. The form of the verdict shall be guilty or not guilty, except where it is necessary to determine speed. The amount of the forfeiture shall be determined by the court after the court makes its finding.
345.46 History History: 1971 c. 278.
345.47 345.47 Judgment of forfeitures, costs, fees, and surcharges.
345.47(1)(1) If the defendant is found guilty, the court may enter judgment against the defendant for a monetary amount not to exceed the maximum forfeiture provided for the violation, plus costs, fees, and surcharges imposed under ch. 814, and, in addition, may suspend or revoke his or her operating privilege under s. 343.30. Upon entering judgment, the court shall notify the defendant personally, if the defendant is present, and in writing that the defendant should notify the court if he or she is unable to pay the judgment because of poverty, as that term is used in s. 814.29 (1) (d). If the defendant is present and the court, using the criteria in s. 814.29 (1) (d), determines that the defendant is unable to pay the judgment because of poverty, the court shall provide the defendant with an opportunity to pay the judgment in installments, taking into account the defendant's income. If the judgment is not paid or if the defendant fails to make any ordered installment payment, the court shall order:
345.47(1)(a) (a) That, subject to s. 800.095 (1) (b), the defendant be imprisoned for a time specified by the court until the judgment is paid, but not to exceed 90 days; or
345.47(1)(b) (b) In lieu of imprisonment and in addition to any other suspension or revocation, that the defendant's operating privilege be suspended. The operating privilege shall be suspended for 30 days or until the person pays the forfeiture, plus costs, fees, and surcharges imposed under ch. 814, but not to exceed 2 years. If the defendant has notified the court that he or she is unable to pay the judgment because of poverty, and if the court, using the criteria in s. 814.29 (1) (d), determines that the defendant is unable to pay the judgment because of poverty, the court may not suspend the defendant's operating privilege without first providing the defendant with an opportunity to pay the judgment in installments, taking into account the defendant's income. Suspension under this paragraph shall not affect the power of the court to suspend or revoke under s. 343.30 or the power of the secretary to suspend or revoke the operating privilege. This paragraph does not apply if the judgment was entered solely for violation of an ordinance unrelated to the violator's operation of a motor vehicle.
345.47(1)(c) (c) If a court suspends an operating privilege under this section, the court may take possession of the suspended license. If the court takes possession of a license, it shall destroy the license. The court shall forward to the department the notice of suspension, which shall clearly state that the suspension was for failure to pay a forfeiture, plus costs, fees, and surcharges imposed under ch. 814 or for failure to comply with an installment payment plan ordered by the court. The notice of suspension shall be forwarded to the department within 48 hours after the order of suspension. If the forfeiture, plus costs, fees, and surcharges imposed under ch. 814, are paid during a period of suspension, or if the court orders an installment payment plan under sub. (4), the court shall immediately notify the department.
345.47(1)(d) (d) In addition to or in lieu of imprisonment or suspension under par. (a) or (b), the court may notify the department, in the form and manner prescribed by the department, that a judgment has been entered against the defendant and remains unpaid, or that the defendant has failed to comply with an installment payment plan ordered under this section. The notice shall include the name and last-known address of the person against whom the judgment was entered, the date judgment was entered, the amount of the judgment, the license number of the vehicle involved, certification by the court that a warrant has been served on the person against whom the judgment was entered or, in the case of a judgment entered under s. 345.28, that the person has been notified of the entry of judgment and the judgment or installments remain unpaid and the place where the judgment or installments may be paid. If the person subsequently pays the judgment or complies with the installment payment plan the court shall immediately notify the department of the payment in the form and manner prescribed by the department.
345.47(1m) (1m) If the action is in municipal court, the court shall determine, at the time of entering judgment under sub. (1), whether incarceration may be ordered for noncompliance with a judgment or order under this section. If incarceration may be ordered because of the defendant's subsequent noncompliance with the judgment, the provisions of s. 800.095 (1) (b) apply.
345.47(2) (2) Except in those cases in which the court orders payment by installments, the payment of any judgment may be suspended or deferred for not more than 60 days in the discretion of the court. In cases where a deposit has been made, any forfeitures, plus costs, fees, and surcharges imposed under ch. 814, shall be taken out of the deposit and the balance, if any, returned to the defendant.
345.47(3) (3) When a defendant is imprisoned for nonpayment of a forfeiture, plus costs, fees, and surcharges imposed under ch. 814, for an action brought by a municipality located in more than one county, any commitment to a county institution shall be to the county in which the action was tried.
345.47(4) (4)
345.47(4)(a)(a) If the operating privilege of a defendant is suspended under this section, the court may terminate that suspension and substitute an installment payment plan for paying the amount of the judgment that takes into account the defendant's income.
345.47(4)(b) (b) If the operating privilege of a defendant is suspended under this section, the court shall terminate that suspension and substitute an installment payment plan for the payment of the amount of the judgment that takes into account the defendant's income if all of the following conditions apply:
345.47(4)(b)1. 1. The defendant is unable to pay the judgment in full because of poverty, as that term is used in s. 814.29 (1) (d).
345.47(4)(b)2. 2. The defendant has not previously failed to comply with an installment payment plan ordered under this section that takes into account the defendant's income.
345.47(4)(c) (c) If the defendant fails to comply with an installment payment plan ordered under this subsection, the court shall reinstate the suspension of the defendant's operating privilege.
345.47 Annotation Imprisonment or suspension of a license under sub. (1) (a) and (b) does not eliminate the liability of defendant for payment of the surcharge under s. 346.655. 73 Atty. Gen. 24.
345.48 345.48 Reporting pending appeal.
345.48(1) (1) In this section, "working days" means all days except Saturdays, Sundays, and legal holidays under s. 995.20.
345.48(1m) (1m) If the defendant is found guilty the court shall, within 5 working days, forward to the department the record of such conviction.
345.48(2) (2) If the defendant is found guilty of a traffic violation for which revocation of his or her operating privilege is mandatory under s. 343.31, or for which the court revokes or suspends his or her operating privilege under s. 343.30, the court may take possession of the suspended or revoked license. If the court takes possession of a license, it shall destroy the license. The revocation or suspension is effective immediately. The court ordered suspension or revocation shall be included as part of the report of conviction under sub. (1m).
345.48(4) (4) If notice of appeal is filed the court shall, within 5 working days after it is filed, forward to the department a certificate stating that a notice of appeal has been filed. Thereafter, the court shall notify the department as required under s. 343.325 (1) (b) and (c).
345.48 History History: 1971 c. 278; 1977 c. 29 s. 1654 (7) (a); 1983 a. 304; 1985 a. 135 s. 85; Sup. Ct. Order, 146 Wis. 2d xiii (1975); 1991 a. 39; 1993 a. 16; 2005 a. 155; 2009 a. 103.
345.49 345.49 Procedure on imprisonment; nonpayment of forfeiture, costs, fees, or surcharges.
345.49(1) (1) Any person imprisoned under s. 345.47 for nonpayment of a forfeiture, plus costs, fees, and surcharges imposed under ch. 814, may, on request, be allowed to work under s. 303.08. If the person does work, earnings shall be applied on the unpaid forfeiture, and costs, fees, and surcharges imposed under ch. 814, after payment of personal board and expenses and support of personal dependents to the extent directed by the court.
345.49(2) (2) Any person who is subject to imprisonment under s. 345.47 for nonpayment of a forfeiture, plus costs, fees, and surcharges imposed under ch. 814, may be placed on probation to some person satisfactory to the court for not more than 90 days or until the forfeiture, and costs, fees, and surcharges imposed under ch. 814, are paid if that is done before expiration of the 90-day period. The payment of the forfeiture, and costs, fees, and surcharges imposed under ch. 814, during that period shall be a condition of the probation. If the forfeiture, and costs, fees, and surcharges imposed under ch. 814, are not paid or the court deems that the interests of justice require, probation may be terminated and the defendant imprisoned as provided in sub. (1) or s. 345.47.
345.50 345.50 Appeal.
345.50(1)(1) Jurisdiction on appeal. An appeal from circuit court shall be to the court of appeals.
345.50(2) (2)Stay of execution. The amount of undertaking required to stay execution on appeal shall not exceed the amount of the maximum forfeiture plus court costs.
345.50 History History: 1971 c. 278; Sup. Ct. Order, 67 Wis. 2d 585, 776 (1975); 1977 c. 187, 305; 1977 c. 449 s. 497.
345.51 345.51 Reopening of default judgment. Except as provided in ss. 345.36 and 345.37, there shall be no reopening of default judgments unless allowed by order of the trial court after notice and motion duly made and upon good cause shown. The notice of motion shall be filed within 6 months after the judgment is entered in the court record. Default judgments for purposes of this section include pleas of guilty, no contest and forfeitures of deposit.
345.51 History History: 1971 c. 278; 1973 c. 218; 1983 a. 231; 1995 a. 224.
345.52 345.52 No double prosecution.
345.52(1) (1) A judgment on the merits in a traffic ordinance action bars any proceeding under a state statute for the same violation. A judgment on the merits in an action under a state statute bars any proceeding under a traffic ordinance enacted in conformity with the state statute for the same violation.
345.52(2) (2) The pendency of an action under a traffic ordinance is grounds for staying an action under a state statute for the same violation. The pendency of an action under a state statute is grounds for staying an action under a traffic ordinance enacted in conformity with the state statute for the same violation.
345.52 History History: 1971 c. 278.
345.53 345.53 Costs not taxed against plaintiff. In traffic regulation actions in all courts, costs may not be taxed against the plaintiff.
345.53 History History: 1971 c. 278.
345.55 345.55 Traffic officers not to profit from arrests.
345.55(1) (1) No traffic officer shall demand, solicit, receive or be paid any remuneration upon the basis of number of arrests made, convictions obtained or amount of fines collected.
345.55(2) (2) Any person violating this section may be required to forfeit not less than $25 nor more than $200 for the first offense and, for the second and each subsequent conviction within one year thereafter, may be required to forfeit not less than $50 nor more than $500.
345.55 History History: 1971 c. 278 s. 42; Stats. 1971 s. 345.55.
345.55 Annotation Violation of this section does not invalidate otherwise valid citation. State v. Brown, 107 Wis. 2d 44, 318 N.W.2d 370 (1982).
345.60 345.60 Penalty of compulsory safety school attendance.
345.60(1)(1) Except as provided in sub. (3) and s. 343.31 (2t) (b), in addition to or in lieu of other penalties provided by law for violation of chs. 346 to 348, the trial court may in its judgment of conviction order the convicted person to attend, for a certain number of school days, a traffic safety school whose course and mode of instruction is approved by the secretary and which is conducted by the police department of the municipality, by the sheriff's office of the county, by an accredited institution of higher education operated by a federally recognized American Indian tribe or band in this state, or by any regularly established safety organization. The trial court may not order a person to attend a traffic safety school under this subsection if the department is required to order that the person attend a vehicle right-of-way course under s. 343.31 (2t) (b).
345.60(2) (2) This section also applies in the case of an adjudication of violation of a local traffic regulation which is in conformity with chs. 346 to 348.
345.60(3) (3) In addition to other penalties provided by law for violation of s. 346.63 (1) or a local ordinance in conformity therewith, or s. 346.63 (2) or 940.25, or s. 940.09 where the offense involved the use of a vehicle, the convicted person may be required under s. 343.30 (1q) to attend, for a certain number of school days, a school under sub. (1).
345.61 345.61 Guaranteed traffic arrest bonds.
345.61(1) (1) Surety companies authorized to guarantee.
345.61(1)(a)(a) Any domestic or foreign surety company which has qualified to transact surety business in this state may, in any year, become surety in an amount not to exceed $200 with respect to any guaranteed arrest bond certificates issued in such year by an automobile club, association or by an insurance company authorized to write automobile liability insurance within this state, by filing with the commissioner of insurance an undertaking thus to become surety.
345.61(1)(b) (b) An association providing a guaranteed arrest bond certificate may obligate itself in an amount not to exceed $1,000 for violations of ch. 348. All courts in this state must accept such guaranteed arrest bond certificate. When a state traffic patrol officer or state inspector or any local law enforcement officer stops an operator of a vehicle having possession of a valid guaranteed arrest bond certificate, the officer or inspector shall obtain the necessary information for a citation and if such guaranteed arrest bond covers the fine for the violation such officer shall release such vehicle and operator.
345.61(2) (2)Form of bond. Such undertaking shall be in the form prescribed by the commissioner of insurance and shall state the following:
345.61(2)(a) (a) The name and address of the automobile clubs, association or companies with respect to the guaranteed arrest bond certificates of which the surety company undertakes to be surety.
345.61(2)(b) (b) The unqualified obligation of the surety company to pay the fine or forfeiture in an amount not to exceed $200, or $1,000 as provided in sub. (1) (b), of any person who, after posting a guaranteed arrest bond certificate with respect to which the surety company has undertaken to be surety, fails to make the appearance to guarantee which, the guaranteed arrest bond certificate was posted.
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2011-12 Wisconsin Statutes updated through 2013 Wis. Act 380 and all Supreme Court Orders entered before Sept. 3, 2014. Published and certified under s. 35.18. Changes effective after Sept. 3, 2014 are designated by NOTES. (Published 9-3-14)