NR 811.12(1)(g)2. 2. Test wells to be converted to permanent wells or test wells to be pumped at a rate of 70 gallons per minute or more for a period of more than 72 hours shall be approved by the department prior to their construction.
NR 811.12(1)(g)3. 3. The department may not require test wells for replacement or additional wells drilled on the same well site unless the geology is highly variable or in locations where the formation yield, cone of depression, and water quality are not known to a high degree of certainty.
NR 811.12(1)(g)4. 4. The department may require a test well where water quality data or geologic data for consolidated formations is not available.
NR 811.12(1)(h) (h) Flowing wells.
NR 811.12(1)(h)1.1. Flowing wells shall be provided with a valve to control the flow. The valve shall be throttled as much as practicable to prevent the erosion of the confining bed and to prevent waste of water. The control valve shall be closed if the flow ceases.
NR 811.12(1)(h)2. 2. Flow to waste piping shall be metal pipe welded to the protective well casing or pitless unit a minimum of 6 inches above the pumphouse floor. The piping shall extend horizontally through the concrete pump base and include a check valve and a shut-off valve on the portion of the piping located inside the building. The piping shall terminate outside the pumphouse with a screened downturned pipe elbow and a minimum 2 pipe diameter free air break over the top of a storm sewer inlet structure or other department approved location.
NR 811.12(1)(h)3. 3. Every practicable effort shall be made to install the grouted casing below the confining bed.
NR 811.12(1)(i) (i) Materials used as drilling aids, such as drilling muds and foam or other aids shall be compounds approved by the department. Such materials shall be NSF/ANSI Standard 61 approved as required in s. NR 810.09 (5).
NR 811.12(1)(j) (j) The department may require additional or more stringent well construction requirements on a case by case basis when necessary to minimize the entrance of naturally occurring or synthetic contaminants into the well.
NR 811.12(2) (2)Well driller requirements. All wells constructed or reconstructed after December 1, 2010, shall be constructed or reconstructed by a well driller licensed or registered by the state of Wisconsin under ch. 280, Stats., and ch. NR 146. A licensed well driller or a registered drilling rig operator shall be on-site during all well drilling, as defined in s. NR 811.02 (77).
NR 811.12 Note Note: Chapter NR 146 contains the registration requirements for well drillers.
NR 811.12(3) (3)Well construction reports. The well driller shall forward to the department, and send a copy to the owner, of a completed Wisconsin Well Construction Report within 30 days of the date of completion of a new well. The well driller shall forward to the department, and send a copy to the owner, of a revised Wisconsin Well Construction Report within 30 days of the date of completion of a reconstructed well. A well reconstruction report is required when a well is deepened, partially backfilled or when installing or removing well casings or screens.
NR 811.12(4) (4)Interference between community water system wells. When the department determines that a proposed community water system well may have a substantial effect on the water levels in one or more wells owned by a neighboring water utility, the following procedure shall be followed:
NR 811.12(4)(a) (a) The department shall provide the owner of a utility well which may be affected by the proposed well with information on its location, proposed constructional features, proposed pumping rate and the anticipated volume of water to be withdrawn.
NR 811.12(4)(b) (b) If the potentially affected utility well owner wishes to object to the proposed community water system well, the owner shall inform the department in writing of the reasons for objection within 30 days of receipt of the information in par. (a).
NR 811.12(4)(c) (c) If notice of objection is filed and good cause is shown, the department may hold a public hearing at which all interested parties may present testimony to be used by the department in determining if a restriction shall be placed on the volume of water withdrawn from the proposed well or existing wells.
NR 811.12(5) (5)Well sites. The suitability of a site for a well is dependent on geologic, hydrogeologic, and topographic conditions and possible sources of contamination. However, the following general requirements shall be met:
NR 811.12(5)(a) (a) Well site dimensions. For wells to serve municipal and subdivision other-than-municipal water systems, a lot or parcel of land shall be reserved for the construction of the well which has minimum dimensions of 100 feet by 100 feet. The well shall be located near the center of the lot or parcel. For non-subdivision other-than-municipal water system wells, the well shall be located a minimum of 50 feet from any property boundary. These dimensions may be modified by the department on a case-by-case basis where they are unnecessary or inadequate to protect water quality. Larger well sites should be considered where necessary to provide adequate wellhead protection. A deeper depth of grouted protective well casing may be required by the department when necessary to compensate for a smaller well site parcel or as a condition of approving a variance to a separation distance to a potential contamination source listed in par. (d).
NR 811.12(5)(b) (b) Flood protection. Wells may be constructed or replaced on sites in the floodplain, as defined in s. NR 116.03 (16), outside of the floodway, as defined in s. NR 116.03 (22), provided that the pumphouse floor is 2 feet or more above the regional flood elevation as determined in s. NR 116.07 (4) and there is year round dry land access to the pumphouse. No new well may be constructed and no existing well may be reconstructed on a site in a floodway. Wells shall be located in an area accessible during the entire year. Where necessary, road improvements shall be installed to provide year round access. Wells shall be located on property owned by the water system owner or for which a long term easement or lease has been obtained. Access roads shall be on property owned by the water system owner or for which a long term easement or lease has been obtained.
NR 811.12 Note Note: Refer to ch. NR 116 for floodplain and floodway requirements.
NR 811.12(5)(c) (c) Well site investigation report submittal. The owner or the owner's representative shall prepare a well site investigation report, as required by s. NR 811.09 (4) (j) 1., for each well site and submit the report to the department prior to or concurrent with the request for approval of a test well or a permanent well. The report shall be submitted on forms or in a format provided by the department and shall contain sufficient information to evaluate compliance with the requirements of this chapter.
NR 811.12(5)(d) (d) Minimum separation from contamination sources. The well shall be adequately separated from potential sources of contamination. Unless a hydrogeologic investigation indicates lesser separation distances would provide adequate protection of a well from contamination or department approved treatment is installed to address the potential contamination concerns, the minimum separation distances shall be:
NR 811.12(5)(d)1. 1. Ten feet between a well and an emergency or standby power system that is operated by the same facility which operates the well and that has a double wall above ground storage tank with continuous electronic interstitial leakage monitoring. These facilities shall meet the installation requirements of s. ATCP 93.260 and receive written approval from the department of safety and professional services or its designated Local Program Operator under s. ATCP 93.110.
NR 811.12(5)(d)2. 2. Fifty feet between a well and a storm sewer main or a sanitary sewer main where the sanitary sewer main is constructed of water main class materials and joints. Gravity sanitary sewers shall be successfully air pressure tested in place. The air pressure test shall meet or exceed the requirements of the 4 psi low pressure air test for plastic gravity sewer lines found in the latest edition of Standard Specifications for Sewer & Water Construction in Wisconsin. Force mains shall be successfully pressure tested with water to meet the AWWA C600 pressure and leakage testing requirements for one hour at 125% of the pump shut-off head.
NR 811.12(5)(d)3. 3. Two hundred feet between a well and any sanitary sewer main not constructed of water main class materials, sanitary sewer manhole, lift station, one or 2 family residential heating fuel oil underground storage tank or above ground storage tank or POWTS treatment tank or holding tank component and associated piping.
NR 811.12(5)(d)4. 4. Three hundred feet between a well and any farm underground storage tank system or other underground storage tank system with double wall and with electronic interstitial monitoring for the system, which means the tank and any piping connected to it. These installations shall meet the most restrictive installation requirements of s. ATCP 93.260 and receive written approval from the department of safety and professional services or its designated Local Program Operator under s. ATCP 93.110. These requirements apply to tanks containing gasoline, diesel, bio-diesel, ethanol, other alternative fuel, fuel oil, petroleum product, motor fuel, burner fuel, lubricant, waste oil, or hazardous substances.
NR 811.12(5)(d)5. 5. Three hundred feet between a well and any farm above ground storage tank with double wall, or single wall tank with other secondary containment and under a canopy; other above ground storage tank system with double wall, or single wall tank with secondary containment and under a canopy and with electronic interstitial monitoring for a double wall tank or electronic leakage monitoring for a single wall tank secondary containment structure. These installations shall meet the most restrictive installation requirements of s. ATCP 93.260 and receive written approval from the department of safety and professional services or its designated Local Program Operator under s. ATCP 93.110. These requirements apply to tanks containing gasoline, diesel, bio-diesel, ethanol, other alternative fuel, fuel oil, petroleum product, motor fuel, burner fuel, lubricant, waste oil, or hazardous substances.
NR 811.12(5)(d)6. 6. Four hundred feet between a well and a POWTS dispersal component with a design capacity of less than 12,000 gallons per day, a cemetery or a storm water retention or detention pond.
NR 811.12(5)(d)7. 7. Six hundred feet between a well and any farm underground storage tank system or other underground storage tank system with double wall and with electronic interstitial monitoring for the system, which means the tank and any piping connected to it; any farm above ground storage tank with double wall, or single wall tank with other secondary containment and under a canopy or other above ground storage tank system with double wall, or single wall tank with secondary containment and under a canopy; and with electronic interstitial monitoring for a double wall tank or electronic leakage monitoring for a single wall tank secondary containment structure. These installations shall meet the standard double wall tank or single wall tank secondary containment installation requirements of s. ATCP 93.260 and receive written approval from the department of safety and professional services or its designated Local Program Operator under s. ATCP 93.110. These requirements apply to tanks containing gasoline, diesel, bio-diesel, ethanol, other alternative fuel, fuel oil, petroleum product, motor fuel, burner fuel, lubricant, waste oil, or hazardous substances.
NR 811.12(5)(d)8. 8. One thousand feet between a well and land application of municipal, commercial, or industrial waste; the boundaries of a landspreading facility for spreading of petroleum-contaminated soil regulated under ch. NR 718 while that facility is in operation; agricultural, industrial, commercial or municipal waste water treatment plant treatment units, lagoons, or storage structures; manure stacks or storage structures; or POWTS dispersal component with a design capacity of 12,000 gallons per day or more.
NR 811.12(5)(d)9. 9. Twelve hundred feet between a well and any solid waste storage, transportation, transfer, incineration, air curtain destructor, processing, wood burning, one time disposal or small demolition facility; sanitary landfill; any property with residual groundwater contamination that exceeds ch. NR 140 enforcement standards; coal storage area; salt or deicing material storage area; any single wall farm underground storage tank or single wall farm above ground storage tank or other single wall underground storage tank or above ground storage tank that has or has not received written approval from the department of safety and professional services or its designated Local Program Operator under s. ATCP 93.110 for a single wall tank installation. These requirements apply to tanks containing gasoline, diesel, bio-diesel, ethanol, other alternative fuel, fuel oil, petroleum product, motor fuel, burner fuel, lubricant, waste oil, or hazardous substances; and bulk pesticide or fertilizer handling or storage facilities.
NR 811.12 Note Note: The department's database of contaminated properties, established in accordance with ss. 292.12 (3), 292.31 (1), and 292.57, Stats., can be found on the department's Bureau for Remediation and Redevelopment internet web site. The Bureau for Remediation and Redevelopment Tracking System (BRRTS) is an on-line database that provides information on known contaminated soil or groundwater and tracks the status of the cleanup actions. RR Sites Map is the program's geographic information system that provides a map-based system of contaminated properties in Wisconsin. The department of safety and professional services Storage Tank Database Information can be found at the department of safety and professional services web site.
NR 811.12(5)(e) (e) Well site inspection. Well sites may be inspected by a representative of the department prior to approval of plans.
NR 811.12(5)(f) (f) Ch. NR 820 compliance. For wells with a pumping capacity of 70 gallons per minute or greater, the well location shall meet the applicable requirements of ch. NR 820.
NR 811.12(6) (6)Well head protection plan. A well head protection plan shall be provided for all new wells for municipal water systems. The owner of the municipal water system or its agent shall develop the plan. No new municipal well may be placed into service until the department has approved the well head protection plan. The plan shall include all of the following:
NR 811.12(6)(a) (a) Identification of the groundwater flow direction.
NR 811.12(6)(b) (b) Identification of the zone of influence for the well consisting of the distance to one foot of aquifer drawdown at the anticipated final pumping rate when pumpage of the well is assumed to be continuous without recharge for 30 days. The zone of influence shall be calculated using the Theis Method with or without groundwater modeling unless another method is approved by the department.
NR 811.12(6)(c) (c) Identification of the recharge area for the well. The recharge area shall be calculated using the Uniform Flow Equation or be computer modeled unless another method is approved by the department.
NR 811.12 Note Note: A copy of A Template For Preparing Well Head Protection Plans For Municipal Wells, in which use of the Uniform Flow Equation is discussed, may be obtained from the department.
NR 811.12(6)(d) (d) Identification of the potential contamination sources within 0.5 mile of the well location and an assessment of the potential for the existing contamination sources within the recharge area of the well to negatively impact the well water quality. The potential contamination sources shall be summarized in a table or list including distance and direction from the well site and shall also be shown on a map surrounding the well site. The table or list shall include information obtained by checking the department's database of contaminated properties, established in accordance with ss. 292.12 (3), 292.31 (1), and 292.57, Stats.
NR 811.12 Note Note: The department's database of contaminated properties, established in accordance with ss. 292.12 (3), 292.31 (1), and 292.57, Stats., can be found on the department's Bureau for Remediation and Redevelopment internet web site. The Bureau for Remediation and Redevelopment Tracking System (BRRTS) is an on-line database that provides information on areas of known contaminated soil or groundwater and tracks the status of the cleanup actions. RR Sites Map is the program's geographic information system that provides a map-based system of contaminated properties in Wisconsin. Information that appears on the RR program's database and GIS applications can also be obtained by contacting the regional drinking water staff person responsible for the water system. A copy of A Guide For Conducting Potential Contaminant Source Inventories For Wellhead Protection may be obtained from the department.
NR 811.12(6)(e) (e) Establishment of a well head protection area for the proposed well. The well head protection area shall encompass, at a minimum, that portion of the recharge area equivalent to a 5 year time of travel to the well. The well head protection area may be determined by a hydrogeologic investigation.
NR 811.12(6)(f) (f) A public education program for well head protection.
NR 811.12(6)(g) (g) A water conservation program.
NR 811.12(6)(h) (h) A contingency plan for providing safe water and protecting the well from contamination based on the inventory and assessment of potential contamination sources.
NR 811.12(6)(i) (i) A management plan, which assesses alternatives for addressing potential contamination sources, describes the local ordinances, zoning requirements, monitoring program, and other local initiatives proposed within the well head protection area established in par. (e), and addresses maintaining the minimum contamination source separation distances established by well siting in sub. (5) (d).
NR 811.12 Note Note: A copy of Example Wellhead Protection Ordinances may be obtained from the department's Bureau of Drinking Water and Groundwater located in Madison.
NR 811.12(6)(j) (j) The well head protection plan shall be labeled with the name and signature of the person who prepared the plan, the date that the plan was signed, and the name of the company or water system which the person represents. An owner approval letter shall be submitted when required in accordance with s. NR 811.10.
NR 811.12(7) (7)Casing and liner pipe for drilled wells.
NR 811.12(7)(a)(a) The protective casing shall be new prime steel pipe produced to and meeting ASTM, A 53 Grades A or B, ASTM A 106; ASTM A 589 Type I, Grade A or B, Type II, Grade A or B; or API 5L specifications. Previously used or reclaimed pipe may not be used.
NR 811.12(7)(b) (b) Each length of casing shall be legibly marked in accordance with the ASTM or API marking specification and with s. NR 812.17 (2) (d). The protective casing shall have the minimum weights and thicknesses given in Table 1.
NR 811.12(7)(c) (c) Liner pipe installed to seal off a caving zone shall be new, unused, and non-reclaimed steel pipe and shall have the minimum weights and thicknesses given in Table No. 1.
NR 811.12(7)(d) (d) Outer casings can be unmarked, used, or reclaimed pipe but shall have the minimum weights and thicknesses given in Table No. 1.
NR 811.12(7)(e) (e) All casings and liner pipe shall have additional thickness and weight if the Table No. 1 standard thickness is insufficient to assure reasonable life expectancy or to withstand the forces to which they may be subjected.
NR 811.12(7)(f) (f) Casing and liner pipe shall be equipped with a drive shoe when driven and centering guides when set. The locations of all centering guides to be installed shall be shown on the plans or noted in the specifications, or both.
NR 811.12(7)(g) (g) Casing and liner pipe shall be assembled watertight by means of joints welded in accordance with the standard welding procedure specifications of s. NR 812.18 or by threaded couplings meeting or equivalent to the specifications listed in par. (a).
NR 811.12(7)(h) (h) For wells in which the protective casing or liner pipe to be grouted is suspended, the upper terminus of the protective casing or liner pipe shall be securely attached by welding steel bands to the outer casing or by other approved methods, and the grout shall be supported on a steel ring welded to the bottom of the protective casing or liner pipe or on an approved packer attached to the bottom of the protective casing or liner pipe. The bottom of the protective casing or liner pipe may be flared out to meet this requirement.
NR 811.12 Note Note: Copies of the forgoing specifications and standards are available for inspection at the central office of the department of natural resources and may be obtained for personal use from the American Society for Testing and Material (ASTM), 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania 19148-2959, and the American Petroleum Institute (API), 1220 L Street NW, Washington, DC 20005-4070. - See PDF for table PDF
NR 811.12(8) (8)Concrete wall casing. Concrete wall casing shall meet all of the following requirements:
NR 811.12(8)(a) (a) Be used only in dug wells and collectors.
NR 811.12(8)(b) (b) Be reinforced and at least 6 inches thick.
NR 811.12(8)(c) (c) Be poured in one operation, if possible.
NR 811.12(8)(d) (d) Not have a construction joint within 10 feet of the original ground surface.
NR 811.12(9) (9)Packers. Packers shall be of a material that will not impart taste, odors, toxic substances or bacterial contamination to the water in the well. Lead packers may not be used.
NR 811.12(10) (10)Screens. Screens shall meet all of the following requirements:
NR 811.12(10)(a) (a) Be constructed of stainless steel which will not be damaged by chemical action of groundwater, disinfection chemicals, or future cleaning operations.
NR 811.12(10)(b) (b) Have size of openings based on sieve analysis of the aquifer and gravel pack materials.
NR 811.12(10)(c) (c) Be designed to have an entrance velocity that does not exceed 0.1 feet per second under normal operating conditions.
NR 811.12(10)(d) (d) Be installed and have pumping equipment designed so that exposure of the screen above the pumping level will not occur during normal operation.
NR 811.12(10)(e) (e) Be provided with a bottom plate of the same material as the screen.
NR 811.12(11) (11)Blasting. Approval shall be obtained from the department prior to blasting within a well. Information regarding the procedure, number, size and location of charges shall be submitted to the department in writing.
NR 811.12(11)(a) (a) Blasting shall be conducted under the supervision of a licensed well driller and a blaster licensed by the department of safety and professional services under s. SPS 305.20.
NR 811.12(11)(b) (b) No blasting may occur within 100 feet of the grouted protective casing unless specific information is submitted for department approval that justifies the use of low strength prima-cord or charges between 50 and 100 feet of the grouted protective casing if necessary to maintain the production capacity or water quality of a well with a limited length of open drillhole.
NR 811.12(11)(c) (c) All material dislodged during the blasting shall be removed from the well.
NR 811.12(11)(d) (d) Proper safety measures shall be employed to protect the workers and surrounding structures.
NR 811.12(11)(e) (e) The department's regional drinking water staff person shall be given at least 48 hours notice prior to the date and time of the proposed blasting work.
NR 811.12(11)(f) (f) Following the completion of the blasting procedure, the well shall be thoroughly disinfected and pumped to waste, and safe bacteriological water samples shall be collected according to the requirements of s. NR 810.09 (4).
NR 811.12(11)(g) (g) The owner or an authorized representative shall submit a written report to the department within 30 days of the date of completion of the blasting and subsequent pumping of the well that includes the static and pumping water levels, gallon per minute pumping rate and specific capacity of the well both before and after the blasting, and the results of any testing for chemical or physical properties for which the well may have been blasted, if applicable.
NR 811.12(12) (12)Chemical conditioning. Approval shall be obtained from the department prior to chemical conditioning of a well. Information regarding the method proposed, equipment, chemicals, testing for residual chemicals, disposal of waste and inhibitors to be used shall be submitted to the department in writing.
NR 811.12(12)(a) (a) The department's regional drinking water staff person shall be given at least 48 hours prior notice prior to the date and time of the proposed chemical conditioning work.
NR 811.12(12)(b) (b) Chemical conditioning, with the exception of batch chlorination, shall be performed by or under the supervision of a licensed well driller.
NR 811.12(12)(c) (c) All chemicals used in conditioning shall be NSF/ANSI Standard 60 approved for use in potable water as required per s. NR 810.09 (1) (c) unless an alternative chemical is approved by the department.
NR 811.12(12)(d) (d) Acid treatment shall include pH monitoring of nearby private or public wells, use of an inhibitor to protect the metal portions of the well and pump, complete removal of the acid from the well, neutralization of the spent acid, and proper disposal of the spent acid.
NR 811.12(12)(e) (e) The resident project representative shall closely supervise the discharge of chlorinated water. In no case may water with a measurable total chlorine residual content be discharged to a surface water. Suitable barriers, aeration or chemical dechlorination shall be provided when discharging chlorinated water to a surface water or a storm sewer connected to a surface water to ensure the water discharged does not contain a measurable chlorine residual.
NR 811.12(12)(f) (f) Following the completion of the chemical conditioning procedure, the well shall be thoroughly disinfected, pumped to waste and safe bacteriological water samples shall be collected according to the requirements of s. NR 810.09 (4).
NR 811.12(12)(g) (g) The owner or an authorized representative shall submit a written report to the department within 30 days of the date of completion of the chemical conditioning and subsequent pumping of the well that includes the static and pumping water levels, gallon per minute pumping rate and specific capacity of the well both before and after chemical conditioning, and the results of any testing for chemical or physical properties for which the well may have been chemically conditioned, if applicable.
NR 811.12(13) (13)Other methods of well reconditioning. Approval shall be obtained from the department prior to performing any other type of reconditioning procedure, including hydrofracturing and impulse generation techniques. The requester shall submit written information regarding the procedure, the equipment, materials, chemicals and pressures to be used, and the disposal of waste to the department for approval.
NR 811.12(13)(a) (a) Hydrofracturing. Hydrofracturing procedures shall meet the following requirements:
NR 811.12(13)(a)1. 1. The department's regional drinking water staff person shall be given at least 48 hours notice prior to the date and time of the proposed hydrofracturing work.
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Published under s. 35.93, Stats. Updated on the first day of each month. Entire code is always current. The Register date on each page is the date the chapter was last published.