(d) Necessary for the administration and enforcement of this chapter and ch. 961.
(e) Establishing minimum standards for the practice of pharmacy.
[ss. 450.02 (3) (a) to (e), Stats.]
The pharmacy examining board may promulgate rules relating to the manufacture, distribution and dispensing of controlled substances within this state. [s. 961.31, Stats.]
Related statute or rule: Phar 6 and 8
Plain language analysis:
This rule repeals and recreates the chapter delineating the practice of pharmacy.
A prescription is required to have the date of issue, name and address of the prescriber (and if delegated that person’s name), directions for use, the drug’s name, strength, and quantity, whether there are any refills authorized, name and address of the patient (unless omission is required by statute) and the prescriber’s signature. A standing order is required to have all the same elements as a prescription with the exception of prescriber’s signature and indicate that it is pursuant to a standing order. A pharmacist may dispense pursuant to an electronic prescription, if the prescription is sent to the patient’s choice of pharmacy, contains the elements of a prescription and may be signed with the prescriber’s electronic signature. Verbal prescriptions may be received and reduced to writing on paper or in a computer system. Any alterations to a prescription which changes the prescriber’s original intent must be documented including the pharmacist who made the alteration and the prescriber who authorized the change.
A drug utilization review must be completed prior to dispensing a prescription drug. It includes checking the prescription for the following: known allergies, rational therapy, contraindications, reasonable dose, duration of use and route of administration, reasonable directions for use, potential or actual adverse drug reactions, drug interactions with food, beverages, other drugs or medical conditions, therapeutic duplication, reasonable utilization and optimum therapeutic outcomes and potential abuse or misuse. If there is a concern with any of these items, the pharmacist will take steps to mitigate or resolve the matter.
A prescription can be transferred either orally between two pharmacists or between two pharmacies by fax machine or electronically. New or refill prescriptions for non-controlled substances can be transferred by indicating the prescription is void at the original pharmacy and indicating the prescription is a transfer at the receiving pharmacy. Unless a real time shared computer is used between the pharmacies, for non-controlled substances the receiving pharmacy will record the name and address of the patient, name and address of the prescribing practitioner, name, strength, form and quantity of the drug product or device, date of issue of the original prescription, the original prescription order number, original number of refills authorized, dates of last fills, number of valid refills or quantity remaining, original pharmacy name and address and the names of the transferring and receiving pharmacists. Refill prescriptions for controlled substances can be transferred by communication directly between 2 licensed pharmacists utilizing the same procedures as a non-controlled with the addition of recording the drug enforcement administration (DEA) registration numbers of the originating pharmacy and prescriber, and dates and locations of previous fills..
All prescription drugs and devices shall have a label. The label will identify the patient, symptom or purpose (if indicated on prescription), name and strength of drug, date the drug should not be used after, the name, address and telephone number of the pharmacy, prescriber name, date prescription filled, prescription number, quantity, and number of refills or quantity remaining, and directions for use. A label may include the symptom or purpose if requested by the patient, both generic and brand names unless the prescriber requests the brand name be omitted, written or graphic product descriptions and any other cautions or provisions. A label is not required on complimentary drug or device samples dispensed in original packaging by a prescriber.
A pharmacist can repackage non-sterile drugs into different containers for stocking purposes. When repackaging drugs into other containers, the pharmacist must ensure the process is done under conditions which will not compromise the integrity of the drug, select containers which mitigate adulteration from light, temperature or humidity, and label the new container(s) with drug name, strength and form, beyond use date and a set of identifiers (pharmacy control or national drug code (NDC) and manufacturer lot number, or manufacturer or distributor name, and manufacturer lot number. Records must include the drug name, strength and form, the quantity in each container and number of containers the drug was repackaged into, the NDC number (or if not available manufacturer or distributor), manufacturer lot number, the original container’s expiration date and the beyond use date for the new containers, the name of the pharmacist or delegate that repackaged the drug, the name of the pharmacist that verified the accuracy of the repackaging and the date the repackaging was done.
All prescription drugs and devices must have a final check prior to dispensing. A final check includes checking that label requirements are met, it is the correct drug product or device, and a drug utilization review was completed. The check can be done by one or multiple pharmacists, with the prescription record reflecting which pharmacist was responsible for each part of the final check. If the label and product verification was done by automated technology or delegate check delegate, the prescription record will reflect the name of the delegate.
A pharmacist must consult the patient or patient’s agent for every new prescription which has not been dispensed previously to the patient, any change in the patient’s therapy, upon request of a patient or patient’s agent and whenever it is in the pharmacist’s professional judgement a consultation should occur. Consultation is not required when the drug or device is administered by or in the presence of an individual with a scope of practice that includes administration of a drug or device or the individual’s delegate or a patient or patient’s agent refuses consultation. Patient consultation includes, based upon the pharmacist’s professional judgment, the name and description of the drug, form, dose, route of administration and duration for drug therapy, intended use of the drug and expected action, directions and precautions, common severe side or adverse effects or interactions and therapeutic contraindications that may be encountered, how to avoid and action if they occur, techniques for self-monitoring drug therapy, proper storage and disposal and action to be taken in the event of a missed dose. The consultation is required to be verbal when the pharmacist deems it is in the patient’s best interest to do so. In addition, when a consultation is required, the pharmacist shall provide a written patient drug education monograph. Every pharmacy shall post a sign stating a patient’s right to consultation and information on how to file a complaint to the board and board approved information stating patient’s rights shall accompany all delivered prescriptions by common carrier or delivery service or picked up at a drive through window.
Delivery of prescription drugs by common carrier or delivery services shall ensure the delivery method is appropriate to prevent drug adulteration. The patient must be provided with a method to report any irregularities in the delivery including timeliness, condition of the drug and failure to receive the correct drug or device. Any drug compromised by delivery or lost must be replaced at no additional cost to the patient. If the timing of the replacement will lead to interruption in therapy, steps must be taken by a pharmacist to mitigate patient harm.
A pharmacy must have a system for identifying any drugs or devices subject to a recall and to take appropriate action as required in a recall notice. A drug or device can’t be dispensed after its expiration or beyond use date. All outdated drugs or devices must be removed from dispensing stock and quarantined until properly disposed.
The only health care items that may be returned to a pharmacy are health care items dispensed in error, defective, adulterated or misbranded, when in the pharmacist’s professional judgment substantial harm could result to the public or patient if they were to remain in the possession of the patient, patient’s family or others, or a health item is prepackaged for consumer use without a prescription when returned in compliance with state or federal laws. The DEA does not permit the return of controlled substances to a pharmacy under any circumstances. Only returned health items that are prepackaged for consumer use without a prescription may be sold, resold or dispensed. It is not considered a return if the health care item is returned to the pharmacy for purposes of packaging, relabeling and returned to the same patient. This rule does not prohibit participation in a drug repository program in accordance with ch. DHS 148.
Pharmacy records are to be kept for a minimum of five years. A computerized system may be used if it is capable of producing a printout of the data contained in it and there is another procedure for documentation f dispensing and refills are authorized during periods of time the computer is not working. Prescription records are to be kept for 5 years after the date of the last refill. A paper prescription for non-controlled substances can be scanned and stored electronically (and at that point becomes an electronic prescription). A medication profile record system must contain the patient’s name, address, date of birth, name of drug product or device dispensed, strength and form of the drug product or device dispensed, quantity dispensed and remaining, number of refills prescribed, directions for use, prescription order number, original date of issue, date of dispensing and the prescriber’s name. A pharmacist will be responsible for attempting to ascertain and record any patient allergies, adverse drug reactions, drug idiosyncrasies, and any chronic conditions which may affect drug therapy. Medication profile records are to be kept for 5 years following the date of the last dispensing.
Any delegation by a physician to a pharmacist shall be documented by the pharmacist. The delegated act may not begin until it is documented. The documentation shall be maintained for a minimum of 5 years after the last delegated act under the delegation.
A pharmacist may not administer by injection a prescribed drug product or device (other than vaccines) unless the pharmacist has completed a course of study and training in administration techniques. A person who has successfully completed their second year and is enrolled in a school of pharmacy or a pharmacist licensed in another state who has applied for a Wisconsin pharmacist license may not administer a drug product or device (other than vaccines) unless they successfully complete a course of study and training in administration technique and administers the drug product or device only under the direct supervision of a pharmacist who has successfully completed the course of study.
The course of study must be from a course provider approved by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education or the Board. The Board will evaluate programs using criteria substantially equivalent to the criteria used by the Accreditation Council or Pharmacy Education. After the pharmacist administers a prescribed drug product or device (other than vaccines), the pharmacist or the pharmacist’s agent shall notify the prescribing practitioner or enter the information in a patient record system the pharmacist shares with the prescribing practitioner.
Delegate-check-delegate allows a supervising pharmacist to delegate the product verification of a product prepared by another person delegated by the pharmacist.
In order for a person to be delegated product verification, the individual must meet all of the following: be 18 years of age; completed an accredited technician training program or has a minimum of 500 hours of experience in product selection labeling and packaging; completed a didactic and practical training curriculum; and completed a validation process.
The didactic and practical training curriculum must include elements of a package label; medication and pharmacy abbreviations needed to match ordered medication with dispensed medication; common dispensing medication errors and concepts; eligible medications; policies and procedures on reporting of medication errors; overview of the pharmacy’s medication use process and a practical training designed to assess the competency of the individual. The validation process requires a check of 500 product verifications over at least 5 days with an accuracy rate of at least 99.8%. A product is eligible in institutional pharmacies if the medication is contained in a final package from a manufacturer or if the licensed pharmacist has ensured that the repackaging process of stock is labeled with the correct drug name, dose, strength, form, control or lot number and beyond use date. In an institutional pharmacy the medication is required to be administered by a health care provider or a person authorized to administer drugs at the institution. Product verifications can be done by delegates in community pharmacies if the medication is contained in an original package from a manufacturer or if the licensed pharmacist has ensured that the repackaging process of stock is labeled with the correct drug name, dose, strength, form, control or lot number and beyond use date. In a community pharmacy the medication is required to have a method for a patient to be able to check the accuracy of the medication. Each pharmacy is required to maintain policies, procedures, and training materials. The following records are required to be kept: all validation records, documentation of supervising and managing pharmacist responsibilities and dates of supervision responsibilities.
A pharmacy may use a central shared services pharmacy acting as its agent. The central shared services pharmacy must be owned by the same owner as the originating pharmacy or have a written contact with the originating pharmacy outlining the services to be provided and the responsibilities of each pharmacy. The central shared services pharmacy must keep a record of all originating pharmacies it serves including name, address and DEA number. The originating and central shared services pharmacies shall maintain a written protocol outlining each pharmacy’s assumption of responsibility for compliance with state and federal law. If the central shared services pharmacy and originating pharmacy share a computer system, the central shared services pharmacy may perform drug utilization review. The prescription label will have the name and address of either pharmacy. The date the prescription was dispensed will be the date the pharmacy filled the prescription order.
A prescription can be delivered to a secure delivery system. The system must be designed in a manner which only the patient or patient’s agent is able to open the door or locker containing only the patient’s prescription and designed in a manner which does not disclose protected health information. It also must maintain appropriate environmental controls to prevent drug adulteration. Using a delivery system does not create an exemption to the controlled substances photo identification requirement. The dispensing pharmacy is to maintain a log of all prescriptions delivered to the delivery system and inventory it at least weekly so that unclaimed prescriptions can be reviewed by a pharmacist. The managing pharmacist shall develop written policies and procedures for stocking, access, and mitigation of diversion or theft.
Automated direct-to-patient dispensing systems (more generally described as vending machines) may be used in health care facilities, office or clinic of a practitioner, a county jail, rehabilitation facility, state prison, or county house of correction or a juvenile correctional facility, juvenile detention facility, residential care center, and a secured residential care center for children and youth. The automated direct-to-patient dispensing system may operate for purposes of practitioner dispensing. The supervising practitioner is responsible for: ensuring the stocking, inventory, and monitoring is limited to the supervising practitioner or delegate; labeling of the prescriptions in compliance with Phar 7.05; records of all prescription fills and dispenses are maintained for 5 years; and all monitored prescription drugs dispensed are reported to the prescription drug monitoring program.
Remote dispensing may be done at health care facilities, office or clinic of a practitioner, a county jail, rehabilitation facility, state prison, or county house of correction or a juvenile correctional facility, juvenile detention facility, residential care center, and a secured residential care center for children and youth. The managing pharmacist will designate a supervising pharmacist for the remote dispensing. A sign shall be posted indicating prescriptions may be filled at the location and the supervising pharmacy. Remote dispensing can’t occur if the supervising pharmacy is closed. No prescribed drug or device may be dispensed in the absence of a patient and pharmacist’s delegate to communicate with a pharmacist. The prescription label shall contain the name and address of the supervising pharmacy. The managing or supervising pharmacist shall have written policies and procedures, implement on-going quality assurance program, visit the remote dispensing location at least monthly to confirm delivery status of all drugs and to ensure compliance with federal and state laws and retain documentation of the visits for a minimum of 5 years. A pharmacist delegate who is remote dispensing must be 18 years of age or older, a high school graduate or equivalent and competed 1500 hours of work as a pharmacist delegate within 3 years prior to remote dispensing or completed an accredited technician training program.
Institutional pharmacies are pharmacies serving institutional facilities. Chart orders shall contain patient’s name, patient’s medical record number or date of birth, date of issuance, name, strength and form of the drug product or device prescribed, directions for use, practitioner’s signature, and if prepared by a delegate of the practitioner the delegate’s signature and name of the practitioner. All drug products and devices dispensed for administration by a health care provider at the institutional facility shall have a label that includes the drug name, strength and form, beyond use date or expiration date, and any special storage conditions. The managing pharmacist shall make arrangements for access of drugs by health care staff when a pharmacist is not available to do the dispensing. In the absence of a pharmacist, drugs shall be stored in a manner that only authorized personnel may obtain access and is secure enough to deny access to unauthorized persons. Policies and procedures must be in place to mitigate and prevent theft and diversion. A health item can be returned to the institutional pharmacy if it has not left control of the health care facility staff authorized to have access to prescription drug products. A returned health item may be dispensed at the institutional facility if the health item was never in the possession and control of the patient, it is in a tamper-evident package, it is in the original container and the pharmacist determines the contents are not adulterated or misbranded.
Automated technology can be utilized for the product verification of a prescription if the machine is located within the pharmacy, utilizes barcodes or other machine-readable technology for product verification and the automated technology is validated for accuracy. Product verifications can be done by automated technology if it is contained in a final package from a manufacturer or if a licensed pharmacist has ensured that the packaging process results in a final package that is labeled with the correct drug name, strength, form, control or lot number and beyond use date.
The medication is required to be administered by a person authorized to administer drugs within the institution. Each pharmacy is required to maintain policies, procedures, and training materials. The following records are required to be kept: all validation records, names of supervising pharmacist, managing and supervising pharmacist responsibilities, manufacturer’s recommended maintenance and quality assurance measures, dates of all software upgrades, and documentation of all service performed outside of the manufacturer’s standard maintenance recommendations.
A person practicing pharmacy who has completed their second year of pharmacy school or is a pharmacist from another state applying for license in Wisconsin, can perform duties under direct supervision.
An unlicensed person performing tasks delegated to the person by a pharmacist is working under general supervision. A pharmacist must be available to the unlicensed person for consultation either in person or contact by telecommunication means. An unlicensed person may not provide the final verification for accuracy, validity, or completeness of a filled prescription or order unless the person is validated for delegate-check-delegate. An unlicensed person may not complete the drug utilization review, administer any prescribed drug products, devices or vaccines or provide patient specific counseling or consultation (general education is allowed). The managing pharmacist shall provide training to or verify competency of an unlicensed person in performing a delegated act. The managing pharmacist shall determine what acts may be delegated in the pharmacy. The managing pharmacist has a responsibility to notify all pharmacists practicing in the pharmacy of what acts may be delegated to specific unlicensed persons. A pharmacist may delegate to an unlicensed person any delegated act approved by the managing pharmacist.
Summary of, and comparison with, existing or proposed federal regulation:
Generally, the practice of pharmacy is under state jurisdiction.
There are federal regulations related to controlled substances and drug supply chain.
21 CFR 1306.25 governs the transfer of controlled substances prescriptions for refill purposes. This proposed rule mirrors the federal requirements.
Title II of the Drug Quality and Security Act requires all health care providers who dispense or administer prescription drugs to patients to purchase their prescription drug products only from authorized trading partners licensed by or registered with the state or federal government.
Comparison with rules in adjacent states:
Illinois: Illinois has elements required to be on a prescription and labels. Transfers for the purpose of original fill or refill shall include name, address and original prescription number, and all prescription data. A prescription for a Schedule III-IV controlled substance must follow federal law. A drug being removed from the original manufacturer container and placed in a dispensing container for other than immediate dispensing to a patient must contain a label indicating the name and strength of the drug, manufacturer or distributor name, beyond use date, and lot number. Illinois requires consultation for a prescription to a new patient, new medication to existing patient and medication that changes dose, strength, route or directions. An offer to consult is required on all other prescriptions. Consult is not required if a patient refuses consult or if a health care provider is administering the drug. There are designated required elements to be included in consultation. If oral counseling is not practicable, then alternative forms of patient information are provided and shall advise the patient that the pharmacist may be contacted for consultation in person at the pharmacy or by toll-free or collect telephone service. Every licensed pharmacy must post a sign with patient’s rights to a consultation and information on how to file a complaint for failure to consult. Pharmacies without a physical location directly serving patients must include a copy of the sign with any dispensed prescriptions. A mail order pharmacy is required to provide a toll-free telephone service available not less than 6 days per week for a minimum of 40 hours per week. Once a drug is removed from the premises by a patient or the patient’s agent, that drug shall not be accepted for return or exchange by a pharmacy or pharmacist. Drugs can be returned for destruction; the wrong medication was dispensed or drug recall. Pharmacy and prescription records are to be maintained for 5 years. Pharmacies providing centralized prescription filling shall share a common electronic file to allow access to sufficient information necessary to fill or refill a prescription order. Appropriate records shall be maintained to identify a responsible pharmacist in the dispensing process and to track the prescription drug order during each step in the process. A delivery system must be secured against a wall or floor, provide a method to identify the patient and deliver the prescription only to that patient or the patient’s agent. The delivery system must have adequate security systems to prevent unauthorized access, maintain patient confidentiality and record the time and date the patient removed the prescription from the delivery system. A remote dispensing site is under the supervision of a pharmacy. All records must be maintained at the home pharmacy. Prescriptions dispensed at the remote site shall be distinguishable from those dispensed from the home pharmacy. A pharmacist at the home pharmacy must verify each prescription before it leaves the remote site. Counseling must be done by a pharmacist via video link and audio link before the drug or device is released. A pharmacist must make monthly inspections of the remote site. There shall be a working computer link, video link and audio link working at all times between the remote site and the home pharmacy unless a pharmacist is present at the remote site. The sign must clearly identify it as a remote dispensing site.
Remote consulting sites can’t have any prescription inventory-only filled prescriptions by the home pharmacy. Institutional labels for administration shall include drug name, strength, beyond use date and reference code to identify source and lot number. An after-hour cabinet shall contain a minimal supply of the most frequently required medication and shall only be used in the absence of a pharmacist. Only personnel specifically authorized by the institution may obtain access and it is sufficiently secure to deny access to unauthorized persons. In an institutional health care facility where a licensed healthcare professional administers the drug, a drug may be returned if the drug is not contaminated, deteriorated or beyond the use date, returns are properly documented and obtaining payment twice for the same drug is prohibited. Illinois does not allow for delegation to unlicensed persons. Illinois certifies technicians.
Iowa: In Iowa, the original prescription shall be retained in the original format. Each prescription shall have specified elements. Dispensing documentation shall include the date of fill; the name, strength, NDC of the drug; and the initials of the pharmacist, pharmacist-intern, or technician in an approved tech-check-tech program. The pharmacy shall ensure that the prescription drug or medication order has been issued for a legitimate medical purpose by a prescriber. The pharmacist shall do a prospective drug use review to promote therapeutic appropriateness and rational drug therapy. If there are any problems, the pharmacist shall take appropriate steps to resolve. When transferring a prescription, both the transferring and receiving pharmacies shall maintain records of the prescription drug order information. Non-controlled substances prescriptions are permissible to be transferred as long as the number of transfers does not exceed the number of authorized refills and the prescription is still valid. Transfer of Schedule III – IV prescriptions are permissible on a one-time basis except as provided by federal law. The prescription label shall include prescription number, name, telephone number and address of the pharmacy, name of the prescriber, date dispensed, directions for use and unless directed by the prescriber, the name, strength and quantity of the drug dispensed. Iowa requires a consultation for new prescriptions and change in drug therapy. Consultation is not required when other licensed health care professionals are authorized to administer drugs or if the patient refuses consultation. There are discretionary elements to the consultation. An offer to counsel shall not fulfill the requirements of the rule. If in the pharmacist’s professional judgment oral counseling is not practicable, the pharmacist may use alternative forms of patient information. “Not practicable” refers to the patient variables and does not include pharmacy variables. Nonresident pharmacies shall ensure that Iowa patients receive appropriate counseling pursuant to the Iowa rule. Prescriptions may be delivered by common carrier or delivery service to the patient at the office or home of the prescriber, at the residence of the patient or caregiver, at the hospital or medical care facility, an outpatient medical care facility or place of employment. Prescriptions may be delivered to the place of employment only if the pharmacy has the patient’s written authorization, the prescription is delivered directly to or received directly from the patient or agent and the pharmacy ensures the security of confidential information. Pharmacies shipping or delivering drugs shall ensure accountability, safe delivery, and compliance with temperature requirements. There shall be a patient record system. Records shall be stored for 2 years. Iowa allows automated technology to conduct the product verification if the system utilizes barcode scanning technology and the product is prestocked and no manipulation of drug or package other than affixing a patient label is taking place. If the product is going to require further manipulation than a pharmacist is required to do the product verification prior to dispensing to a patient. Iowa allows technician-check-technician. The technician must have active Iowa registration, hold national technician certification, have experience as a technician and be trained in technician-check-technician (including medication errors). There shall be a supervising pharmacist. The pharmacy is required to have policies and procedures in place and maintain records. The drug utilization review must be performed by a pharmacist. The medication checked by a technician must be checked by a licensed health care practitioner prior to administration. When utilizing a central fill pharmacy, the originating pharmacy shall be responsible for all dispensing functions. A central fill pharmacy that shares a common central processing unit with the originating pharmacy may perform prospective drug use review. The label on the prescription shall indicate it was filled at a central fill pharmacy and have the name, address, and telephone number of the originating pharmacy. A hospital may implement the InstyMeds dispensing system in the hospital emergency department. Stocking, inventory and monitoring shall be limited to pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, and pharmacist-interns. It should be located in a secure location. The stock shall be limited to acute care drugs for a 72-hour supply except antimicrobials may be dispensed in a quantity to provide the full course of therapy. The prescriber shall provide the patient with consultation. The hospital pharmacist shall review the printout of drugs provided utilizing the InstyMeds dispensing system within 24 hours (or the first day the pharmacy is open) to identify any dispensing errors, to determine dosage appropriateness, and to complete a retrospective drug use review of any antimicrobials dispensed in a quantity greater than a 72-hour supply. Telepharmacy is allowed in Iowa. There shall be a written agreement between the managing pharmacy and telepharmacy site. In the event that a verifying pharmacist is not available or that the audiovisual communication connection between the telepharmacy site and the managing pharmacy is not available, the telepharmacy site shall close. The site shall inform the public it is a telepharmacy site. The telepharmacy site shall be secure. Patient counseling is required utilizing the audiovisual technology employed between the two sites. The label shall include the name, telephone number and address of the telepharmacy site and the name and telephone number of the managing pharmacy. A pharmacist shall monthly inspect the telepharmacy site. A technician working in a telepharmacy site shall have completed a minimum of 2,000 hours and completed training. In an institutional pharmacy, supplies for drugs for use in medical emergencies shall be immediately available pursuant to policies and procedures. All drug storage areas within the facility shall be routinely inspected to ensure that no outdated or unusable items are available for administration and all stock items are properly labeled and stored. Iowa does not allow for delegation to unlicensed persons. Iowa registers technicians.
Michigan: In Michigan, a prescription shall be legible and include the name of the patient, prescriber’s name and address, drug name and strength, the quantity prescribed, directions for use, and number of refills authorized. The label shall include mandatory elements. A consultation is required for each prescription for a drug not previously prescribed for the patient or by request of the patient or agent for any prescription. Consultation is not required if the patient refuses or for prescriptions administered to a patient while the patient is in a medical institution. The elements of the consultation are to encourage intended, positive patient outcomes, necessary and appropriate information regarding safe and effective medication use at the time a prescription is dispensed. The consultation shall be communicated orally and in person, except when the patient or caregiver is not at the pharmacy or when a specific communication barrier prohibits oral communication. In either situation, providing printed material designed to help the patient use the medication safely and effectively satisfies the requirement. Prescription records shall be maintained for 5 years. Prescription drugs or devices which have been dispensed and have left the control of the pharmacist shall not be returned except for pharmacies operated by the department of corrections or county jail, or a pharmacy that participates in the program for the utilization of unused prescription drugs. A pharmacy engaging in centralized prescription processing shall be responsible for each function of the prescription’s processing performed by that pharmacy. A delivering pharmacist shall be responsible for complying with patient counseling. The prescription label for a prescription that was filled by a centralized processing center shall identify each pharmacy that was involved in preparing and delivering a prescription. Both pharmacies shall maintain records. An automated device may be used only in the following locations: pharmacy, hospital, county medical care facility, hospice, nursing home, other skilled nursing facility or office of a dispensing prescriber. The pharmacist or pharmacy personnel shall be responsible for the stocking of the automated device unless located in a dispensing prescriber’s office (then it is the responsibility of the dispensing prescriber). A pharmacist shall review the prescription or medication order before removal of any medication from the system unless it being used as an after-hours cabinet or in place of an emergency kit. Michigan does not allow for delegation to unlicensed persons. Michigan credentials technicians.
Minnesota: In Minnesota, a pharmacist shall examine the patient’s profile record and conduct a prospective drug review. Upon recognizing any drug-related problems, the pharmacist shall take appropriate steps to avoid or resolve the problem. A pharmacy may transfer prescription drug order information for the purpose of refilling a prescription if the information is communicated directly by a licensed pharmacist or registered intern to another licensed pharmacist or registered intern. A pharmacy may transfer prescription drug order information for the purpose of initial filing only for non-controlled substance. There are specific elements to a label. Pharmacies may prepackage and label drugs in convenient quantities for subsequent complete labeling and dispensing. Each prepackaged container shall bear a label providing the name of drug, strength, name of the manufacturer or distributor of the finished dosage form of the drug, a beyond use date, internal control number or date and a physical description including any identification code that may appear on tablets and capsules or a bar code based on the NDC. A consultation is required for new prescriptions. Consultation is not required for inpatients where other licensed health care professionals are authorized to administer the drugs or if the patient has expressed a desire not to receive a consultation. There are mandatory elements to the consultation; however, the pharmacist may vary or omit if in the pharmacist’s professional judgment, it is in the best interest of the patient. The pharmacist shall document variations from the required consultation elements. The consultation discussion shall be in person and may be supplemented with written material. When a prescription for which counseling is required is being mailed or delivered to the patient by common carrier or delivery services, the consultation must still be provided but may be accomplished by providing the written information and the availability of the pharmacist to answer questions through the provision of a toll-free phone number. Pharmacies are prohibited from accepting returns of drugs or medical devices except from a hospital items which were dispensed for hospital inpatient use only. Drugs from nursing home and assisted living facilities can be returned and redispensed if the pharmacist can assure proper storage conditions for the drugs, the facility as 24-hour on-site licensed nursing coverage 7-days a week, the drugs are returned to the same pharmacy which dispensed the drugs, and the integrity of the packaging remains intact. A patient profile record system must be maintained in all pharmacies. Pharmacy records shall be kept not less than 2 years. A pharmacy may perform or outsource centralized prescription drug order filling or centralized prescription drug order processing services. The parties must have the same owner or a written contract outlining the services to be provided. There shall be an agreement to how the parties will comply with federal and state laws. Both pharmacies are to maintain records. The pharmacy that delivers the completed prescription drug order to the patient is responsible for certifying the completed prescription drug order and is responsible for counseling the patient. Minnesota does not allow for delegation to unlicensed persons. Minnesota registers technicians.
Summary of factual data and analytical methodologies:
The Pharmacy Examining Board did a comprehensive review of the practice of pharmacy in order to update the rules to current standards and practices. In addition, the Pharmacy Examining Board reviewed the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy’s model rules, the rules of the surrounding states as well as other states and considered stakeholder input.
Analysis and supporting documents used to determine effect on small business or in preparation of economic impact analysis:
This rule was posted for economic comments for 14 days. The Pharmacy Examining Board invited those who submitted economic comments to a board meeting to discuss economic concerns.
Fiscal Estimate and Economic Impact Analysis:
Links to Admin. Code and Statutes in this Register are to current versions, which may not be the version that was referred to in the original published document.