767.25 Annotation A minimum fixed child support amount, rather than the percentage standard, based on the payor's "potential income" was appropriate where the court found the payor had a substantial potential to manipulate the amount of support. Doerr v. Doerr, 189 W (2d) 112, 525 NW (2d) 745 (Ct. App. 1994).
767.25 Annotation The trial court may consider the amount of time a child is placed with the paying parent and the parent's second family in setting support. Molstad v. Molstad, 193 W (2d) 602, 535 NW (2d) 63 (Ct. App. 1995).
767.25 Annotation A court may revise a judgment to create a trust under sub. (2), including a trust funded by child support arrearages, when it is necessary for the best interests of the child. Cameron v. Cameron, 197 W (2d) 618, 541 NW (2d) 164 (Ct. App. 1995).
767.25 Annotation The percentage standards may be used to generate future as well as present support. Paternity of Tukker M.O., 199 W (2d) 186, 544 NW (2d) 417 (1996).
767.25 Annotation The percentage standards presumptively apply in the case of a high income payee absent the payer's showing of unfairness by the greater weight of the credible evidence. Luciani v. Montemurro-Luciani, 199 W (2d) 280, 544 NW (2d) 561 (1996).
767.25 Annotation Maley distinguished. In certain cases an asset may be divided in the property division and its income stream considered as income in determining child support. Cook v. Cook, 201 W (2d) 72, 547 NW (2d) 817 (Ct. App. 1996).
767.25 Annotation A court may consider earning capacity rather than actual earnings in determining child support and maintenance if it find's a spouse's job choice voluntary and unreasonable. Sellers v. Sellers, 201 W (2d) 578, 549 NW (2d) 481 (Ct. App. 1996).
767.25 Annotation Federal preemption doctrine does not prohibit states from requiring payment of child support out of veterans' disability benefits. Rose v. Rose, 481 US 619 (1987).
767.25 Annotation No-fault divorce: Tax consequences of support, maintenance and property settlement. Case, 1977 WBB 11.
767.25 Annotation A practitioner's approach to child support. Bailey. WBB June 1987.
767.25 Annotation HSS 80: New Rules for Child Support Obligations. Hickey. Wis. Law. April, 1995.
767.25 Annotation Which Came First? The Serial Family Payer Formula. Stansbury. Wis. Law. April, 1995.
767.25 Annotation See also notes to s. 767.32 for decisions regarding postjudgment modifications.
767.25 Annotation See also Wisconsin Administrative Code Citations published in the Wisconsin Administrative Code for a list of citations to cases citing ch. HSS 80, the percentage standards developed by the Department of Health and Social Services.
767.253 767.253 Seek-work orders. In an action for modification of a child support order under s. 767.32 or an action in which an order for child support is required under s. 767.25 (1) or 767.51 (3), the court may order either or both parents of the child to seek employment or participate in an employment or training program.
767.253 History History: 1989 a. 212.
767.254 767.254 Unemployed teenage parent.
767.254(1) (1) In this section, "unemployed teenage parent" means a parent who satisfies all of the following criteria:
767.254(1)(a) (a) Is less than 20 years of age.
767.254(1)(b) (b) Is unemployed.
767.254(1)(c) (c) Is financially unable to pay child support.
767.254(1)(d) (d) Would be ordered to make payments for the support of a child but for par. (c).
767.254(2) (2) In an action for revision of a judgment or order providing for child support under s. 767.32 or an action in which an order for child support is required under s. 767.25 (1) or 767.51 (3), the court shall order an unemployed teenage parent to do one or more of the following:
767.254(2)(a) (a) Register for work at a public employment office established under s. 106.09.
767.254(2)(b) (b) Apply for jobs.
767.254(2)(c) (c) Participate in a job training program.
767.254(2)(d) (d) Pursue or continue to pursue an accredited course of instruction leading to the acquisition of a high school diploma or its equivalent if the unemployed teenage parent has not completed a recognized high school course of study or its equivalent, except that the court may not order the unemployed teenage parent to pursue instruction if the instruction requires the expenditure of funds by the unemployed teenage parent other than normal transportation and personal expenses.
767.254 History History: 1991 a. 313; 1995 a. 27.
767.255 767.255 Property division.
767.255(1)(1) Upon every judgment of annulment, divorce or legal separation, or in rendering a judgment in an action under s. 767.02 (1) (h), the court shall divide the property of the parties and divest and transfer the title of any such property accordingly. A certified copy of the portion of the judgment that affects title to real estate shall be recorded in the office of the register of deeds of the county in which the lands so affected are situated. The court may protect and promote the best interests of the children by setting aside a portion of the property of the parties in a separate fund or trust for the support, maintenance, education and general welfare of any minor children of the parties.
767.255(2) (2)
767.255(2)(a)(a) Except as provided in par. (b), any property shown to have been acquired by either party prior to or during the course of the marriage in any of the following ways shall remain the property of that party and is not subject to a property division under this section:
767.255(2)(a)1. 1. As a gift from a person other than the other party.
767.255(2)(a)2. 2. By reason of the death of another, including, but not limited to, life insurance proceeds; payments made under a deferred employment benefit plan, as defined in s. 766.01 (4) (a), or an individual retirement account; and property acquired by right of survivorship, by a trust distribution, by bequest or inheritance or by a payable on death or a transfer on death arrangement under ch. 705.
767.255(2)(a)3. 3. With funds acquired in a manner provided in subd. 1. or 2.
767.255(2)(b) (b) Paragraph (a) does not apply if the court finds that refusal to divide the property will create a hardship on the other party or on the children of the marriage. If the court makes such a finding, the court may divest the party of the property in a fair and equitable manner.
767.255(3) (3) The court shall presume that all property not described in sub. (2) (a) is to be divided equally between the parties, but may alter this distribution without regard to marital misconduct after considering all of the following:
767.255(3)(a) (a) The length of the marriage.
767.255(3)(b) (b) The property brought to the marriage by each party.
767.255(3)(c) (c) Whether one of the parties has substantial assets not subject to division by the court.
767.255(3)(d) (d) The contribution of each party to the marriage, giving appropriate economic value to each party's contribution in homemaking and child care services.
767.255(3)(e) (e) The age and physical and emotional health of the parties.
767.255(3)(f) (f) The contribution by one party to the education, training or increased earning power of the other.
767.255(3)(g) (g) The earning capacity of each party, including educational background, training, employment skills, work experience, length of absence from the job market, custodial responsibilities for children and the time and expense necessary to acquire sufficient education or training to enable the party to become self-supporting at a standard of living reasonably comparable to that enjoyed during the marriage.
767.255(3)(h) (h) The desirability of awarding the family home or the right to live therein for a reasonable period to the party having physical placement for the greater period of time.
767.255(3)(i) (i) The amount and duration of an order under s. 767.26 granting maintenance payments to either party, any order for periodic family support payments under s. 767.261 and whether the property division is in lieu of such payments.
767.255(3)(j) (j) Other economic circumstances of each party, including pension benefits, vested or unvested, and future interests.
767.255(3)(k) (k) The tax consequences to each party.
767.255(3)(L) (L) Any written agreement made by the parties before or during the marriage concerning any arrangement for property distribution; such agreements shall be binding upon the court except that no such agreement shall be binding where the terms of the agreement are inequitable as to either party. The court shall presume any such agreement to be equitable as to both parties.
767.255(3)(m) (m) Such other factors as the court may in each individual case determine to be relevant.
767.255 History History: 1977 c. 105; 1979 c. 32 ss. 50, 92 (4); 1979 c. 196; Stats. 1979 s. 767.255; 1983 a. 186; 1985 a. 37; 1987 a. 355; 1993 a. 422.
767.255 Note NOTE: See notes in 1985 Wis. Act 37, marital property trailer bill.
767.255 Annotation Accounts receivable of medical clinic in which defendant husband was partner, were properly viewed by trial court as salary of defendant. Johnson v. Johnson, 78 W (2d) 137, 254 NW (2d) 198.
767.255 Annotation Service-connected disability pension is to be considered as earned income and not as an asset to be divided between the parties. Leighton v. Leighton, 81 W (2d) 620, 261 NW (2d) 457.
767.255 Annotation Methods of valuing pension rights discussed. Bloomer v. Bloomer, 84 W (2d) 124, 267 NW (2d) 235 (1978).
767.255 Annotation Support of stepchildren is relevant factor in dividing marital property. Fuerst v. Fuerst, 93 W (2d) 121, 286 NW (2d) 861 (Ct. App. 1979).
767.255 Annotation Trial court did not exercise required discretion in valuing pension fund. Heatwole v. Heatwole, 103 W (2d) 613, 309 NW (2d) 380 (Ct. App. 1980).
767.255 Annotation See note to 767.26, citing In re Marriage of Lundberg, 107 W (2d) 1, 318 NW (2d) 918 (1982).
767.255 Annotation Federal pension in lieu of social security must be included in marital property division. In re Marriage of Mack v. Mack, 108 W (2d) 604, 323 NW (2d) 153 (Ct. App. 1982).
767.255 Annotation Unless divorce decree specifically terminates spouse as beneficiary of life insurance policy and insurance company is notified, spouse's beneficiary status is not affected by divorce decree. Bersch v. VanKleeck, 112 W (2d) 594, 334 NW (2d) 114 (1983).
767.255 Annotation Court may consider cross-purchase formula in partnership agreement in determining value of marital estate, including professional goodwill. In re Marriage of Lewis v. Lewis, 113 W (2d) 172, 336 NW (2d) 171 (Ct. App. 1983).
767.255 Annotation Lien on real estate awarded in divorce judgment was mortgage, not judgment lien, even though term "mortgage" was not used in court order. Wozniak v. Wozniak, 121 W (2d) 330, 359 NW (2d) 147 (1984).
767.255 Annotation This section does not mandatorily require judge to terminate joint tenancy. In re Marriage of: Lutzke v. Lutzke, 122 W (2d) 24, 361 NW (2d) 640 (1985).
767.255 Annotation Use of gift money to buy home as joint tenants changed character of money from separate property to marital property. In re Marriage of Weiss v. Weiss, 122 W (2d) 688, 365 NW (2d) 608 (Ct. App. 1985). But see in re Marriage of Zirngibl, 165 W (2d) 130, 477 NW (2d) 637 (Ct. App. 1991).
767.255 Annotation Prenuptial agreement entered in 1973 was enforceable and equitable at divorce in 1982. Hengel v. Hengel, 122 W (2d) 737, 365 NW (2d) 16 (Ct. App. 1985).
767.255 Annotation Premarital agreement intended to apply at death was not applicable under (11). In re Marriage of Levy v. Levy, 130 W (2d) 523, 388 NW (2d) 170 (1986).
767.255 Annotation Test adopted to determine whether agreement under (11) is inequitable. In re Marriage of Button v. Button, 131 W (2d) 84, 388 NW (2d) 546 (1986).
767.255 Annotation Premarital agreement was inequitable because parties did not fairly and reasonably disclose assets nor did they have independent knowledge of one another's financial status. Schumacher v. Schumacher, 131 W (2d) 332, 388 NW (2d) 912 (1986).
767.255 Annotation Personal injury claim for medical malpractice is property subject to division. Marriage of Richardson v. Richardson, 139 W (2d) 778, 407 NW (2d) 231 (1987).
767.255 Annotation Trial court permitted to consider former inherited status of divisible property though it has lost exempt status through commingling. Marriage of Schwartz v. Linders, 145 W (2d) 258, 426 NW (2d) 97 (Ct. App. 1988).
767.255 Annotation Increase in value of inherited property attributable to non-owning spouse's efforts is divisible property not subject to non-owning spouse's showing that failure to divide will result in hardship. In re Marriage of Haldemann, 145 W (2d) 296, 426 NW (2d) 107 (Ct. App. 1988).
767.255 Annotation Chapter 766, Marital Property Act, does not supplant divorce property division provisions. In re Marriage of Kuhlman v. Kuhlman, 146 W (2d) 588, 432 NW (2d) 295 (Ct. App. 1988).
767.255 Annotation Gifted and inherited property are subject to division in cases of hardship; party seeking division bears burden of showing that failure to divide will result in financial privation. In re Marriage of Popp v. Popp, 146 W (2d) 778, 432 NW (2d) 600 (Ct. App. 1988).
767.255 Annotation Presumption exists that injured party is entitled to all future payments under structured settlement, but they are subject to 767.255 factors. In re Marriage of Krebs v. Krebs, 148 W (2d) 51, 435 NW (2d) 240 (1989).
767.255 Annotation A property division may be modified under s. 806.07, however the supremacy clause prevents a division to be modified after a debt thereunder is discharged in bankruptcy. Spankowski v. Spankowski, 172 W (2d) 285, 493 NW (2d) 737 (Ct. App. 1992).
767.255 Annotation Where gifted or inherited property has appreciated in value during the marriage due to the efforts of the spouses, the appreciation is a part of the marital estate. Schorer v. Schorer, 177 W (2d) 387, 501 NW (2d) 916 (Ct. App. 1993).
767.255 Annotation Determining fair market value of a closely-held corporation turns on the credibility of the experts as well as the methods and analyses employed by the witness. Schorer v. Schorer, 177 W (2d) 387, 501 NW (2d) 916 (Ct. App. 1993).
767.255 Annotation A buy sell agreement may provide a method for determining the value of an interest in a partnership, but does not as a matter of law establish the value. Sharon v. Sharon, 178 W (2d) 481, 504 NW (2d) 415 (Ct. App. 1993).
767.255 Annotation Accounts receivable may be excluded from the marital estate if evidence indicates there is a link between the receivables and salary and that dividing the receivables would adversely affect the ability to pay support or maintain professional or personal obligations. Sharon v. Sharon, 178 W (2d) 481, 504 NW (2d) 415 (Ct. App. 1993).
767.255 Annotation While income from gifted property is subject to division, trust income received by a beneficiary with only a future interest in the trust corpus is a gift itself, not income from a gift, and not subject to division. Friebel v. Friebel, 181 W (2d) 285, 510 NW (2d) 767 (Ct. App. 1993).
767.255 Annotation A divorce decree which awarded one-half of the husband's pension to the wife divested the husband of that one-half interest. Although the husband had failed to effectuate the transfer as required by the divorce decree, the wife's one-half interest was not an asset in the husband's bankruptcy estate and there was no dischargeable debt to the wife. Dewey v. Dewey, 188 W (2d) 271, 525 NW (2d) 85 (Ct. App. 1994).
767.255 Annotation Hardship under sub. (2) (b) and ``privation" under Popp requires something more than an inability to continue living at a predivorce standard. Fair and equitable is not the standard for including gifted and inherited property in a division. Doerr v. Doerr, 189 W (2d) 112, 525 NW (2d) 745 (Ct. App. 1994).
767.255 Annotation That individual property was placed in a joint checking account by the owner and used to pay the owner's individual obligations did not render the property subject to division in divorce. Gardner v. Gardner, 190 W (2d) 216, 527 NW (2d) 701 (Ct. App. 1994).
767.255 Annotation The offspring of gifted or inherited animals are not excluded from division by this section. If an asset no longer exists a court cannot exclude it from the marital estate. Preuss v. Preuss, 195 W (2d) 95, 536 NW (2d) 101 (Ct. App. 1995).
767.255 Annotation Bonuses and fees, like regular income, are not divisible as property but are to be considered in determining a fair division or maintenance. Long v. Long, 196 W (2d) 691, 539 NW (2d) 134 (Ct. App. 1995).
767.255 Annotation The marital estate is usually valued as of the date of divorce, but when conditions over which a party has no control arise the special circumstances may warrant deviation from the rule. Long v. Long, 196 W (2d) 691, 539 NW (2d) 134 (Ct. App. 1995).
767.255 Annotation Federal law precludes state court from dividing military nondisability retired pay pursuant to state community property laws. McCarty v. McCarty, 453 US 210 (1981).
767.255 Annotation Insured's beneficiary designation under servicemen's group life insurance policy prevailed over constructive trust imposed by state court. Ridgeway v. Ridgeway, 454 US 46 (1981).
767.255 Annotation ERISA did not preempt Wisconsin court order awarding spouse 1/2 of beneficiary's interest in pension. Sav. & Profit Sharing Fund of Sears Emp. v. Gago, 717 F (2d) 1038 (1983).
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