The department shall print and distribute, without charge, to all local health departments and, upon request, to health care providers and facilities a chart that provides information about communicable diseases.
Any person licensed, permitted, registered or certified under ch. 441
shall use ordinary skill in determining the presence of communicable diseases. If there is a dispute regarding disease determination, if the disease may have potential public health significance or if more extensive laboratory tests will aid in the investigation, the local health officer shall order the tests made by the state laboratory of hygiene or by a laboratory certified under 42 USC 263a
If a violation of this section is reported to a district attorney by a local health officer or by the department, the district attorney shall forthwith prosecute the proper action, and upon request of the department, the attorney general shall assist.
History: 1971 c. 164
; 1981 c. 291
; 1993 a. 16
; 1993 a. 27
; Stats. 1993 s. 252.05; 1993 a. 183
Isolation and quarantine. 252.06(1)
The department or the local health officer acting on behalf of the department may require isolation of the patient, quarantine of contacts, concurrent and terminal disinfection, or modified forms of these procedures as may be necessary and which are determined by the department by rule.
If a local health officer suspects or is informed of the existence of any communicable disease, the officer shall at once investigate and make or cause such examinations to be made as are necessary. The diagnostic report of a physician, the notification or confirmatory report of a parent or caretaker of the patient, or a reasonable belief in the existence of a communicable disease shall require the local health officer immediately to quarantine, isolate, require restrictions or take other communicable disease control measures in the manner, upon the persons and for the time specified in rules promulgated by the department. If the local health officer is not a physician, he or she shall consult a physician as speedily as possible where there is reasonable doubt or disagreement in diagnosis and where advice is needed. The local health officer shall investigate evasion of the laws and rules concerning communicable disease and shall act to protect the public.
If deemed necessary by the department or a local health officer for a particular communicable disease, all persons except the local health officer, his or her representative, attending physicians and nurses, members of the clergy, the members of the immediate family and any other person having a special written permit from the local health officer are forbidden to be in direct contact with the patient.
The local health officer shall employ as many persons as are necessary to execute his or her orders and properly guard any place if quarantine or other restrictions on communicable disease are violated or intent to violate is manifested. These persons shall be sworn in as quarantine guards, shall have police powers, and may use all necessary means to enforce the state laws for the prevention and control of communicable diseases, or the orders and rules of the department or any local health officer.
When the local health officer deems it necessary that a person be quarantined or otherwise restricted in a separate place, the officer shall remove the person, if it can be done without danger to the person's health, to this place.
When a person confined in a jail, state prison, mental health institute or other public place of detention has a disease which the local health officer or the director of health at the institution deems dangerous to the health of other residents or the neighborhood, the local health officer or the director of health at the institution shall order in writing the removal of the person to a hospital or other place of safety, there to be provided for and securely kept. Upon recovery the person shall be returned; and if the person was committed by a court or under process the removal order or a copy shall be returned by the local health officer to the committing court officer.
Expenses for necessary medical care, food and other articles needed for the care of the infected person shall be charged against the person or whoever is liable for the person's support.
The county or municipality in which a person with a communicable disease resides is liable for the following costs accruing under this section, unless the costs are payable through 3rd-party liability or through any benefit system:
The expense of maintaining quarantine and enforcing isolation of the quarantined area.
The expense of conducting examinations and tests for disease carriers made under the direction of the local health officer.
History: 1981 c. 291
; 1983 a. 189
s. 329 (19)
; 1993 a. 27
; Stats. 1993 s. 252.06.
"Infectious tuberculosis" means tuberculosis disease of the respiratory tract, capable of producing infection or disease in others as demonstrated by the presence of acid-fast bacilli in the sputum or bronchial secretions or by chest radiograph and clinical findings.
"Isolate" means a population of mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria that has been obtained in pure culture medium.
"Isolation" means the separation from other persons of a person with infectious tuberculosis in a place and under conditions that prevent the transmission of the infection.
"Suspect tuberculosis" means an illness marked by symptoms and laboratory tests that may be indicative of tuberculosis, such as a prolonged cough, prolonged fever, hemoptysis, compatible roentgenographic findings or other appropriate medical imaging findings.
Infectious tuberculosis and suspect tuberculosis are subject to the reporting requirements specified in s. 252.05
. Any laboratory that receives a specimen for tuberculosis testing shall report all positive results obtained by any appropriate procedure, including a procedure performed by an out-of-state laboratory, to the local health officer and to the department.
Any laboratory that performs primary culture for mycobacteria shall also perform organism identification for mycobacterium tuberculosis complex using an approved rapid testing procedure specified by the department by rule.
Any laboratory that identifies mycobacterium tuberculosis shall ensure that antimicrobial drug susceptibility tests are performed on the initial isolate. The laboratory shall report the results of these tests to the local health officer and the department.
The department shall identify groups at risk for contracting or transmitting mycobacterium tuberculosis and shall recommend the protocol for screening members of those groups.
Upon report of any person under sub. (1m)
, the local health officer shall at once investigate and make and enforce the necessary orders. If any person does not voluntarily comply with any order made by the local health officer with respect to that person, the local health officer or the department may order a medical evaluation, directly observed therapy or home isolation of that person.
The department or a local health officer may order the confinement to a facility of an individual who has a confirmed diagnosis of infectious tuberculosis or suspect tuberculosis if all of the following conditions are met:
The department or local health officer notifies a court in writing of the confinement.
The department or local health officer provides to the court a written statement from a physician that the individual has infectious tuberculosis or suspect tuberculosis.
The department or local health officer provides to the court evidence that the individual has refused to follow a prescribed treatment regimen or, in the case of an individual with suspect tuberculosis, has refused to undergo a medical examination to confirm whether the individual has infectious tuberculosis.
In the case of an individual with a confirmed diagnosis of infectious tuberculosis, the department or local health officer determines that the individual poses an imminent and substantial threat to himself or herself or to the public health. The department or local health officer shall provide to the court a written statement of that determination.
If the department or local health officer orders the confinement of an individual under this subsection, a law enforcement officer, or other person authorized by the local public health officer, shall transport the individual, if necessary, to a facility that the department or local health officer determines will meet the individual's need for medical evaluation, isolation and treatment.
No individual may be confined under this subsection for more than 72 hours, excluding Saturdays, Sundays and legal holidays, without a court hearing under sub. (9)
to determine whether the confinement should continue.
The department or a local health officer may petition any court for a hearing to determine whether an individual with infectious or suspect tuberculosis should be confined for longer than 72 hours in a facility where proper care and treatment will be provided and spread of the disease will be prevented. The department or local health officer shall include in the petition documentation that demonstrates all of the following:
That the individual named in the petition has infectious tuberculosis; that the individual has noninfectious tuberculosis but is at high risk of developing infectious tuberculosis; or that the individual has suspect tuberculosis.
That the individual has failed to comply with the prescribed treatment regimen or with any rules promulgated by the department under sub. (11)
; or that the disease is resistant to the medication prescribed to the individual.
That all other reasonable means of achieving voluntary compliance with treatment have been exhausted and no less restrictive alternative exists; or that no other medication to treat the resistant disease is available.
That the individual poses an imminent and substantial threat to himself or herself or to the public health.
The department or local health officer shall give the individual written notice of a hearing at least 48 hours before a scheduled hearing is to be held. Notice of the hearing shall include all of the following information:
The grounds, and underlying facts, upon which confinement of the individual is being sought.
An explanation of the individual's rights specified under par. (d)
The proposed actions to be taken and the reasons for each action.
If the court orders confinement of an individual under this subsection, the individual shall remain confined until the department or local health officer, with the concurrence of a treating physician, determines that treatment is complete or that the individual is no longer a substantial threat to himself or herself or to the public health. If the individual is to be confined for more than 6 months, the court shall review the confinement every 6 months.
An individual who is the subject of a petition for a hearing under this subsection has the right to appear at the hearing, the right to present evidence and cross-examine witnesses and the right to be represented by adversary counsel. At the time of the filing of the petition the court shall assure that the individual who is the subject of the petition is represented by adversary counsel. If the individual claims or appears to be indigent, the court shall refer the individual to the authority for indigency determinations specified under s. 977.07 (1)
. If the individual is a child, the court shall refer that child to the state public defender who shall appoint counsel for the child without a determination of indigency, as provided in s. 48.23 (4)
. Unless good cause is shown, a hearing under this subsection may be conducted by telephone or live audiovisual means, if available.
An order issued by the court under this subsection may be appealed as a matter of right. An appeal shall be heard within 30 days after the appeal is filed. An appeal does not stay the order.
Inpatient care for isolated pulmonary tuberculosis patients, and inpatient care exceeding 30 days for other pulmonary tuberculosis patients, who are not eligible for federal medicare benefits, for medical assistance under subch. IV of ch. 49
or for health care services funded by a relief block grant under subch. II of ch. 49
may be reimbursed if provided by a facility contracted by the department. If the patient has private health insurance, the state shall pay the difference between health insurance payments and total charges.
The department may promulgate any rules necessary for the administration and enforcement of this section, including, if necessary to prevent or control the transmission of mycobacterium tuberculosis, rules that require screening of members of specific groups that are at risk for contracting or transmitting mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Public health dispensaries. 252.10(1)
A local health department may request from the department certification to establish and maintain a public health dispensary for the diagnosis and treatment of persons suffering from or suspected of having tuberculosis. Two or more local health departments may jointly establish, operate and maintain public health dispensaries. The department shall certify a local health department to establish and maintain a public health dispensary if the local health department meets the standards established by the department by rule. The department of health and family services may withhold, suspend or revoke a certification if the local health department fails to comply with any rules promulgated by the department. The department shall provide the local health department with reasonable notice of the decision to withhold, suspend or revoke certification. The department shall offer the local health department an opportunity to comply with the rules and an opportunity for a fair hearing. Certified local health departments may contract for public health dispensary services. If the provider of those services fails to comply, the department may suspend or revoke the local health department's certification. The department may establish, operate and maintain public health dispensaries and branches in areas of the state where local authorities have not provided public health dispensaries.
The state shall credit or reimburse each dispensary on an annual or quarterly basis for the operation of public health dispensaries established and maintained in accordance with this section and rules promulgated by the department.
The department shall determine by rule the reimbursement rate under par. (a)
The reimbursement by the state under pars. (a)
shall apply only to funds that the department allocates for the reimbursement under the appropriation under s. 20.435 (5) (e)
Drugs necessary for the treatment of mycobacterium tuberculosis shall be purchased by the department from the appropriation under s. 20.435 (5) (e)
and dispensed to patients through the public health dispensaries, local health departments, physicians or advanced practice nurse prescribers.
Public health dispensaries shall maintain such records as are required by the department to enable them to carry out their responsibilities designated in this section and in rules promulgated by the department. Records may be audited by the department.
All public health dispensaries and branches thereof shall maintain records of costs and receipts which may be audited by the department of health and family services.
History: 1971 c. 81
; 1971 c. 211
; 1973 c. 90
; 1975 c. 39
; 1975 c. 413
; Stats. 1975 s. 149.06; 1977 c. 29
; 1981 c. 20
, 2202 (20) (c)
; 1983 a. 27
; 1985 a. 29
; 1991 a. 39
; 1993 a. 27
; Stats. 1993 s. 252.10, 1993 a. 443
; 1995 a. 27
, 9126 (19)
, 9145 (1)
; 1997 a. 27
; 1999 a. 9
Sexually transmitted disease. 252.11(1)
In this section, "sexually transmitted disease" means syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia and other diseases the department includes by rule.
A physician or other health care professional called to attend a person infected with any form of sexually transmitted disease, as specified in rules promulgated by the department, shall report the disease to the local health officer and to the department in the manner directed by the department in writing on forms furnished by the department. A physician may treat a minor infected with a sexually transmitted disease or examine and diagnose a minor for the presence of such a disease without obtaining the consent of the minor's parents or guardian. The physician shall incur no civil liability solely by reason of the lack of consent of the minor's parents or guardian.
An officer of the department or a local health officer having knowledge of any reported or reasonably suspected case or contact of a sexually transmitted disease for which no appropriate treatment is being administered, or of an actual contact of a reported case or potential contact of a reasonably suspected case, shall investigate or cause the case or contact to be investigated as necessary. If, following a request of an officer of the department or a local health officer, a person reasonably suspected of being infected with a sexually transmitted disease refuses or neglects examination by a physician or treatment, an officer of the department or a local health officer may proceed to have the person committed under sub. (5)
to an institution or system of care for examination, treatment or observation.
If a person infected with a sexually transmitted disease ceases or refuses treatment before reaching what in the physician's opinion is the noncommunicable stage, the physician shall notify the department. The department shall without delay take the necessary steps to have the person committed for treatment or observation under sub. (5)
, or shall notify the local health officer to take these steps.
Any court of record may commit a person infected with a sexually transmitted disease to any institution or may require the person to undergo a system of care for examination, treatment or observation if the person ceases or refuses examination, treatment or observation under the supervision of a physician. The court shall summon the person to appear on a date at least 48 hours, but not more than 96 hours, after service if an officer of the department or a local health officer petitions the court and states the facts authorizing commitment. If the person fails to appear or fails to accept commitment without reasonable cause, the court may cite the person for contempt. The court may issue a warrant and may direct the sheriff, any constable or any police officer of the county immediately to arrest the person and bring the person to court if the court finds that a summons will be ineffectual. The court shall hear the matter of commitment summarily. Commitment under this subsection continues until the disease is no longer communicable or until other provisions are made for treatment that satisfy the department. The certificate of the petitioning officer is prima facie evidence that the disease is no longer communicable or that satisfactory provisions for treatment have been made.
A health care professional, as defined in s. 968.38 (1) (a)
, acting under an order of a court under s. 938.296 (4)
or 968.38 (4)
may, without first obtaining informed consent to the testing, subject an individual to a test or a series of tests to ascertain whether that individual is infected with a sexually transmitted disease. No sample used for performance of a test under this subsection may disclose the name of the test subject.
Reports, examinations and inspections and all records concerning sexually transmitted diseases are confidential and not open to public inspection, and shall not be divulged except as may be necessary for the preservation of the public health, in the course of commitment proceedings under sub. (5)
or as provided under s. 938.296 (4)
or 968.38 (4)
. If a physician has reported a case of sexually transmitted disease to the department under sub. (4)
, information regarding the presence of the disease and treatment is not privileged when the patient or physician is called upon to testify to the facts before any court of record.
The department shall prepare for free distribution upon request to state residents, information and instructions concerning sexually transmitted diseases.
The state laboratory of hygiene shall examine specimens for the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases for any physician or local health officer in the state, and shall report the positive results of the examinations to the local health officer and to the department. All laboratories performing tests for sexually transmitted diseases shall report all positive results to the local health officer and to the department, with the name of the physician to whom reported.
In each county with an incidence of gonorrhea, antibiotic resistant gonorrhea, chlamydia or syphilis that exceeds the statewide average, a program to diagnose and treat sexually transmitted diseases at no cost to the patient is required. The county board of supervisors is responsible for ensuring that the program exists, but is required to establish its own program only if no other public or private program is operating. The department shall compile statistics indicating the incidence of gonorrhea, antibiotic resistant gonorrhea, chlamydia and syphilis for each county in the state.
Services relating to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. 252.12(1)(c)
"Nonprofit corporation" means a nonstock corporation organized under ch. 181
that is a nonprofit corporation, as defined in s. 181.0103 (17)
"Organization" means a nonprofit corporation or a public agency which proposes to provide services to individuals with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
"Public agency" means a county, city, village, town or school district or an agency of this state or of a county, city, village, town or school district.
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome services.
From the appropriations under s. 20.435 (1) (a)
and (5) (am)
, the department shall distribute funds for the provision of services to individuals with or at risk of contracting acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, as follows:
1. `Partner referral and notification.'
The department shall contact an individual known to have received an HIV infection and encourage him or her to refer for counseling and HIV testing any person with whom the individual has had sexual relations or has shared intravenous equipment.
2. `Grants to local projects.'
The department shall make grants to applying organizations for the provision of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome prevention information, the establishment of counseling support groups and the provision of direct care to persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
3. `Statewide public education campaign.'
The department shall promote public awareness of the risk of contracting acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and measures for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome protection by development and distribution of information through clinics providing family planning services, as defined in s. 253.07 (1) (b)
, offices of physicians and clinics for sexually transmitted diseases and by newsletters, public presentations or other releases of information to newspapers, periodicals, radio and television stations and other public information resources. The information would be targeted at individuals whose behavior puts them at risk of contracting acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and would encompass the following topics: