Feed for /1999/statutes/statutes/943 PDF
943.25(3) (3) It is prima facie evidence of an intent to defraud within the meaning of sub. (2) (a) if a person, with knowledge that the security interest exists, removes or sells the property without either the consent of the secured party or authorization by the security agreement and fails within 72 hours after service of written demand for the return of the property either to return it or, in the event that return is not possible, to make full disclosure to the secured party of all the information the person has concerning its disposition, location and possession.
943.25(4) (4) In this section "security interest" means an interest in property which secures payment or other performance of an obligation; "security agreement" means the agreement creating the security interest; "secured party" means the person designated in the security agreement as the person in whose favor there is a security interest or, in the case of an assignment of which the debtor has been notified, the assignee.
943.25(5) (5) In prosecutions for violation of sub. (2) arising out of transfers of livestock subject to a security agreement in violation of the terms of the security agreement, evidence that the debtor who transferred the livestock signed or endorsed any writing arising from the transaction, including a check or draft, which states that the transfer of the livestock is permitted by the secured party establishes a rebuttable presumption of intent to defraud.
943.25 History History: 1977 c. 173; 1979 c. 144; 1993 a. 486.
943.25 Annotation It is not necessary that a security interest be perfected by filing to support a conviction under this section. State v. Tew, 54 Wis. 2d 361, 195 N.W.2d 615.
943.25 Annotation "Removal" under sub. (2) (a) refers to a permanent change in situs, not necessarily across state lines. A showing of diligence by the secured party in seeking the secured property is not required. Jameson v. State, 74 Wis. 2d 176, 246 N.W.2d 501.
943.25 Annotation Sub. (1) is not unconstitutionally vague. Liens were effective as encumbrances on the date work was performed or materials supplied. State v. Lunz, 86 Wis. 2d 695, 273 N.W.2d 767 (1979).
943.26 943.26 Removing or damaging encumbered real property.
943.26(1)(1) Any mortgagor of real property or vendee under a land contract who, without the consent of the mortgagee or vendor, intentionally removes or damages the real property so as to substantially impair the mortgagee's or vendor's security is guilty of a Class A misdemeanor.
943.26(2) (2) If the security is impaired by more than $1,000, the mortgagor or vendee is guilty of a Class E felony.
943.26 History History: 1977 c. 173.
943.27 943.27 Possession of records of certain usurious loans. Any person who knowingly possesses any writing representing or constituting a record of a charge of, contract for, receipt of or demand for a rate of interest or consideration exceeding $20 upon $100 for one year computed upon the declining principal balance of the loan, use or forbearance of money, goods or things in action or upon the loan, use or sale of credit is, if the rate is prohibited by a law other than this section, guilty of a Class E felony.
943.27 History History: 1977 c. 173; 1979 c. 168.
943.28 943.28 Loan sharking prohibited.
943.28(1) (1) For the purposes of this section:
943.28(1)(a) (a) To collect an extension of credit means to induce in any way any person to make repayment thereof.
943.28(1)(b) (b) An extortionate extension of credit is any extension of credit with respect to which it is the understanding of the creditor and the debtor at the time it is made that delay in making repayment or failure to make repayment could result in the use of violence or other criminal means to cause harm to the person, reputation or property of any person.
943.28(1)(c) (c) An extortionate means is any means which involves the use, or an express or implicit threat of use, of violence or other criminal means to cause harm to the person, reputation or property of any person.
943.28(2) (2) Whoever makes any extortionate extension of credit, or conspires to do so, if one or more of the parties to the conspiracy does an act to effect its object, is guilty of a Class C felony.
943.28(3) (3) Whoever advances money or property, whether as a gift, as a loan, as an investment, pursuant to a partnership or profit-sharing agreement, or otherwise, for the purpose of making extortionate extensions of credit, is guilty of a Class C felony.
943.28(4) (4) Whoever knowingly participates in any way in the use of any extortionate means to collect or attempt to collect any extension of credit, or to punish any person for the nonrepayment thereof, is guilty of a Class C felony.
943.28 History History: 1977 c. 173; 1995 a. 225.
943.28 Annotation An extortionate extension of credit under sub. (1) (b) is not restricted to the original extension of credit, but includes renewals of loans. State v. Green, 208 Wis. 2d 290, 560 N.W.2d 295 (Ct. App. 1997).
943.30 943.30 Threats to injure or accuse of crime.
943.30(1) (1) Whoever, either verbally or by any written or printed communication, maliciously threatens to accuse or accuses another of any crime or offense, or threatens or commits any injury to the person, property, business, profession, calling or trade, or the profits and income of any business, profession, calling or trade of another, with intent thereby to extort money or any pecuniary advantage whatever, or with intent to compel the person so threatened to do any act against the person's will or omit to do any lawful act, is guilty of a Class D felony.
943.30(2) (2) Whoever violates sub. (1) by obstructing, delaying or affecting commerce or business or the movement of any article or commodity in commerce or business is guilty of a Class D felony.
943.30(3) (3) Whoever violates sub. (1) by attempting to influence any petit or grand juror, in the performance of his or her functions as such, is guilty of a Class D felony.
943.30(4) (4) Whoever violates sub. (1) by attempting to influence the official action of any public officer is guilty of a Class D felony.
943.30(5) (5)
943.30(5)(a)(a) In this subsection, "patient health care records" has the meaning given in s. 146.81 (4).
943.30(5)(b) (b) Whoever, orally or by any written or printed communication, maliciously uses, or threatens to use, the patient health care records of another person, with intent thereby to extort money or any pecuniary advantage, or with intent to compel the person so threatened to do any act against the person's will or omit to do any lawful act, is guilty of a Class D felony.
943.30 History History: 1977 c. 173; 1979 c. 110; 1981 c. 118; 1997 a. 231.
943.30 Annotation Commencement of a threat need not occur in Wisconsin to support an extortion charge venued in Wisconsin. State v. Kelly, 148 Wis. 2d 774, 436 N.W.2d 883 (Ct. App. 1989).
943.30 Annotation A threat to falsely testify unless paid, in violation of criminal law, is a threat to property within the purview of sub. (1). State v. Manthey, 169 Wis. 2d 673, 487 N.W.2d 44 (Ct. App. 1992).
943.30 Annotation Extortion is not a lesser included offense of robbery. Convictions for both is not precluded. State v. Dauer, 174 Wis. 2d 418, 497 N.W.2d 766 (Ct. App. 1993).
943.30 Annotation A threat to one's education constitutes a threat to one's profession under sub. (1), and a threat to terminate promised financial support could constitute a threat to property. State v. Kittilstad, 231 Wis. 2d 245, 603 N.W.2d 732 (1999).
943.30 Annotation A claim under this section is governed by 6-year limitation period under s. 893.93 (1) (a). Elbe v. Wausau Hosp. Center, 606 F. Supp. 1491 (1985).
943.31 943.31 Threats to communicate derogatory information. Whoever threatens to communicate to anyone information, whether true or false, which would injure the reputation of the threatened person or another unless the threatened person transfers property to a person known not to be entitled to it is guilty of a Class E felony.
943.31 History History: 1977 c. 173.
943.31 Annotation A threat to injure a manager's reputation unless a job is offered violated this section. State v. Gilkes, 118 Wis. 2d 149, 345 N.W.2d 531 (Ct. App. 1984).
943.32 943.32 Robbery.
943.32(1)(1) Whoever, with intent to steal, takes property from the person or presence of the owner by either of the following means is guilty of a Class C felony:
943.32(1)(a) (a) By using force against the person of the owner with intent thereby to overcome his or her physical resistance or physical power of resistance to the taking or carrying away of the property; or
943.32(1)(b) (b) By threatening the imminent use of force against the person of the owner or of another who is present with intent thereby to compel the owner to acquiesce in the taking or carrying away of the property.
943.32(2) (2) Whoever violates sub. (1) by use or threat of use of a dangerous weapon, a device or container described under s. 941.26 (4) (a) or any article used or fashioned in a manner to lead the victim reasonably to believe that it is a dangerous weapon or such a device or container is guilty of a Class B felony.
943.32(3) (3) In this section "owner" means a person in possession of property whether the person's possession is lawful or unlawful.
943.32 History History: 1977 c. 173; 1979 c. 114; 1993 a. 486; 1995 a. 288.
943.32 Annotation While a person who by use of force or a gun seeks to repossess for himself specific property that he owns, and to which he has the present right of possession, might not have the intention to steal, the taking of money from a debtor by force to pay a debt is robbery unless the accused can trace his ownership to the specific coins and bills in the possession of the debtor. Edwards v. State, 49 Wis. 2d 105, 181 N.W.2d 383.
943.32 Annotation Since attempted robbery requires proof of elements in addition to those elements required to prove burglary, they are separate and distinct crimes. State v. DiMaggio, 49 Wis. 2d 565, 182 N.W.2d 466.
943.32 Annotation It is error not to instruct on the allegations that the defendant was armed and that he attempted to conceal his identity, but it is harmless error where the facts are uncontroverted. Claybrooks v. State, 50 Wis. 2d 79, 183 N.W.2d 139.
943.32 Annotation On a charge of armed robbery, the court should instruct as to the definition of a dangerous weapon, but the error is harmless where all the evidence is to the effect that the defendant had a gun. Claybrooks v. State, 50 Wis. 2d 87, 183 N.W.2d 143.
943.32 Annotation If the evidence is clear that the defendant was armed, the court need not submit a verdict of unarmed robbery. Kimmons v. State, 51 Wis. 2d 266, 186 N.W.2d 308.
943.32 Annotation An information charging armed robbery is void if it fails to allege the use or threat of force to overcome the owner's resistance. Champlain v. State, 53 Wis. 2d 751, 193 N.W.2d 868.
943.32 Annotation Theft is a lesser included offense of the crime of robbery. Both require asportation. Moore v. State, 55 Wis. 2d 1, 197 N.W.2d 820.
943.32 Annotation Taking a pouch from the victim by force and in such a manner as to overcome any physical resistance or power of resistance constituted robbery and not theft under s. 943.20. Walton v. State, 64 Wis. 2d 36, 218 N.W.2d 309.
943.32 Annotation When a victim testified that defendant's accomplice held an object to his throat while the defendant took money from his person and the defendant testified that no robbery whatsoever occurred, the jury was presented with no evidence indicating that a robbery absent the threat of force had occurred, and it was not error to deny the defendant's request for an instruction on theft from a person. State v. Powers, 66 Wis. 2d 84, 224 N.W.2d 206.
943.32 Annotation When a defendant lost money to a dice cheat and thereafter recovered a similar amount at gunpoint, the jury could convict despite the defendant's claim that the bills recovered were those lost. Austin v. State, 86 Wis. 2d 213, 271 N.W.2d 668 (1978).
943.32 Annotation Sub. (1) states one offense that may be committed by alternate means. The jury was properly instructed in the disjunctive on the force element. Manson v. State, 101 Wis. 2d 413, 304 N.W.2d 729 (1981).
943.32 Annotation Armed robbery can be the natural and probable consequence of robbery. In such case, an aider and abettor need not have had actual knowledge that the principals would be armed. State v. Ivey, 119 Wis. 2d 591, 350 N.W.2d 622 (1984).
943.32 Annotation If the defendant commits a robbery while merely possessing a dangerous weapon, the penalty enhancer under s. 939.63 is applicable. State v. Robinson, 140 Wis. 2d 673, 412 N.W.2d 535 (Ct. App. 1987).
943.32 Annotation A defendant's lack of intent to make a victim believe the defendant is armed is irrelevant in finding a violation of sub. (2); if the victim's belief that the defendant was armed is reasonable, that is enough. State v. Hubanks, 173 Wis. 2d 1, 496 N.W.2d 96 (Ct. App. 1992).
943.32 Annotation Extortion is not a lesser included offense of robbery. Convictions for both is not precluded. State v. Dauer, 174 Wis. 2d 418, 497 N.W.2d 766 (Ct. App. 1993).
943.32 Annotation This statute does not require a specific intent that property that is demanded actually be transferred. State v. Voss, 205 Wis. 2d 586, 556 N.W.2d 433 (Ct. App. 1996).
943.32 Annotation Asportation, or carrying away, is an element of robbery. The asportation requirement provides a bright line distinction between attempt and robbery. There is no exception for an automobile that is entered by force, but cannot be moved by the defendant. State v. Johnson, 207 Wis. 2d 240, 558 N.W.2d 375 (1997).
943.32 Annotation Letting Armed Robbery Get Away: An Analysis of Wisconsin's Armed Robbery Statute. Goodstein. 1998 WLR 591.
943.34 943.34 Receiving stolen property.
943.34(1) (1) Except as provided under s. 948.62, whoever intentionally receives or conceals stolen property is guilty of:
943.34(1)(a) (a) A Class A misdemeanor, if the value of the property does not exceed $1,000.
943.34(1)(b) (b) A Class E felony, if the value of the property exceeds $1,000 but not more than $2,500.
943.34(1)(c) (c) A Class C felony, if the value of the property exceeds $2,500.
943.34(2) (2) In any action or proceeding for a violation of sub. (1), a party may use duly identified and authenticated photographs of property which was the subject of the violation in lieu of producing the property.
943.34 History History: 1977 c. 173; 1987 a. 266, 332; 1991 a. 39.
943.34 Annotation The fact that sequentially received stolen property was purchased for a lump sum is an insufficient basis to aggregate the value of the property; the crime of receiving stolen property does not require payment. State v. Spraggin, 71 Wis. 2d 604, 239 N.W.2d 297.
943.37 943.37 Alteration of property identification marks. Whoever does any of the following with intent to prevent the identification of the property involved is guilty of a Class A misdemeanor:
943.37(1) (1) Alters or removes any identification mark on any log or other lumber without the consent of the owner; or
943.37(2) (2) Alters or removes any identification mark from any receptacle used by the manufacturer of any beverage; or
943.37(3) (3) Alters or removes any manufacturer's identification number on personal property or possesses any personal property with knowledge that the manufacturer's identification number has been removed or altered. Possession of 2 or more similar items of personal property with the manufacturer's identification number altered or removed is prima facie evidence of knowledge of the alteration or removal and of an intent to prevent identification of the property.
943.37(4) (4) Alters or removes livestock brands, recorded under s. 95.11, from any animal without the owner's consent, or possesses any livestock with knowledge that the brand has been altered or removed without the owner's knowledge or consent.
943.37 History History: 1973 c. 239; 1977 c. 173.
943.37 Annotation "Similar" under (3) means comparable or substantially alike. State v. Hamilton, 146 Wis. 2d 426, 432 N.W.2d 108 (Ct. App. 1988).
943.38 943.38 Forgery.
943.38(1)(1) Whoever with intent to defraud falsely makes or alters a writing or object of any of the following kinds so that it purports to have been made by another, or at another time, or with different provisions, or by authority of one who did not give such authority, is guilty of a Class C felony:
943.38(1)(a) (a) A writing or object whereby legal rights or obligations are created, terminated or transferred, or any writing commonly relied upon in business or commercial transactions as evidence of debt or property rights; or
943.38(1)(b) (b) A public record or a certified or authenticated copy thereof; or
943.38(1)(c) (c) An official authentication or certification of a copy of a public record; or
943.38(1)(d) (d) An official return or certificate entitled to be received as evidence of its contents.
943.38(2) (2) Whoever utters as genuine or possesses with intent to utter as false or as genuine any forged writing or object mentioned in sub. (1), knowing it to have been thus falsely made or altered, is guilty of a Class C felony.
943.38(3) (3) Whoever, with intent to defraud, does any of the following is guilty of a Class A misdemeanor:
943.38(3)(a) (a) Falsely makes or alters any object so that it appears to have value because of antiquity, rarity, source or authorship which it does not possess; or possesses any such object knowing it to have been thus falsely made or altered and with intent to transfer it as original and genuine, by sale or for security purposes; or
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This is an archival version of the Wis. Stats. database for 1999. See Are the Statutes on this Website Official?