Taken into custody under s. 938.19
and there are reasonable grounds to believe the juvenile has committed an act which if committed by an adult would be covered under subd. 1.
Arrested for any misdemeanor not specified in subd. 2.
, any other violation of state law punishable by forfeiture or any local ordinance if there is probable cause to believe the person is concealing a weapon or a thing which may constitute evidence of the offense for which he or she is detained.
"Strip search" means a search in which a detained person's genitals, pubic area, buttock or anus, or a detained female person's breast, is uncovered and either is exposed to view or is touched by a person conducting the search.
No person may be the subject of a strip search unless he or she is a detained person and if:
The person conducting the search is of the same sex as the person detained, unless the search is a body cavity search conducted under sub. (3)
The detained person is not exposed to the view of any person not conducting the search;
The search is not reproduced through a visual or sound recording;
A person conducting the search has obtained the prior written permission of the chief, sheriff or law enforcement administrator of the jurisdiction where the person is detained, or his or her designee, unless there is probable cause to believe that the detained person is concealing a weapon; and
A person conducting the search prepares a report identifying the person detained, all persons conducting the search, the time, date and place of the search and the written authorization required by par. (d)
, and provides a copy of the report to the person detained.
No person other than a physician, physician assistant or registered nurse licensed to practice in this state may conduct a body cavity search.
A person who intentionally violates this section may be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned not more than 90 days or both.
This section does not limit the rights of any person to civil damages or injunctive relief.
A law enforcement agency, as defined in s. 165.83 (1) (b)
, may promulgate rules concerning strip searches which at least meet the minimum requirements of this section.
This section does not apply to a search of any person who:
Is serving a sentence, pursuant to a conviction, in a jail, state prison or house of correction.
Intrusive searches of the mouth, nose or ears are not covered by sub. (3). However, searches of those body orifices should be conducted by medical personnel to comply with the 4th and 5th amendments. 71 Atty. Gen. 12
Search of physically disabled person. 968.256(1)
In this section, "physically disabled person" means a person who requires an assistive device for mobility, including, but not limited to, a wheelchair, brace, crutch or artificial limb.
A search of a physically disabled person shall be conducted in a careful manner. If a search of a physically disabled person requires the removal of an assistive device or involves a person lacking sensation in some portion of his or her body, the search shall be conducted with extreme care by a person who has had training in handling physically disabled persons.
History: 1979 c. 240
John Doe proceeding.
If a person complains to a judge that he or she has reason to believe that a crime has been committed within his or her jurisdiction, the judge shall examine the complainant under oath and any witnesses produced by him or her and may, and at the request of the district attorney shall, subpoena and examine other witnesses to ascertain whether a crime has been committed and by whom committed. The extent to which the judge may proceed in the examination is within the judge's discretion. The examination may be adjourned and may be secret. Any witness examined under this section may have counsel present at the examination but the counsel shall not be allowed to examine his or her client, cross-examine other witnesses or argue before the judge. If it appears probable from the testimony given that a crime has been committed and who committed it, the complaint may be reduced to writing and signed and verified; and thereupon a warrant shall issue for the arrest of the accused. Subject to s. 971.23
, if the proceeding is secret, the record of the proceeding and the testimony taken shall not be open to inspection by anyone except the district attorney unless it is used by the prosecution at the preliminary hearing or the trial of the accused and then only to the extent that it is so used. A court, on the motion of a district attorney, may compel a person to testify or produce evidence under s. 972.08 (1)
. The person is immune from prosecution as provided in s. 972.08 (1)
, subject to the restrictions under s. 972.085
History: 1989 a. 122
; 1991 a. 88
A defendant must be allowed to use testimony of witnesses at a secret John Doe proceeding to impeach the same witnesses at the trial, even if the prosecution does not use the John Doe testimony. Myers v. State, 60 Wis. 2d 248
, 208 N.W.2d 311
An immunity hearing must be in open court. State ex rel. Newspapers, Inc. v. Circuit Court, 65 Wis. 2d 66
, 221 N.W.2d 894
A person charged as a result of a John Doe proceeding has no recognized interest in the maintenance of secrecy in that proceeding. John Doe proceedings are discussed. State v. O'Connor, 77 Wis. 2d 261
, 252 N.W.2d 671
No restrictions under the 4th and 5th amendments preclude the enforcement of an order for handwriting exemplars directed by a presiding judge in a John Doe proceeding. State v. Doe, 78 Wis. 2d 161
, 254 N.W.2d 210
Due process does not require that a John Doe witness be advised of the nature of the proceeding or that the witness is a "target" of the investigation. Ryan v. State, 79 Wis. 2d 83
, 255 N.W.2d 910
This section does not violate the constitutional separation of powers doctrine. John Doe proceedings are discussed. State v. Washington, 83 Wis. 2d 808
, 266 N.W.2d 597
A balance between the public's right to know and the need for secrecy in John Doe proceedings is discussed. In re Wis. Family Counseling Services v. State, 95 Wis. 2d 670
, 291 N.W.2d 631
(Ct. App. 1980).
A John Doe judge may not issue a material witness warrant under s. 969.01 (3). State v. Brady, 118 Wis. 2d 154
, 345 N.W.2d 533
(Ct. App. 1984).
When a John Doe proceeding is not a joint executive and judicial undertaking,the procedure does not violate the separation of powers doctrine and is constitutional. State v. Unnamed Defendant, 150 Wis. 2d 352
, 441 N.W.2d 696
A John Doe judge may issue and seal a search warrant and a district attorney may independently issue a criminal complaint regardless of the existence of the John Doe. A John Doe cannot be used to obtain evidence against a defendant who has already been charged. State v. Cummings, 199 Wis. 2d 722
, 546 N.W.2d 406
To be entitled to a hearing, a John Doe complainant must do more than merely allege in conclusory terms that a crime has been committed. The complainant's petition must allege facts that raise a reasonable belief that a crime has been committed. State ex rel. Reimann v. Circuit Court for Dane County, 214 Wis. 2d 604
, 571 N.W.2d 385
Limits of judge's authority in presiding over or conducting John Doe proceeding discussed. 76 Atty. Gen. 217
"Aggrieved person" means a person who was a party to any intercepted wire, electronic or oral communication or a person against whom the interception was directed.
"Aural transfer" means a transfer containing the human voice at any point from the point of origin to the point of reception.
"Contents" when used with respect to any wire, electronic or oral communication, includes any information concerning the substance, purport or meaning of that communication.
"Electronic communication" means any transfer of signs, signals, writing, images, sounds, data or intelligence of any nature wholly or partially transmitted by a wire, radio, electromagnetic, photoelectronic or photooptical system. "Electronic communication" does not include any of the following:
The radio portion of a cordless telephone communication that is transmitted between the cordless telephone handset and the base unit.
Any communication made through a tone-only paging device.
"Electronic communication service" means any service that provides its users with the ability to send or receive wire or electronic communications.
"Electronic communications system" means any wire, radio, electromagnetic, photooptical or photoelectronic facilities for the transmission of electronic communications, and any computer facilities or related electronic equipment for the electronic storage of those communications.
"Electronic, mechanical or other device" means any device or apparatus which can be used to intercept a wire, electronic or oral communication other than:
Any telephone or telegraph instrument, equipment or facilities, or any component thereof, which is:
Furnished to the subscriber or user by a provider of electronic or wire communication service in the ordinary course of its business and being used by the subscriber or user in the ordinary course of its business or furnished by the subscriber or user for connection to the facilities of the service and used in the ordinary course of its business; or
Being used by a provider of electronic or wire communication service in the ordinary course of its business, or by a law enforcement officer in the ordinary course of his or her duties.
A hearing aid or similar device being used to correct subnormal hearing to not better than normal.
"Electronic storage" means any of the following:
Any temporary, intermediate storage of a wire or electronic communication incidental to the electronic transmission thereof.
Any storage of a wire or electronic communication by an electronic communication service for purposes of backup protection of the communication.
"Intercept" means the aural or other acquisition of the contents of any wire, electronic or oral communication through the use of any electronic, mechanical or other device.
"Investigative or law enforcement officer" means any officer of this state or political subdivision thereof, who is empowered by the laws of this state to conduct investigations of or to make arrests for offenses enumerated in ss. 968.28
, and any attorney authorized by law to prosecute or participate in the prosecution of those offenses.
"Judge" means the judge sitting at the time an application is made under s. 968.30
or his or her successor.
"Oral communication" means any oral communication uttered by a person exhibiting an expectation that the communication is not subject to interception under circumstances justifying the expectation. "Oral communication" does not include any electronic communication.
"Pen register" means a device that records or decodes electronic or other impulses that identify the numbers dialed or otherwise transmitted on the telephone line to which the device is attached. "Pen register" does not include any device used by a provider or customer of a wire or electronic communication service for billing, or recording as an incident to billing, for communications services provided by the provider or any device used by a provider or customer of a wire communication service for cost accounting or other like purposes in the ordinary course of its business.
"Readily accessible to the general public" means, with respect to a radio communication, that the communication is not any of the following:
Transmitted using modulation techniques whose essential parameters have been withheld from the public with the intention of preserving the privacy of the communication.
Carried on a subcarrier or other signal subsidiary to a radio transmission.
Transmitted over a communication system provided by a common carrier, including a commercial mobile radio service provider, as defined in s. 196.01 (2g)
, unless the communication is a tone-only paging system communication.
Transmitted on frequencies allocated under 47 CFR part 25
, subpart D, E or F of part 74, or part 94, unless in the case of a communication transmitted on a frequency allocated under 47 CFR part 74
that is not exclusively allocated to broadcast auxiliary services, the communication is a 2-way voice communication by radio.
"Trap and trace device" means a device that captures the incoming electronic or other impulses that identify the originating number of an instrument or device from which a wire or electronic communication was transmitted.
"User" means any person who or entity that:
Is duly authorized by the provider of the service to engage in that use.
"Wire communication" means any aural transfer made in whole or in part through the use of facilities for the transmission of communications by the aid of wire, cable, microwave or other like connection between the point of origin and the point of reception, including the use of the connection in any switching station, furnished or operated by any person engaged as a public utility in providing or operating the facilities for the transmission of intrastate, interstate or foreign communications. "Wire communication" includes the electronic storage of any such aural transfer, but does not include the radio portion of a cordless telephone communication that is transmitted between the cordless telephone handset and the base unit.
The constitutionality of ss. 968.27 to 968.30 is upheld. State ex rel. Hussong v. Froelich, 62 Wis. 2d 577
, 215 N.W.2d 390
An informant who is party to a tape recorded telephone conversation also acquired the conversation in his mind, regardless of the use of tape recorder; that acquisition is not an "intercept." The informant may testify to the conversation without use of the recording. State v. Maloney, 161 Wis. 2d 127
, 467 N.W.2d 215
(Ct. App. 1991).
Application for court order to intercept communications.
The attorney general together with the district attorney of any county may approve a request of an investigative or law enforcement officer to apply to the chief judge of the judicial administrative district for the county where the interception is to take place for an order authorizing or approving the interception of wire, electronic or oral communications. The chief judge may under s. 968.30
grant an order authorizing or approving the interception of wire, electronic or oral communications by investigative or law enforcement officers having responsibility for the investigation of the offense for which the application is made. The authorization shall be permitted only if the interception may provide or has provided evidence of the commission of the offense of homicide, felony murder, kidnapping, commercial gambling, bribery, extortion, dealing in controlled substances or controlled substance analogs, a computer crime that is a felony under s. 943.70
, or any conspiracy to commit any of the foregoing offenses.
Authorization for disclosure and use of intercepted wire, electronic or oral communications. 968.29(1)
Any investigative or law enforcement officer who, by any means authorized by ss. 968.28
or 18 USC 2510
, has obtained knowledge of the contents of any wire, electronic or oral communication, or evidence derived therefrom, may disclose the contents to another investigative or law enforcement officer only to the extent that the disclosure is appropriate to the proper performance of the official duties of the officer making or receiving the disclosure.
Any investigative or law enforcement officer who, by any means authorized by ss. 968.28
or 18 USC 2510
, has obtained knowledge of the contents of any wire, electronic or oral communication or evidence derived therefrom may use the contents only to the extent the use is appropriate to the proper performance of the officer's official duties.
Any person who has received, by any means authorized by ss. 968.28
or 18 USC 2510
or by a like statute of any other state, any information concerning a wire, electronic or oral communication or evidence derived therefrom intercepted in accordance with ss. 968.28
, may disclose the contents of that communication or that derivative evidence only while giving testimony under oath or affirmation in any proceeding in any court or before any magistrate or grand jury in this state, or in any court of the United States or of any state, or in any federal or state grand jury proceeding.
In addition to the disclosure provisions of par. (a)
, any person who has received, in the manner described under s. 968.31 (2) (b)
, any information concerning a wire, electronic or oral communication or evidence derived therefrom, may disclose the contents of that communication or that derivative evidence while giving testimony under oath or affirmation in any proceeding described in par. (a)
in which a person is accused of any act constituting a felony, and only if the party who consented to the interception is available to testify at the proceeding or if another witness is available to authenticate the recording.