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Effective date text (j) A substance included in schedule V, may be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned for not more than 2 years or both.
961.41(1n) (1n)Piperidine possession.
961.41(1n)(a)(a) No person may possess any quantity of piperidine or its salts with the intent to use the piperidine or its salts to manufacture a controlled substance or controlled substance analog in violation of this chapter.
961.41(1n)(b) (b) No person may possess any quantity of piperidine or its salts if he or she knows or has reason to know that the piperidine or its salts will be used to manufacture a controlled substance or controlled substance analog in violation of this chapter.
961.41(1n)(c) (c) A person who violates par. (a) or (b) is guilty of a Class F felony.
Effective date note NOTE: Par. (c) is shown as amended eff. 2-1-03 by 2001 Wis. Act 109. Prior to 2-1-03 it reads:
Effective date text (c) A person who violates par. (a) or (b) may be fined not more than $250,000 or imprisoned for not more than 15 years or both.
961.41(1q) (1q)Penalty relating to tetrahydrocannabinols in certain cases. Under s. 961.49 (2), 1999 stats., and subs. (1) (h) and (1m) (h), if different penalty provisions apply to a person depending on whether the weight of tetrahydrocannabinols or the number of plants containing tetrahydrocannabinols is considered, the greater penalty provision applies.
Effective date note NOTE: Sub. (1q) is shown as amended eff. 2-1-03 by 2001 Wis. Act 109. Prior to 2-1-03 it reads:
Effective date text (1q) Penalty relating to tetrahydrocannabinols in certain cases. Under subs. (1) (h) and (1m) (h) and s. 961.49 (2), if different penalty provisions apply to a person depending on whether the weight of tetrahydrocannabinols or the number of plants containing tetrahydrocannabinols is considered, the greater penalty provision applies.
961.41(1r) (1r)Determining weight of substance. In determining amounts under s. 961.49 (2) (b), 1999 stats., and subs. (1) and (1m), an amount includes the weight of cocaine, cocaine base, heroin, phencyclidine, lysergic acid diethylamide, psilocin, psilocybin, amphetamine, methamphetamine, methcathinone or tetrahydrocannabinols or any controlled substance analog of any of these substances together with any compound, mixture, diluent, plant material or other substance mixed or combined with the controlled substance or controlled substance analog. In addition, in determining amounts under subs. (1) (h) and (1m) (h), the amount of tetrahydrocannabinols means anything included under s. 961.14 (4) (t) and includes the weight of any marijuana.
Effective date note NOTE: Sub. (1r) is shown as amended eff. 2-1-03 by 2001 Wis. Act 109. Prior to 2-1-03 it reads:
Effective date text (1r) Determining weight of substance. In determining amounts under subs. (1) and (1m) and s. 961.49 (2) (b), an amount includes the weight of cocaine, cocaine base, heroin, phencyclidine, lysergic acid diethylamide, psilocin, psilocybin, amphetamine, methamphetamine, methcathinone or tetrahydrocannabinols or any controlled substance analog of any of these substances together with any compound, mixture, diluent, plant material or other substance mixed or combined with the controlled substance or controlled substance analog. In addition, in determining amounts under subs. (1) (h) and (1m) (h), the amount of tetrahydrocannabinols means anything included under s. 961.14 (4) (t) and includes the weight of any marijuana.
961.41(1x) (1x)Conspiracy. Any person who conspires, as specified in s. 939.31, to commit a crime under sub. (1) (cm) to (h) or (1m) (cm) to (h) is subject to the applicable penalties under sub. (1) (cm) to (h) or (1m) (cm) to (h).
961.41(2) (2)Counterfeit substances. Except as authorized by this chapter, it is unlawful for any person to create, manufacture, distribute, deliver or possess with intent to distribute or deliver, a counterfeit substance. Any person who violates this subsection is subject to the following penalties:
961.41(2)(a) (a) Counterfeit schedule I and II narcotic drugs. If a person violates this subsection with respect to a counterfeit substance included in schedule I or II which is a narcotic drug, the person is guilty of a Class E felony.
961.41(2)(b) (b) Counterfeit schedule I, II, III, and IV drugs. Except as provided in pars. (bm) and (cm), if a person violates this subsection with respect to any other counterfeit substance included in schedule I, II, III, or IV, the person is guilty of a Class H felony.
961.41(2)(bm) (bm) A counterfeit substance that is a counterfeit of phencyclidine, methamphetamine, lysergic acid diethylamide, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, gamma-butyrolactone, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxy-beta-phenylethyl- amine, 4-methylthioamphetamine, or ketamine is punishable by the applicable fine and imprisonment for manufacture, distribution, delivery, or possession with intent to manufacture, distribute, or deliver, of the genuine controlled substance under sub. (1) or (1m).
961.41(2)(cm) (cm) Counterfeit flunitrazepam. A counterfeit substance which is flunitrazepam, is punishable by the applicable fine and imprisonment for manufacture, distribution, delivery, or possession with intent to manufacture, distribute, or deliver, of the genuine controlled substance under sub. (1) or (1m).
961.41(2)(d) (d) Counterfeit schedule V drugs. If a person violates this subsection with respect to a counterfeit substance included in schedule V, the person is guilty of a Class I felony.
Effective date note NOTE: Sub. (2) is shown as affected eff. 2-1-03 by 2001 Wis. Act 109. Prior to 2-1-03 it reads:
Effective date text (2) Counterfeit substances. Except as authorized by this chapter, it is unlawful for any person to create, manufacture, distribute, deliver or possess with intent to distribute or deliver, a counterfeit substance. Any person who violates this subsection with respect to:
961.41 Note (a) A counterfeit substance included in schedule I or II which is a narcotic drug, may be fined not more than $25,000 or imprisoned for not more than 22 years and 6 months or both.
961.41 Note (b) Except as provided in pars. (a) and (bm), any counterfeit substance included in schedule I, II or III, may be fined not more than $15,000 or imprisoned for not more than 7 years and 6 months or both.
961.41 Note (bm) A counterfeit substance that is a counterfeit of phencyclidine, methamphetamine, lysergic acid diethylamide, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, gamma-butyrolactone, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxy-beta-phenylethyl- amine, 4-methylthioamphetamine, or ketamine is punishable by the applicable fine and imprisonment for manufacture, distribution, delivery, or possession with intent to manufacture, distribute, or deliver, of the genuine controlled substance under sub. (1) or (1m).
961.41 Note (c) Except as provided in par. (cm), a counterfeit substance included in schedule IV, may be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned for not more than 4 years and 6 months or both.
961.41 Note (cm) A counterfeit substance which is flunitrazepam, is punishable by the applicable fine and imprisonment for manufacture, distribution, delivery, or possession with intent to manufacture, distribute, or deliver, of the genuine controlled substance under sub. (1) or (1m).
961.41 Note (d) A counterfeit substance included in schedule V, may be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned for not more than 2 years or both.
961.41(3g) (3g)Possession. No person may possess or attempt to possess a controlled substance or a controlled substance analog unless the person obtains the substance or the analog directly from, or pursuant to a valid prescription or order of, a practitioner who is acting in the course of his or her professional practice, or unless the person is otherwise authorized by this chapter to possess the substance or the analog. Any person who violates this subsection is subject to the following penalties:
961.41(3g)(am) (am) Schedule I and II narcotic drugs. If a person possesses a controlled substance included in schedule I or II which is a narcotic drug, or possesses a controlled substance analog of a controlled substance included in schedule I or II which is a narcotic drug, the person is guilty of a Class I felony.
961.41(3g)(b) (b) Other drugs generally. Except as provided in pars. (c), (d), (e) and (f), if the person possesses or attempts to possess a controlled substance or controlled substance analog, other than a controlled substance included in schedule I or II that is a narcotic drug or a controlled substance analog of a controlled substance included in schedule I or II that is a narcotic drug, the person is guilty of a misdemeanor, punishable under s. 939.61.
961.41(3g)(c) (c) Cocaine and cocaine base. If a person possess or attempts to possess cocaine or cocaine base, or a controlled substance analog of cocaine or cocaine base, the person shall be fined not more than $5,000 and may be imprisoned for not more than one year in the county jail upon a first conviction and is guilty of a Class I felony for a 2nd or subsequent offense. For purposes of this paragraph, an offense is considered a 2nd or subsequent offense if, prior to the offender's conviction of the offense, the offender has at any time been convicted of any felony or misdemeanor under this chapter or under any statute of the United States or of any state relating to controlled substances, controlled substance analogs, narcotic drugs, marijuana, or depressant, stimulant, or hallucinogenic drugs.
961.41(3g)(d) (d) Certain hallucinogenic and stimulant drugs. If a person possesses or attempts to possess lysergic acid diethylamide, phencyclidine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, methcathinone, psilocin or psilocybin, or a controlled substance analog of lysergic acid diethylamide, phencyclidine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, methcathinone, psilocin or psilocybin, the person may be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned for not more than one year in the county jail or both upon a first conviction and is guilty of a Class I felony for a 2nd or subsequent offense. For purposes of this paragraph, an offense is considered a 2nd or subsequent offense if, prior to the offender's conviction of the offense, the offender has at any time been convicted of any felony or misdemeanor under this chapter or under any statute of the United States or of any state relating to controlled substances, controlled substance analogs, narcotic drugs, marijuana, or depressant, stimulant, or hallucinogenic drugs.
961.41(3g)(e) (e) Tetrahydrocannabinols. If a person possesses or attempts to possess tetrahydrocannabinols included under s. 961.14 (4) (t), or a controlled substance analog of tetrahydrocannabinols, the person may be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned for not more than 6 months or both upon a first conviction and is guilty of a Class I felony for a 2nd or subsequent offense. For purposes of this paragraph, an offense is considered a 2nd or subsequent offense if, prior to the offender's conviction of the offense, the offender has at any time been convicted of any felony or misdemeanor under this chapter or under any statute of the United States or of any state relating to controlled substances, controlled substance analogs, narcotic drugs, marijuana, or depressant, stimulant, or hallucinogenic drugs.
961.41(3g)(f) (f) Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, gamma-butyrolactone, ketamine, or flunitrazepam. If a person possesses or attempts to possess gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, gamma-butyrolactone, ketamine or flunitrazepam, the person is guilty of a Class H felony.
Effective date note NOTE: Sub. (3g) is shown as affected eff. 2-1-03 by 2001 Wis. Act 109. Prior to 2-1-03 it reads:
Effective date text (3g) Possession. No person may possess or attempt to possess a controlled substance or a controlled substance analog unless the person obtains the substance or the analog directly from, or pursuant to a valid prescription or order of, a practitioner who is acting in the course of his or her professional practice, or unless the person is otherwise authorized by this chapter to possess the substance or the analog. Any person who violates this subsection is subject to the following penalties:
961.41 Note (a) 1. Except as provided in subd. 2., if the person possesses a controlled substance included in schedule I or II which is a narcotic drug, or possesses a controlled substance analog of a controlled substance included in schedule I or II which is a narcotic drug, the person may, upon a first conviction, be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned for not more than 2 years or both, and, for a 2nd or subsequent offense, the person may be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned for not more than 3 years or both.
961.41 Note 2. If the person possesses or attempts to possess heroin or a controlled substance analog of heroin, the person may be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned for not more than 2 years or both.
961.41 Note 3. For purposes of this paragraph, an offense is considered a 2nd or subsequent offense if, prior to the offender's conviction of the offense, the offender has at any time been convicted under this chapter or under any statute of the United States or of any state relating to controlled substances, controlled substance analogs, narcotic drugs, marijuana or depressant, stimulant or hallucinogenic drugs.
961.41 Note (b) Except as provided in pars. (c), (d), (dm), (e) and (f), if the person possesses or attempts to possess a controlled substance or controlled substance analog, other than a controlled substance included in schedule I or II that is a narcotic drug or a controlled substance analog of a controlled substance included in schedule I or II that is a narcotic drug, the person is guilty of a misdemeanor, punishable under s. 939.61.
961.41 Note (c) If a person possess or attempts to possess cocaine or cocaine base, or a controlled substance analog of cocaine or cocaine base, the person shall be fined not more than $5,000 and may be imprisoned for not more than one year in the county jail.
961.41 Note (d) If a person possesses or attempts to possess lysergic acid diethylamide, phencyclidine, amphetamine, methcathinone, psilocin or psilocybin, or a controlled substance analog of lysergic acid diethylamide, phencyclidine, amphetamine, methcathinone, psilocin or psilocybin, the person may be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned for not more than one year in the county jail or both.
961.41 Note (dm) If a person possesses or attempts to possess methamphetamine or a controlled substance analog of methamphetamine, the person may be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned for not more than 2 years or both.
961.41 Note (e) If a person possesses or attempts to possess tetrahydrocannabinols included under s. 961.14 (4) (t), or a controlled substance analog of tetrahydrocannabinols, the person may be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned for not more than 6 months or both.
961.41 Note (f) If a person possesses or attempts to possess gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, gamma-butyrolactone, ketamine or flunitrazepam, the person may be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned for not more than 2 years or both.
961.41(4) (4)Imitation controlled substances.
961.41(4)(am)1.1. No person may knowingly distribute or deliver, attempt to distribute or deliver or cause to be distributed or delivered a noncontrolled substance and expressly or impliedly represent any of the following to the recipient:
961.41(4)(am)1.a. a. That the substance is a controlled substance.
961.41(4)(am)1.b. b. That the substance is of a nature, appearance or effect that will allow the recipient to display, sell, distribute, deliver or use the noncontrolled substance as a controlled substance, if the representation is made under circumstances in which the person has reasonable cause to believe that the noncontrolled substance will be used or distributed for use as a controlled substance.
961.41(4)(am)2. 2. Proof of any of the following is prima facie evidence of a representation specified in subd. 1. a. or b.:
961.41(4)(am)2.a. a. The physical appearance of the finished product containing the substance is substantially the same as that of a specific controlled substance.
961.41(4)(am)2.b. b. The substance is unpackaged or is packaged in a manner normally used for the illegal delivery of a controlled substance.
961.41(4)(am)2.c. c. The substance is not labeled in accordance with 21 USC 352 or 353.
961.41(4)(am)2.d. d. The person distributing or delivering, attempting to distribute or deliver or causing distribution or delivery of the substance to be made states to the recipient that the substance may be resold at a price that substantially exceeds the value of the substance.
961.41(4)(am)3. 3. A person who violates this paragraph is guilty of a Class I felony.
Effective date note NOTE: Subd. 3. is shown as amended eff. 2-1-03 by 2001 Wis. Act 109. Prior to 2-1-03 it reads:
Effective date text 3. A person convicted of violating this paragraph may be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned for not more than 2 years or both.
961.41(4)(bm) (bm) It is unlawful for any person to agree, consent or offer to lawfully manufacture, deliver, distribute or dispense any controlled substance to any person, or to offer, arrange or negotiate to have any controlled substance unlawfully manufactured, delivered, distributed or dispensed, and then manufacture, deliver, distribute or dispense or offer, arrange or negotiate to have manufactured, delivered, distributed or dispensed to any such person a substance which is not a controlled substance. Any person who violates this paragraph may be fined not more than $500 or imprisoned for not more than 6 months or both.
961.41(5) (5)Drug abuse program improvement surcharge.
961.41(5)(a)(a) When a court imposes a fine for a violation of this section, it shall also impose a drug abuse program improvement surcharge in an amount of 50% of the fine and penalty assessment imposed.
961.41(5)(b) (b) The clerk of the court shall collect and transmit the amount to the county treasurer as provided in s. 59.40 (2) (m). The county treasurer shall then make payment to the state treasurer as provided in s. 59.25 (3) (f) 2.
961.41(5)(c) (c) All moneys collected from drug surcharges shall be deposited by the state treasurer in and utilized in accordance with s. 20.435 (6) (gb).
961.41 Annotation An inference of intent could be drawn from possession of hashish with a street value of $2,000 to $4,000 and opium with a street value of $20,000 to $24,000. State v. Trimbell, 64 Wis. 2d 379, 219 N.W.2d 369 (1974).
961.41 Annotation No presumption of intent to deliver is raised by sub. (1m). The statute merely lists evidence from which intent may be inferred. State ex rel. Bena v. Hon. John J. Crosetto, 73 Wis. 2d 261, 243 N.W.2d 442 (1976).
961.41 Annotation Evidence of a defendant's possession of a pipe containing burnt residue of marijuana was insufficient to impute knowledge to the defendant of possession of a controlled substance. Kabat v. State, 76 Wis. 2d 224, 251 N.W.2d 38 (1977).
961.41 Annotation This section prohibits the act of manufacture, as defined in 161.01 (13) [now 961.01 (13)]. Possession of a controlled substance created by an accused is not required for conviction. This section is not unconstitutionally vague. State ex rel. Bell v. Columbia County Ct. 82 Wis. 2d 401, 263 N.W.2d 162 (1978).
961.41 Annotation A conviction under sub. (1m) was upheld when the defendant possessed 1/3 gram of cocaine divided into 4 packages and evidence of defendant's prior sales of other drugs was admitted under s. 904.04 (2) as probative of intent to deliver the cocaine. Peasley v. State, 83 Wis. 2d 224, 265 N.W.2d 506 (1978).
961.41 Annotation Testimony that weapons were found at the accused's home was admissible as part of the chain of facts relevant to the accused's intent to deliver heroin State v. Wedgeworth, 100 Wis. 2d 514, 302 N.W.2d 810 (1981).
961.41 Annotation Being a procuring agent of the buyer is not a valid defense to a charge under this section. By facilitating a drug deal, the defendant was party to the crime. State v. Hecht, 116 Wis. 2d 605, 342 N.W.2d 721 (1984).
961.41 Annotation When police confiscated a large quantity of drugs from an empty home and the next day searched the defendant upon his return to the home, confiscating a small quantity of the same drugs, the defendant's conviction for the lesser-included offense of possession and the greater offense of possession with intent to deliver did not violate double jeopardy. State v. Stevens, 123 Wis. 2d 303, 367 N.W.2d 788 (1985).
961.41 Annotation The defendant was properly convicted of attempted delivery of cocaine even though a noncontrolled substance was delivered. State v. Cooper, 127 Wis. 2d 429, 380 N.W.2d 383 (Ct. App. 1985).
961.41 AnnotationPossession is not a lesser included offense of manufacturing. State v. Peck, 143 Wis. 2d 624, 422 N.W.2d 160 (Ct. App. 1988).
961.41 Annotation Identification of a controlled substance can be established by circumstantial evidence such as lay experience based on familiarity through prior use, trading, or law enforcement. State v. Anderson, 176 Wis. 2d 196, N.W.2d (Ct. App. 1993).
961.41 Annotation A conspiracy under sub. (1x) must involve at least 2 people with each subject to the same penalty for the conspiracy. If the buyer of drugs is guilty of misdemeanor possession only, a felony conspiracy charge may not be brought against the buyer. State v. Smith, 189 Wis. 2d 496, 525 N.W.2d 264 (1995).
961.41 Annotation The state is not required to prove that a defendant knew the exact nature or precise chemical name of a possessed controlled substance. The state must only prove that the defendant knew or believed that the substance was a controlled substance. State v. Sartin, 200 Wis. 2d 47, 546 N.W.2d 449 (1996).
961.41 Annotation A delivery conspiracy under sub. (1x) requires an agreement between a buyer and a seller that the buyer will deliver at least some of the controlled substance to a 3rd party. State v. Cavallari, 214 Wis. 2d 42, 571 N.W.2d 176 (Ct. App. 1997).
961.41 Annotation Standing alone, the presence of drugs in someone's system is insufficient to support a conviction for possession, but it is circumstantial evidence of prior possession. Evidence that the defendant was selling drugs is irrelevant to a charge of simple possession. Evidence that the defendant had money but no job does not have a tendency to prove possession. State v. Griffin, 220 Wis. 2d 371, 584 N.W.2d 127 (Ct. App. 1998)
961.41 Annotation Double jeopardy was not violated when the defendant was convicted of separate offenses under s. 161.41 [now 961.41] for simultaneous delivery of different controlled substances. Leonard v. Warden, Dodge Correctional Inst. 631 F. Supp. 1403 (1986).
961.42 961.42 Prohibited acts B—penalties.
961.42(1) (1) It is unlawful for any person knowingly to keep or maintain any store, shop, warehouse, dwelling, building, vehicle, boat, aircraft or other structure or place, which is resorted to by persons using controlled substances in violation of this chapter for the purpose of using these substances, or which is used for manufacturing, keeping or delivering them in violation of this chapter.
961.42(2) (2) Any person who violates this section is guilty of a Class I felony.
Effective date note NOTE: Sub. (2) is shown as amended eff. 2-1-03 by 2001 Wis. Act 109. Prior to 2-1-03 it reads:
Effective date text (2) Any person who violates this section may be fined not more than $25,000 or imprisoned not more than 2 years or both.
961.42 History History: 1971 c. 219; 1995 a. 448 s. 267; Stats. 1995 s. 961.42; 1997 a. 283; 2001 a. 109.
961.42 Annotation "Keeping" a substance under sub. (1) means more than simple possession; it means keeping for the purpose of warehousing or storage for ultimate manufacture or delivery. State v. Brooks, 124 Wis. 2d 349, 369 N.W.2d 183 (Ct. App. 1985).
961.43 961.43 Prohibited acts C—penalties.
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This is an archival version of the Wis. Stats. database for 2001. See Are the Statutes on this Website Official?