(6) Errors and defects not affecting substantial rights.
The court shall, in every stage of a proceeding under this chapter, disregard any error or defect in the pleadings or proceedings that does not affect the substantial rights of either party.
History: 2005 a. 434
Detention; probable cause hearing; transfer for examination. 980.04(1)(1)
Upon the filing of a petition under s. 980.02
, the court shall review the petition to determine whether to issue an order for detention of the person who is the subject of the petition. The person shall be detained only if there is probable cause to believe that the person is eligible for commitment under s. 980.05 (5)
. A person detained under this subsection shall be held in a facility approved by the department. If the person is serving a sentence of imprisonment, is in a juvenile correctional facility, as defined in s. 938.02 (10p)
, or a secured residential care center for children and youth, as defined in s. 938.02 (15g)
, or is committed to institutional care, and the court orders detention under this subsection, the court shall order that the person be transferred to a detention facility approved by the department. A detention order under this subsection remains in effect until the petition is dismissed after a hearing under sub. (3)
or after a trial under s. 980.05 (5)
or until the effective date of a commitment order under s. 980.06
, whichever is applicable.
NOTE: Sub. (1) is shown as affected by 2 acts of the 2005 Wisconsin legislature and as merged by the revisor under s. 13.93 (2) (c).
Whenever a petition is filed under s. 980.02
, the court shall hold a hearing to determine whether there is probable cause to believe that the person named in the petition is a sexually violent person.
Except as provided in subd. 2.
, the court shall hold the probable cause hearing within 30 days, excluding Saturdays, Sundays, and legal holidays, after the filing of the petition, unless that time is extended by the court for good cause shown upon its own motion, the motion of any party, or the stipulation of the parties.
If the person named in the petition is in custody under a sentence, dispositional order, or commitment and the probable cause hearing will be held after the date on which the person is scheduled to be released or discharged from the sentence, dispositional order, or commitment, the probable cause hearing under par. (a)
shall be held no later than 10 days after the person's scheduled release or discharge date, excluding Saturdays, Sundays, and legal holidays, unless that time is extended by the court for good cause shown upon its own motion, the motion of any party, or the stipulation of the parties.
If the court determines after a hearing that there is probable cause to believe that the person named in the petition is a sexually violent person, the court shall order that the person be taken into custody if he or she is not in custody and shall order the person to be transferred within a reasonable time to an appropriate facility specified by the department for an evaluation by the department as to whether the person is a sexually violent person. If the court determines that probable cause does not exist to believe that the person is a sexually violent person, the court shall dismiss the petition.
The department shall promulgate rules that provide the qualifications for persons conducting evaluations under sub. (3)
If the person named in the petition claims or appears to be indigent, the court shall, prior to the probable cause hearing under sub. (2) (a)
, refer the person to the authority for indigency determinations under s. 977.07 (1)
and, if applicable, the appointment of counsel.
History: 1993 a. 479
; 1995 a. 77
; 1999 a. 9
; 2005 a. 344
; s. 13.93 (2) (c).
See also ch. HFS 99
, Wis. adm. code.
The rules of evidence apply to probable cause hearings under ch. 980. The exceptions to the rules for preliminary examinations also apply. Although s. 907.03 allows an expert to base an opinion on hearsay, an expert's opinion based solely on hearsay cannot constitute probable cause. State v. Watson, 227 Wis. 2d 167
, 595 N.W.2d 403
In sub. (2), "in custody" means in custody pursuant to ch. 980 and does not apply to custody under a previously imposed sentence. State v. Brissette, 230 Wis. 2d 82
, 601 N.W.2d 678
(Ct. App. 1999), 98-2152
Chapter 980 provides its own procedures for commencing actions, and, as such, chs. 801 and 802 are inapplicable to the commencement of ch. 980 actions. State v. Wolfe, 2001 WI App 136, 246 Wis. 2d 233
, 631 N.W.2d 240
The 72-hour time limit in sub. (2) is directory rather than mandatory. However, the individual's due process rights prevent the state from indefinitely delaying the probable cause hearing when the subject of the petition is in custody awaiting the hearing and has made a request for judicial substitution. State v. Beyer, 2001 WI App 167, 247 Wis. 2d 13
, 633 N.W.2d 627
Sub. (3) is not a rule regarding the admissibility of expert testimony. It provides the procedure for determining probable cause to believe a person is a sexually violent offender. The general rule for determining the qualification of an expert applies. State v. Sprosty, 2001 WI App 231, 248 Wis. 2d 480
, 636 N.W.2d 213
A trial to determine whether the person who is the subject of a petition under s. 980.02
is a sexually violent person shall commence no later than 90 days after the date of the probable cause hearing under s. 980.04 (2) (a)
. The court may grant one or more continuances of the trial date for good cause upon its own motion, the motion of any party or the stipulation of the parties.
The person who is the subject of the petition, the person's attorney, or the petitioner may request that a trial under this section be to a jury of 12. A request for a jury trial under this subsection shall be made within 10 days after the probable cause hearing under s. 980.04 (2) (a)
. If no request is made, the trial shall be to the court. The person, the person's attorney, or the petitioner may withdraw his, her, or its request for a jury trial if the 2 persons who did not make the request consent to the withdrawal.
At a jury trial under this section, juries shall be selected and treated in the same manner as they are selected and treated in civil actions in circuit court, except that, notwithstanding s. 805.08 (3)
, each party shall be entitled to 4 peremptory challenges or, if the court orders additional jurors to be selected under s. 805.08 (2)
, to 5 peremptory challenges. A party may waive in advance any or all of its peremptory challenges and the number of jurors called under par. (b)
shall be reduced by this number.
The number of jurors selected shall be the number prescribed in sub. (2)
, unless a lesser number has been stipulated to and approved under par. (c)
or the court orders that additional jurors be selected. That number of jurors, plus the number of peremptory challenges available to all of the parties, shall be called initially and maintained in the jury box by calling others to replace jurors excused for cause until all jurors have been examined. The parties shall exercise in their order, the state beginning, the peremptory challenges available to them, and if any party declines to challenge, the challenge shall be made by the clerk by lot.
At any time before the verdict in a jury trial under this section, the parties may stipulate in writing or by statement in open court, on the record, with the approval of the court, that the jury shall consist of any number less than the number prescribed in sub. (2)
At a trial on a petition under this chapter, the petitioner has the burden of proving beyond a reasonable doubt that the person who is the subject of the petition is a sexually violent person.
If the state alleges that the sexually violent offense or act that forms the basis for the petition was an act that was sexually motivated as provided in s. 980.01 (6) (b)
, the state is required to prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the alleged sexually violent act was sexually motivated.
Evidence that the person who is the subject of a petition under s. 980.02
was convicted for or committed sexually violent offenses before committing the offense or act on which the petition is based is not sufficient to establish beyond a reasonable doubt that the person has a mental disorder.
If the court or jury determines that the person who is the subject of a petition under s. 980.02
is a sexually violent person, the court shall enter a judgment on that finding and shall commit the person as provided under s. 980.06
. If the court or jury is not satisfied beyond a reasonable doubt that the person is a sexually violent person, the court shall dismiss the petition and direct that the person be released unless he or she is under some other lawful restriction.
Sub. (1m) extends the rule protecting prearrest silence under the right against self-incrimination to the refusal of a commitment subject to participate in a formal evaluation prior to the filing of the commitment petition. State v. Zanelli, 212 Wis. 2d 358
, 569 N.W.2d 301
(Ct. App. 1997), 96-2159
Sub. (1m) does not require a sworn petition. There is no constitutional right to a sworn complaint in a criminal case. State v. Zanelli, 212 Wis. 2d 358
, 569 N.W.2d 301
(Ct. App. 1997), 96-2159
This section does not confine expert testimony to any specific standard nor mandate the type or character of relevant evidence that the state may choose to meet its burden of proof. State v. Zanelli, 223 Wis. 2d 545
, 589 N.W.2d 687
(Ct. App. 1998), 98-0733
The standard of review for commitments under ch. 980 is the standard applicable to the review of criminal cases--whether the evidence could have led the trier of fact to find beyond a reasonable doubt that the person subject to commitment is a sexually violent person. State v. Curiel, 227 Wis. 2d 389
, 597 N.W.2d 697
Sub. (1m) provides a respondent with a statutory right to be competent at trial. The procedure to effect that right should adhere to ss. 971.13 and 971.14. State v. Smith, 229 Wis. 2d 720
, 600 N.W.2d 258
(Ct. App. 1999), 99-0477
The right to a jury trial under ch. 980 is governed by sub. (2) rather than case law governing the right to a jury trial in criminal proceedings. State v. Bernstein, 231 Wis. 2d 392
, 605 N.W.2d 555
The sub. (2) requirement that the 2 persons who did not request the withdrawal of a request for a jury trial consent to the withdrawal does not require a personal statement from the person subject to the commitment proceeding. Consent may be granted by defense counsel. State v. Bernstein, 231 Wis. 2d 392
, 605 N.W.2d 555
To the extent that s. 938.35 (1) prohibits the admission of delinquency adjudications in ch. 980 proceedings, it is repealed by implication. State v. Matthew A.B. 231 Wis. 2d 688
, 605 N.W.2d 598
(Ct. App. 1999), 98-0229
Sub. (2) does not require that a respondent be advised by the court that a jury verdict must be unanimous in order for the withdrawal of a request for a jury trial to be valid. State v. Denman, 2001 WI App 96, 243 Wis. 2d 14
, 626 N.W.2d 296
Chapter 980 respondents are afforded the same constitutional protections as criminal defendants. Although the doctrine of issue preclusion may generally apply in ch. 980 cases, application of the doctrine may be fundamentally unfair. When new evidence of victim recantation was offered at the ch. 980 trial, the defendant had a due process interest in gaining admission of the evidence to ensure accurate expert opinions on his mental disorder and future dangerousness when the experts' opinions presented were based heavily on the fact that the defendants committed the underlying crime. State v. Sorenson, 2002 WI 78, 254 Wis. 2d 54
, 646 N.W.2d 354
A sexually violent person committed under ch. 980 preserves the right to appeal, as a matter of right, by filing postverdict motions within 20 days of the commitment order. State v. Treadway, 2002 WI App 195, 257 Wis. 2d. 467, 651 N.W.2d 334
A parole and probation agent who had been employed full-time in a specialized sex-offender unit for 3 years during which he had supervised hundreds of sex offenders was prepared by both training and experience to assess a sex offender, and was qualified to render an opinion on whether he would reoffend. That the agent did not provide the nexus to any mental disorder did not render his testimony inadmissible. State v. Treadway, 2002 WI App 195, 257 Wis. 2d. 467, 651 N.W.2d 334
Neither ch. 980 nor ch. 51 grants persons being committed under ch. 980 the right to request confidential proceedings. That ch. 51 hearings are closed while ch. 980 hearings are not does not violate equal protection. State v. Burgess, 2002 WI App 264, 258 Wis. 2d 548
, 654 N.W.2d 81
. Affirmed. 2003 WI 71, 262 WI 2d 354, 665 NW2d 124.
Article I, section 7 does not prohibit the legislature from enacting statutes requiring that trials be held in certain counties. The legislature could properly provide in sub. (2) that ch. 980 proceedings be held in a county other than the one in which the predicate offense was committed. State v. Tainter, 2002 WI App 296, 259 Wis. 2d 387
, 655 N.W.2d 538
During a commitment proceeding under ch. 980, s. 904.04 (2), relating to other crimes evidence, does not apply to evidence offered to prove that the respondent has a mental disorder that makes it substantially probable that the respondent will commit acts of sexual violence in the future. State v. Franklin, 2004 WI 38, 270 Wis. 2d 271
, 677 N.W.2d 276
No error was found in giving a jury a general verdict form in a ch. 980 hearing when the defendant failed to establish that ch. 980 respondents are routinely deprived of special verdicts and that general verdicts are more likely to result in commitments. State v. Madison, 2004 WI App 46, 271 Wis. 2d 218
, 678 N.W.2d 607
A prisoner was not entitled to Miranda warnings prior to his pre-petition evaluation with the state's psychologist in regard to whether a ch. 980 petition should be filed. The guaranty of constitutional rights under sub. (1m) applies at the ch. 980 trial. State v. Lombard, 2004 WI 95, 273 Wis. 2d 538
, 684 N.W.2d 103
When a defendant seeks to exclude prior statements based upon his or her 5th Amendment privilege, he or she must first establish that the statements at issue are 1) testimonial; 2) compelled; and 3) incriminating. The mere fact that a statement is compelled does not require it to be excluded from a ch. 980 commitment trial. While an individual has a pre-petition or pre-arrest right against self-incrimination, that right is ordinarily not self-executing and must be invoked. State v. Mark, 2006 WI 78, ___ Wis. 2d ___, 718 N.W.2d 90
If a court or jury determines that the person who is the subject of a petition under s. 980.02
is a sexually violent person, the court shall order the person to be committed to the custody of the department for control, care and treatment until such time as the person is no longer a sexually violent person. A commitment order under this section shall specify that the person be placed in institutional care.
In the event that there is a failure to develop an appropriate treatment program, the remedy is to obtain appropriate treatment and not supervised release. State v. Seibert, 220 Wis. 2d 308
, 582 N.W.2d 745
(Ct. App. 1998), 97-2554
Chapter 980 and s. 51.61 provide the statutory basis for a court to issue an involuntary medication order for individuals who suffer from a chronic mental illness and are committed under ch. 980. State v. Anthony D.B. 2000 WI 94, 237 Wis. 2d 1
, 614 N.W.2d 435
The incremental infringement by s. 980.06 on the liberty interests of those who have a sexually-violent, predatory past and are currently suffering from a mental disorder that makes them dangerous sexual predators does not violate constitutional guarantees of due process. State v. Ransdell, 2001 WI App 202, 247 Wis. 2d 613
, 634 N.W.2d 871
Although ch. 51 is more "lenient" with those who are subject to its provisions than is ch. 980, the significant differences between the degree of danger posed by each of the two classes of persons subject to commitment under the two chapters, as well as the differences in what must be proven in order to commit under each, does not result in a violation of equal protection. State v. Williams, 2001 WI App 263, 249 Wis. 2d 1
, 637 N.W.2d 791
Chapter 980, as amended, is not a punitive criminal statute. Because whether a statute is punitive is a threshold question for both double jeopardy and ex post facto analysis, neither of those clauses is violated by ch. 980. State v. Rachel, 2002 WI 81, 254 Wis. 2d 215
, 646 N.W.2d 375
The mere limitation of a committed person's access to supervised release does not impose a restraint to the point that it violates due process. As amended, ch. 980 serves the legitimate and compelling state interests of providing treatment to, and protecting the public from, the dangerously mentally ill. The statute is narrowly tailored to meet those interests, and, as such, it does not violate substantive due process. State v. Rachel, 2002 WI 81, 254 Wis. 2d 215
, 646 N.W.2d 375
Commitment under ch. 980 does not require a separate factual finding that an individual's mental disorder involves serious difficulty for the person in controlling his or her behavior. Proof that the person's mental disorder predisposes the individual to engage in acts of sexual violence and establishes a substantial probability that the person will again commit those acts necessarily and implicitly includes proof that the person's mental disorder involves serious difficulty in controlling his or her behavior. State v. Laxton, 2002 WI 82, 254 Wis. 2d 185
, 647 N.W.2d 784
Chapter 980 does not preclude finding that a person with a sexually-related mental disorder has difficulty in controlling his or her behavior even if that person is able to conform his conduct to the requirements of the law. State v. Burgess, 2002 WI App 264, 258 Wis. 2d 548
, 654 N.W.2d 81
. Affirmed. 2003 WI 71, 262 WI 2d 354, 665 NW2d 354.
The use of polygraph tests as part of a sex offender treatment program does not violate due process. Wilson v. Watters, 348 F. Supp. 2d 1031
To the extent that plaintiffs are uncontrollably violent and pose a danger to others, the state is entitled to hold them in segregation for that reason alone. Preserving the safety of the staff and other detainees takes precedence over medical goals. West v. Schwebke, 333 F.3d 745
Deoxyribonucleic acid analysis requirements. 980.063(1)(a)(a)
If a person is found to be a sexually violent person under this chapter, the court shall require the person to provide a biological specimen to the state crime laboratories for deoxyribonucleic acid analysis.
The results from deoxyribonucleic acid analysis of a specimen under par. (a)
may be used only as authorized under s. 165.77 (3)
. The state crime laboratories shall destroy any such specimen in accordance with s. 165.77 (3)
The department of justice shall promulgate rules providing for procedures for defendants to provide specimens under sub. (1)
and for the transportation of those specimens to the state crime laboratories for analysis under s. 165.77
History: 1995 a. 440
Institutional care for sexually violent persons. 980.065(1m)(1m)
The department shall place a person committed under s. 980.06
at the secure mental health facility established under s. 46.055
, the Wisconsin resource center established under s. 46.056
or a secure mental health unit or facility provided by the department of corrections under sub. (2)
Notwithstanding sub. (1m)
, the department may place a female person committed under s. 980.06
at Mendota Mental Health Institute, Winnebago Mental Health Institute, or a privately operated residential facility under contract with the department of health and family services.
The department may contract with the department of corrections for the provision of a secure mental health unit or facility for persons committed under s. 980.06
. The department shall operate a secure mental health unit or facility provided by the department of corrections under this subsection and shall promulgate rules governing the custody and discipline of persons placed by the department in the secure mental health unit or facility provided by the department of corrections under this subsection.
Nothing in the U.S. Constitution prevents state officials from temporarily detaining a civil committee in conditions normally reserved for inmates so that he or she may attend court proceedings concerning his commitment. Thiel v. State, 399 F. Supp. 929
Activities off grounds.
The superintendent of the facility at which a person is placed under s. 980.065
may allow the person to leave the grounds of the facility under escort. The department of health and family services shall promulgate rules for the administration of this section.
History: 2001 a. 16
See also s. HFS 95.10
, Wis. adm. code.
Periodic reexamination and treatment progress; report from the department. 980.07(1)
If a person is committed under s. 980.06
and has not been discharged under s. 980.09 (4)
, the department shall appoint an examiner to conduct a reexamination of the person's mental condition within 12 months after the date of the initial commitment order under s. 980.06
and again thereafter at least once each 12 months to determine whether the person has made sufficient progress for the court to consider whether the person should be placed on supervised release or discharged. The examiner shall apply the criteria under s. 980.08 (4) (cg)
when considering if the person should be placed on supervised release and shall apply the criteria under s. 980.09 (3)
when considering if the person should be discharged. At the time of a reexamination under this section, the person who has been committed may retain or have the court appoint an examiner as provided under s. 980.031 (3)
, except that the court is not required to appoint an examiner if supervised release or discharge is supported by the examination conducted by the examiner appointed by the department. The county shall pay the costs of an examiner appointed by the court as provided under s. 51.20 (18) (a)
Any examiner conducting a reexamination under sub. (1)
shall prepare a written report of the reexamination no later than 30 days after the date of the reexamination. The examiner shall provide a copy of the report to the department.
Notwithstanding sub. (1)
, the court that committed a person under s. 980.06
may order a reexamination of the person at any time during the period in which the person is subject to the commitment order. Any reexamination ordered under this subsection shall conform to sub. (1)
At any reexamination under sub. (1)
, the treating professional shall prepare a treatment progress report. The treating professional shall provide a copy of the treatment progress report to the department. The treatment progress report shall consider all of the following:
The specific factors associated with the person's risk for committing another sexually violent offense.
Whether the person has made significant progress in treatment or has refused treatment.
Any specialized needs or conditions associated with the person that must be considered in future treatment planning.
Any examiners under sub. (1)
and treating professionals under sub. (4)
shall have reasonable access to the person for purposes of reexamination, to the person's past and present treatment records, as defined in s. 51.30 (1) (b)
, and to the person's patient health care records, as provided under s. 146.82 (2) (c)
The department shall submit an annual report comprised of the reexamination report under sub. (1)
and the treatment progress report under sub. (4)
to the court that committed the person under s. 980.06
. A copy of the annual report shall be placed in the person's treatment records. The department shall provide a copy of the annual report to the person committed under s. 980.06
, the department of justice, and the district attorney, if applicable. The court shall provide a copy of the annual report to the person's attorney as soon as he or she is retained or appointed.