PI 11.36(5)(a)(a) Speech or language impairment means an impairment of speech or sound production, voice, fluency, or language that significantly affects educational performance or social, emotional or vocational development.
PI 11.36(5)(b) (b) The IEP team may identify a child as having a speech or language impairment if the child meets the definition under par. (a) and meets any of the following criteria:
PI 11.36(5)(b)1. 1. The child's conversational intelligibility is significantly affected and the child displays at least one of the following:
PI 11.36(5)(b)1.a. a. The child performs on a norm referenced test of articulation or phonology at least 1.75 standard deviations below the mean for his or her chronological age.
PI 11.36(5)(b)1.b. b. Demonstrates consistent errors in speech sound production beyond the time when 90% of typically developing children have acquired the sound.
PI 11.36(5)(b)2. 2. One or more of the child's phonological patterns of sound are at least 40% disordered or the child scores in the moderate to profound range of phonological process use in formal testing and the child's conversational intelligibility is significantly affected.
PI 11.36(5)(b)3. 3. The child's voice is impaired in the absence of an acute, respiratory virus or infection and not due to temporary physical factors such as allergies, short term vocal abuse, or puberty. The child exhibits atypical loudness, pitch, quality or resonance for his or her age and gender.
PI 11.36(5)(b)4. 4. The child exhibits behaviors characteristic of a fluency disorder.
PI 11.36(5)(b)5. 5. The child's oral communication or, for a child who cannot communicate orally, his or her primary mode of communication, is inadequate, as documented by all of the following:
PI 11.36(5)(b)5.a. a. Performance on norm referenced measures that is at least 1.75 standard deviations below the mean for chronological age.
PI 11.36(5)(b)5.b. b. Performance in activities is impaired as documented by informal assessment such as language sampling, observations in structured and unstructured settings, interviews, or checklists.
PI 11.36(5)(b)5.c. c. The child's receptive or expressive language interferes with oral communication or his or her primary mode of communication. When technically adequate norm referenced language measures are not appropriate as determined by the IEP team to provide evidence of a deficit of 1.75 standard deviations below the mean in the area of oral communication, then 2 measurement procedures shall be used to document a significant difference from what would be expected given consideration to chronological age, developmental level, and method of communication such as oral, manual, and augmentative. These procedures may include additional language samples, criterion referenced instruments, observations in natural environments and parent reports.
PI 11.36(5)(c) (c) The IEP team may not identify a child who exhibits any of the following as having a speech or language impairment:
PI 11.36(5)(c)1. 1. Mild, transitory or developmentally appropriate speech or language difficulties that children experience at various times and to various degrees.
PI 11.36(5)(c)2. 2. Speech or language performance that is consistent with developmental levels as documented by formal and informal assessment data unless the child requires speech or language services in order to benefit from his or her educational programs in school, home, and community environments.
PI 11.36(5)(c)3. 3. Speech or language difficulties resulting from dialectical differences or from learning English as a second language, unless the child has a language impairment in his or her native language.
PI 11.36(5)(c)4. 4. Difficulties with auditory processing without a concomitant documented oral speech or language impairment.
PI 11.36(5)(c)5. 5. A tongue thrust which exists in the absence of a concomitant impairment in speech sound production.
PI 11.36(5)(c)6. 6. Elective or selective mutism or school phobia without a documented oral speech or language impairment.
PI 11.36(5)(d) (d) The IEP team shall substantiate a speech or language impairment by considering all of the following:
PI 11.36(5)(d)1. 1. Formal measures using normative data or informal measures using criterion referenced data.
PI 11.36(5)(d)2. 2. Some form of speech or language measures such as developmental checklists, intelligibility ratio, language sample analysis, minimal core competency.
PI 11.36(5)(d)3. 3. Information about the child's oral communication in natural environments.
PI 11.36(5)(d)4. 4. Information about the child's augmentative or assistive communication needs.
PI 11.36(5)(e) (e) An IEP team shall include a department-licensed speech or language pathologist and information from the most recent assessment to document a speech or language impairment and the need for speech or language services.
PI 11.36(6) (6) Specific learning disability.
PI 11.36(6)(a)(a) Specific learning disability, pursuant to s. 115.76 (5) (a) 10., Stats., means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell or perform mathematical calculations, including conditions such as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia and developmental aphasia. The term does not include learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, motor disabilities, cognitive disabilities, emotional disturbance, cultural factors, environmental, or economic disadvantage.
PI 11.36(6)(b) (b) The LEA shall promptly request parental consent to evaluate a child to determine if the child needs special education and related services if, prior to referral, the child has not made adequate progress after an appropriate period of time when provided appropriate instruction in general education settings, delivered by qualified personnel, or whenever the child is referred for an evaluation. The LEA shall meet the timeframes under s. 115.78 (3) (a), Stats., unless extended by mutual written agreement of the child's parents and IEP team.
PI 11.36(6)(c) (c) The IEP team may identify a child as having a specific learning disability if both of the following apply:
PI 11.36(6)(c)1. 1. `Inadequate classroom achievement.' Upon initial identification the child does not achieve adequately for his or her age, or meet state-approved grade-level standards in one or more of the following eight areas of potential specific learning disabilities when provided with learning experiences and instruction appropriate for the child's age: oral expression, listening comprehension, written expression, basic reading skill, reading fluency skills, reading comprehension, mathematics calculation, and mathematics problem solving. A child's achievement is inadequate when the child's score, after intensive intervention, on one or more assessments of achievement is equal to or more than 1.25 standard deviations below the mean in one or more of the eight areas of potential specific learning disabilities. Assessments used under this subdivision shall be individually administered, norm-referenced, valid, reliable, and diagnostic of impairment in the area of potential specific learning disabilities. The 1.25 standard deviation requirement under this subdivision may not be used if the IEP team determines that the child cannot attain valid and reliable standard scores for academic achievement because of the child's test behavior, the child's language proficiency, an impairment of the child that interferes with the attainment of valid and reliable scores, or the absence of individually administered, norm-referenced, standardized, valid and reliable diagnostic assessments of achievement appropriate for the child's age. If the IEP team makes such a determination, it shall document the reasons why it was not appropriate to consider standardized achievement testing, and shall document that inadequate classroom achievement exists in at least one of the eight areas of potential specific learning disabilities using other empirical evidence. The IEP team may consider scores within 1 standard error of the measurement of the 1.25 standard deviation criterion above to meet the inadequate classroom achievement criteria under this subdivision if the IEP team determines the child meets all other criteria.
PI 11.36(6)(c)2. 2. `Insufficient progress.' Upon evaluation, the child has made insufficient progress in one of the following areas:
PI 11.36(6)(c)2.a. a. Insufficient response to intensive, scientific, research-based or evidence-based intervention. The child does not make sufficient progress to meet age or state-approved grade-level standards in one or more of the eight areas of potential specific learning disabilities under subd. 1. when using a process based on the child's response to intensive scientific, research-based or evidence-based interventions. Intensive interventions may be implemented prior to referral, or as part of an evaluation, for specific learning disability. The IEP team shall consider progress monitoring data from at least two intensive, scientific, research-based or evidence-based interventions, implemented with adequate fidelity and closely aligned to individual student learning needs. The median score of three probes is required to establish a stable baseline data point for progress monitoring. IEP teams shall use weekly or more frequent progress monitoring to evaluate rate of progress during intensive, scientific, research-based or evidence-based interventions. Rate of progress during intensive intervention is insufficient when any of the following are true: the rate of progress of the referred child is the same or less than that of his or her same-age peers; the referred child's rate of progress is greater than that of his or her same-age peers but will not result in the referred child reaching the average range of his or her same-age peer's achievement for that area of potential disability in a reasonable period of time; or the referred child's rate of progress is greater than that of his or her same-age peers, but the intensity of the resources necessary to obtain this rate of progress cannot be maintained in general education. If an LEA uses insufficient response to intensive, scientific, research-based or evidence-based intervention under this subdivision paragraph for any child being evaluated for specific learning disabilities enrolled in a school, the LEA shall use insufficient response to intensive, scientific, research-based or evidence-based intervention for all such evaluations of children enrolled in that school. At least ten days in advance of beginning to use insufficient response to intensive, scientific, research-based or evidence-based intervention in a school, the LEA shall notify parents of all children enrolled in that school of the intent to use insufficient response to intensive, scientific, research-based or evidence-based intervention.
PI 11.36(6)(c)2.b. b. Significant discrepancy or insufficient progress in achievement as compared to measured ability. This subdivision paragraph does not apply three years after December 1, 2010. Upon initial evaluation the child exhibits a significant discrepancy between the child's academic achievement in any of the eight areas of potential specific learning disabilities under subd. 1. and intellectual ability as documented by the child's composite score on a multiple score instrument or the child's score on a single score instrument. The IEP team may base a determination of significant discrepancy only upon the results of individually administered, norm-referenced, valid and reliable diagnostic assessment of achievement. A significant discrepancy means a difference between standard scores for ability and achievement equal to or greater than 1.75 standard errors of the estimate below expected achievement, using a standard regression procedure that accounts for the correlation between ability and achievement measures. This regression procedure shall be used except when the IEP team determines that the child cannot attain valid and reliable standard scores for intellectual ability or achievement because of the child's test behavior, the child's language, another impairment of the child that interferes with the attainment of valid and reliable scores or the absence of valid and reliable standardized, diagnostic tests appropriate for the child's age. If the IEP team makes such a determination, it shall document the reasons why it was not appropriate to use the regression procedure and shall document that a significant discrepancy exists, including documentation of a variable pattern of achievement or ability, in at least one of the eight areas of potential specific learning disabilities under subd. 1. using other empirical evidence. If the discrepancy between the child's ability and achievement approaches but does not reach the 1.75 standard error of the estimate cut-off for this subdivision paragraph, the child's performance in any of the eight areas of potential specific learning disabilities under subd. 1. is variable, and the IEP team determines that the child meets all other criteria under subd. 1., the IEP team may consider that a significant discrepancy exists.
PI 11.36 Note Note: Appendix A specifies the recommended regression formula for calculating significant discrepancy scores. This appendix does not apply three years after December 1, 2010.
PI 11.36(6)(d)1.1. The IEP team may not identify a child as having a specific learning disability if it determines that any of the following apply:
PI 11.36(6)(d)1.a. a. The IEP team's findings under par. (c) are primarily due to environmental or economic disadvantage; cultural factors; or any of the reasons specified under s. 115.782 (3) (a), Stats., or any of the impairments under s. 115.76 (5), Stats., except s. 115.76 (5) (a) 10., Stats.
PI 11.36(6)(d)1.b. b. The IEP team's findings under par. (c) were due to a lack of appropriate instruction in the area of potential specific learning disability in par. (c) 1.
PI 11.36(6)(d)2. 2. The IEP team shall consider data demonstrating that prior to, or as a part of, an evaluation, the child was provided appropriate instruction in general education settings, delivered by qualified personnel. Appropriate instruction in reading shall include the essential components of reading instruction as defined in 20 USC 6368 (3).
PI 11.36(6)(d)3. 3. In addition to the requirements for IEP team membership under s. 115.78, Stats., the IEP team for children being evaluated for specific learning disabilities shall include all of the following members:
PI 11.36(6)(d)3.a. a. At least one licensed person who is qualified to assess data on individual rate of progress using a psychometrically valid and reliable methodology. A psychometrically valid and reliable methodology relies on all data sources specified in par. (g)., analyzing progress monitoring data that exhibit adequate statistical accuracy for the purpose of identification of insufficient progress as compared to a national sample of same-age peers.
PI 11.36(6)(d)3.b. b. At least one licensed person who has implemented scientific, research-based or evidence-based, intensive interventions with the referred pupil.
PI 11.36(6)(d)3.c. c. At least one licensed person who is qualified to conduct individual diagnostic evaluations of children.
PI 11.36(6)(d)3.d. d. The child's licensed general education teacher; or if the child does not have a licensed general education classroom teacher, a general education classroom teacher licensed to teach a child of the same age; or for a child of less than school age, an individual licensed to teach a child of the same age.
PI 11.36(6)(e)1.1. The LEA shall ensure that the child is systematically observed in the child's learning environment, including the general classroom setting when possible, to document the child's academic performance and behavior in any of the eight areas of potential specific learning disabilities under par. (c) 1.
PI 11.36(6)(e)2.a.a. The IEP team, in determining whether a child has a specific learning disability, shall use information from a systematic observation conducted by a member of the IEP team.
PI 11.36(6)(e)2.b. b. The systematic observation of routine classroom instruction and monitoring of the child's performance in at least one of the eight areas of potential specific learning disabilities under par. (c) 1., may be conducted before the child was referred for evaluation, or the systematic observation of the child's academic performance in at least one of the eight areas of potential specific learning disabilities under par. (c) 1., shall be conducted after the child has been referred for an evaluation and parental consent is obtained.
PI 11.36(6)(e)2.c. c. If the child is less than school age or out of school, at least one member of the IEP team shall conduct a systematic observation of the child in an environment appropriate for a child of that age.
PI 11.36(6)(e)2.d. d. If the child has participated in a process that assesses the child's response to intensive scientific, research-based or evidence-based interventions, the IEP team shall use information from a systematic observation of pupil behavior and performance in the area or areas of potential specific learning disability during intensive intervention for that area, conducted by an individual who is not responsible for implementing the interventions with the referred pupil.
PI 11.36(6)(e)3. 3. Each IEP team member shall certify in writing whether the evaluation report reflects the member's conclusion. If it does not reflect the member's conclusion, the group member shall submit a separate statement presenting the member's conclusion.
PI 11.36(6)(e)4. 4. A child determined to be eligible for special education and related services under this chapter remains eligible for special education and related services upon transfer to another school or LEA. The child continues to be eligible for special education and related services unless, upon re-evaluation, the child is no longer found eligible.
PI 11.36(6)(f) (f) For a child suspected of having a specific learning disability, the documentation of the determination of eligibility shall contain a statement including all of the following:
PI 11.36(6)(f)1. 1. Whether the child has a specific learning disability.
PI 11.36(6)(f)2. 2. The basis for making the determination, including an assurance that the determination has been made in accordance with s. 115.782, Stats.
PI 11.36(6)(f)3. 3. The relevant behavior, if any, noted during the observation of the child and the relationship of that behavior to the child's academic functioning in the area of potential learning disability in par. (c) 1.
PI 11.36(6)(f)4. 4. Documentation that the intensive intervention was applied in a manner highly consistent with its design, was closely aligned to pupil need, and was culturally appropriate.
PI 11.36(6)(f)5. 5. The educationally relevant medical findings, if any.
PI 11.36(6)(f)6. 6. Whether the child does not achieve adequately for the child's age or to meet state-approved grade-level standards consistent with par. (c) 1.; and the child does not make sufficient progress to meet age or state-approved grade-level standards consistent with par. (c) 2. a.; or until three years after December 1, 2010, the child exhibits a significant discrepancy between the child's academic achievement in any of the eight areas of potential specific learning disabilities under par. (c) 1. and intellectual ability consistent with par. (c) 2. b.
PI 11.36(6)(f)7. 7. The determination of the IEP team concerning the effects of a visual, hearing, or motor disability; cognitive disability; emotional disturbance; cultural factors; environmental or economic disadvantage; or limited English proficiency on the child's achievement level.
PI 11.36(6)(f)8. 8. If the child has participated in a process that assesses the child's response to scientific, research-based or evidence-based intervention, documentation that the child's parents were notified about all of the following:
PI 11.36(6)(f)8.a. a. The progress monitoring data collected.
PI 11.36(6)(f)8.b. b. Strategies for increasing the child's rate of learning including the intensive interventions used.
PI 11.36(6)(f)8.c. c. The parents' right to request an evaluation.
PI 11.36(6)(g) (g) In addition to all other determinations, the IEP team shall base its decision of whether a child has a specific learning disability on a comprehensive evaluation using formal and informal assessment data regarding academic achievement and learning behavior from sources such as standardized tests, error analysis, criterion referenced measures, curriculum-based assessments, pupil work samples, interviews, systematic observations, analysis of the child's response to previous interventions, and analysis of classroom expectations, and curriculum in accordance with s. 115.782, Stats.
PI 11.36(6)(h) (h) Upon re-evaluation, a child who met initial identification criteria and continues to demonstrate a need for special education under s. PI. 11.35 (2), including specially designed instruction, is a child with a disability under this section, unless the provisions under par. (d) 1. now apply. If a child with a specific learning disability performs to generally accepted expectations in the general education classroom without specially designed instruction, the IEP team shall determine whether the child is no longer a child with a disability.
PI 11.36(7) (7)Emotional behavioral disability.
PI 11.36(7)(a)(a) Emotional behavioral disability, pursuant to s. 115.76 (5) (a) 5., Stats., means social, emotional or behavioral functioning that so departs from generally accepted, age appropriate ethnic or cultural norms that it adversely affects a child's academic progress, social relationships, personal adjustment, classroom adjustment, self-care or vocational skills.
PI 11.36(7)(b) (b) The IEP team may identify a child as having an emotional behavioral disability if the child meets the definition under par. (a), and meets all of the following:
PI 11.36(7)(b)1. 1. The child demonstrates severe, chronic and frequent behavior that is not the result of situational anxiety, stress or conflict.
PI 11.36(7)(b)2. 2. The child's behavior described under par. (a) occurs in school and in at least one other setting.
PI 11.36(7)(b)3. 3. The child displays any of the following:
PI 11.36(7)(b)3.a. a. Inability to develop or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships.
PI 11.36(7)(b)3.b. b. Inappropriate affective or behavior response to a normal situation.
PI 11.36(7)(b)3.c. c. Pervasive unhappiness, depression or anxiety.
PI 11.36(7)(b)3.d. d. Physical symptoms, pains or fears associated with personal or school problems.
PI 11.36(7)(b)3.e. e. Inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory or health factors.
PI 11.36(7)(b)3.f. f. Extreme withdrawal from social interactions.
PI 11.36(7)(b)3.g. g. Extreme aggressiveness for a long period of time.
PI 11.36(7)(b)3.h. h. Other inappropriate behaviors that are so different from children of similar age, ability, educational experiences and opportunities that the child or other children in a regular or special education program are negatively affected.
PI 11.36(7)(c) (c) The IEP team shall rely on a variety of sources of information, including systematic observations of the child in a variety of educational settings and shall have reviewed prior, documented interventions. If the IEP team knows the cause of the disability under this paragraph, the cause may be, but is not required to be, included in the IEP team's written evaluation summary.
PI 11.36(7)(d) (d) The IEP team may not identify or refuse to identify a child as a child with an emotional behavioral disability solely on the basis that the child has another disability, or is socially maladjusted, adjudged delinquent, a dropout, chemically dependent, or a child whose behavior is primarily due to cultural deprivation, familial instability, suspected child abuse or socio-economic circumstances, or when medical or psychiatric diagnostic statements have been used to describe the child's behavior.
PI 11.36(8) (8)Autism.
PI 11.36(8)(a)(a) Autism means a developmental disability significantly affecting a child's social interaction and verbal and nonverbal communication, generally evident before age 3, that adversely affects learning and educational performance. Other characteristics often associated with autism are engagement in repetitive activities and stereotyped movements, resistance to environmental change or change in daily routines, and unusual responses to sensory experiences. The term does not apply if a child's educational performance is adversely affected primarily because the child has an emotional disturbance, as defined in sub. (7).
PI 11.36(8)(b) (b) The results of standardized or norm-referenced instruments used to evaluate and identify a child under this paragraph may not be reliable or valid. Therefore, alternative means of evaluation, such as criterion-referenced assessments, achievement assessments, observation, and work samples, shall be considered to identify a child under this paragraph. Augmentative communication strategies, such as facilitated communication, picture boards, or signing shall be considered when evaluating a child under this paragraph. To identify a child under this paragraph, the criteria under subds. 1. and 2. and one or more criteria under subds. 3. through 6. shall be met.
PI 11.36(8)(b)1. 1. The child displays difficulties or differences or both in interacting with people and events. The child may be unable to establish and maintain reciprocal relationships with people. The child may seek consistency in environmental events to the point of exhibiting rigidity in routines.
PI 11.36(8)(b)2. 2. The child displays problems which extend beyond speech and language to other aspects of social communication, both receptively and expressively. The child's verbal language may be absent or, if present, lacks the usual communicative form which may involve deviance or delay or both. The child may have a speech or language disorder or both in addition to communication difficulties associated with autism.
PI 11.36(8)(b)3. 3. The child exhibits delays, arrests, or regressions in motor, sensory, social or learning skills. The child may exhibit precocious or advanced skill development, while other skills may develop at normal or extremely depressed rates. The child may not follow normal developmental patterns in the acquisition of skills.
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