Employees confined in institutions; payment of benefits.
In case an employee is adjudged insane or incompetent, or convicted of a felony, and is confined in a public institution and has wholly dependent upon the employee for support a person, whose dependency is determined as if the employee were deceased, compensation payable during the period of the employee's confinement may be paid to the employee and the employee's dependents, in such manner, for such time and in such amount as the department by order provides.
History: 1993 a. 492
Judgment on award.
If any party presents a certified copy of the award to the circuit court for any county, the court shall, without notice, render judgment in accordance with the award. A judgment rendered under this section shall have the same effect as though rendered in an action tried and determined by the court, and shall, with like effect, be entered in the judgment and lien docket.
History: 1995 a. 224
; 2001 a. 37
"Award" under this section means an award that has become final under s. 102.18 (3). Warren v. Link Farms, Inc. 123 Wis. 2d 485
, 368 N.W.2d 688
(Ct. App. 1985).
Payment of awards by municipalities.
Whenever an award is made by the department under this chapter or s. 66.191
, 1981 stats., against any municipality, the person in whose favor it is made shall file a certified copy thereof with the municipal clerk. Within 20 days thereafter, unless an appeal is taken, such clerk shall draw an order on the municipal treasurer for the payment of the award. If upon appeal such award is affirmed in whole or in part the order for payment shall be drawn within 10 days after a certified copy of such judgment is filed with the proper clerk. If more than one payment is provided for in the award or judgment, orders shall be drawn as the payments become due. No statute relating to the filing of claims against, and the auditing, allowing and payment of claims by municipalities shall apply to the payment of an award or judgment under this section.
History: 1983 a. 191
Penalty for delayed payments; interest. 102.22(1)
If the employer or his or her insurer inexcusably delays in making the first payment that is due an injured employee for more than 30 days after the day on which the employee leaves work as a result of an injury and if the amount due is $500 or more, the payments as to which the delay is found shall be increased by 10%. If the employer or his or her insurer inexcusably delays in making the first payment that is due an injured employee for more than 14 days after the day on which the employee leaves work as a result of an injury, the payments as to which the delay is found may be increased by 10%. If the employer or his or her insurer inexcusably delays for any length of time in making any other payment that is due an injured employee, the payments as to which the delay is found may be increased by 10%. Where the delay is chargeable to the employer and not to the insurer s. 102.62
shall apply and the relative liability of the parties shall be fixed and discharged as therein provided. The department may also order the employer or insurance carrier to reimburse the employee for any finance charges, collection charges or interest which the employee paid as a result of the inexcusable delay by the employer or insurance carrier.
If the sum ordered by the department to be paid is not paid when due, that sum shall bear interest at the rate of 10% per year. The state is liable for such interest on awards issued against it under this chapter. The department has jurisdiction to issue award for payment of such interest at any time within one year of the date of its order, or upon appeal after final court determination. Such interest becomes due from the date the examiner's order becomes final or from the date of a decision by the labor and industry review commission, whichever is later.
If upon petition for review the commission affirms an examiner's order, interest at the rate of 7% per year on the amount ordered by the examiner shall be due for the period beginning on the 21st day after the date of the examiner's order and ending on the date paid under the commission's decision. If upon petition for judicial review under s. 102.23
the court affirms the commission's decision, interest at the rate of 7% per year on the amount ordered by the examiner shall be due up to the date of the commission's decision, and thereafter interest shall be computed under sub. (2)
The department can assess the penalty for inexcusable delay in making payments prior to the entry of an order. The question of inexcusable delay is one of law and the courts are not bound by the department's finding as to it. Milwaukee County v. DILHR, 48 Wis. 2d 392
, 180 N.W.2d 513
The penalty under sub. (1) does not bar an action for bad faith for failure to pay a claim. Coleman v. American Universal Insurance Co. 86 Wis. 2d 615
, 273 N.W.2d 220
Judicial review. 102.23(1)(a)
The findings of fact made by the commission acting within its powers shall, in the absence of fraud, be conclusive. The order or award granting or denying compensation, either interlocutory or final, whether judgment has been rendered on it or not, is subject to review only as provided in this section and not under ch. 227
or s. 801.02
. Within 30 days after the date of an order or award made by the commission either originally or after the filing of a petition for review with the department under s. 102.18
any party aggrieved thereby may by serving a complaint as provided in par. (b)
and filing the summons and complaint with the clerk of the circuit court commence, in circuit court, an action against the commission for the review of the order or award, in which action the adverse party shall also be made a defendant. If the circuit court is satisfied that a party in interest has been prejudiced because of an exceptional delay in the receipt of a copy of any finding or order, it may extend the time in which an action may be commenced by an additional 30 days. The proceedings shall be in the circuit court of the county where the plaintiff resides, except that if the plaintiff is a state agency, the proceedings shall be in the circuit court of the county where the defendant resides. The proceedings may be brought in any circuit court if all parties stipulate and that court agrees.
In such an action a complaint shall be served with an authenticated copy of the summons. The complaint need not be verified, but shall state the grounds upon which a review is sought. Service upon a commissioner or agent authorized by the commission to accept service constitutes complete service on all parties, but there shall be left with the person so served as many copies of the summons and complaint as there are defendants, and the commission shall mail one copy to each other defendant.
Except as provided in par. (cm)
, the commission shall serve its answer within 20 days after the service of the complaint, and, within the like time, the adverse party may serve an answer to the complaint, which answer may, by way of counterclaim or cross complaint, ask for the review of the order or award referred to in the complaint, with the same effect as if the party had commenced a separate action for the review thereof.
If an adverse party to the proceeding brought under par. (a)
is an insurance company, the insurance company may serve an answer to the complaint within 45 days after the service of the complaint.
The commission shall make return to the court of all documents and papers on file in the matter, all testimony that has been taken, and the commission's order, findings, and award. Such return of the commission when filed in the office of the clerk of the circuit court shall, with the papers specified in s. 809.15
, constitute a judgment roll in the action; and it shall not be necessary to have a transcript approved. The action may thereupon be brought on for hearing before the court upon the record by any party on 10 days' notice to the other; subject, however, to the provisions of law for a change of the place of trial or the calling in of another judge.
Upon such hearing, the court may confirm or set aside such order or award; and any judgment which may theretofore have been rendered thereon; but the same shall be set aside only upon the following grounds:
That the commission acted without or in excess of its powers.
That the findings of fact by the commission do not support the order or award.
Upon the trial of any such action the court shall disregard any irregularity or error of the commission or the department unless it is made to affirmatively appear that the plaintiff was damaged thereby.
The record in any case shall be transmitted to the department within 5 days after expiration of the time for appeal from the order or judgment of the court, unless appeal shall be taken from such order or judgment.
Whenever an award is made against the state the attorney general may bring an action for review thereof in the same manner and upon the same grounds as are provided by sub. (1)
When an action for review involves only the question of liability as between the employer and one or more insurance companies or as between several insurance companies, a party that has been ordered by the department, the commission, or a court to pay compensation is not relieved from paying compensation as ordered.
If the commission's order or award depends on any fact found by the commission, the court shall not substitute its judgment for that of the commission as to the weight or credibility of the evidence on any finding of fact. The court may, however, set aside the commission's order or award and remand the case to the commission if the commission's order or award depends on any material and controverted finding of fact that is not supported by credible and substantial evidence.
Judicial Council Committee's Note, 1976: The procedure for initiating a petition for judicial review under ch. 102 is governed by the provisions of s. 102.23 rather than the provisions for initiating a civil action under s. 801.02. [Re Order effective Jan. 1, 1977]
The fact that a party appealing from a DILHR order as to unemployment compensation labeled his petition "under 227.15" [now 227.52], is immaterial since the circuit court had subject matter jurisdiction. An answer by the department that s. 227.15 [now 227.52] gave no jurisdiction amounted to an appearance, and the department could not later claim that the court had no personal jurisdiction because the appellant had not served a summons and complaint. Lees v. DILHR, 49 Wis. 2d 491
, 182 N.W.2d 245
A finding of fact, whether ultimate or evidentiary, is still in its essential nature a fact, whereas a conclusion of law accepts those facts, and by judicial reasoning results from the application of rules or concepts of law to those facts whether undisputed or not. Kress Packing Co. v. Kottwitz, 61 Wis. 2d 175
, 212 N.W.2d 97
A challenge to the constitutionality of sub. (1) was not sustained since it is manifest from the statute that the legislature intended to have the department be the real party in interest and not a mere nominal party. Hunter v. DILHR, 64 Wis. 2d 97
, 218 N.W.2d 314
When the claimant timely appealed an adverse worker's compensation decision in good faith, but erroneously captioned the appeal, the trial court abused its discretion by dismissing the action. Cruz v. DILHR, 81 Wis. 2d 442
, 260 N.W.2d 692
An employer whose unemployment compensation account is not affected by the commission's determination has no standing to seek judicial review. Cornwell Personnel Associates v. DILHR, 92 Wis. 2d 53
, 284 N.W.2d 706
(Ct. App. 1979).
An agency's mixed conclusions of law and findings of fact may be analyzed by using 2 methods: 1) the analytical method of separating law from fact; or 2) the practical or policy method that avoids law and fact labels and searches for a rational basis for the agency's decision. United Way of Greater Milwaukee v. DILHR, 105 Wis. 2d 447
, 313 N.W.2d 858
(Ct. App. 1981).
A failure to properly serve the commission pursuant to sub. (1) (b) results in a jurisdictional defect rather than a mere technical error. Gomez v. LIRC, 153 Wis. 2d 686
, 451 N.W.2d 475
(Ct. App. 1989).
Discretionary reversal is not applicable to judicial review of LIRC orders under ch. 102. There is no power to reopen a matter that has been fully determined under ch. 102. Kwaterski v. LIRC, 158 Wis. 2d 112
, 462 N.W.2d 534
(Ct. App. 1990).
A LIRC decision is to be upheld unless it directly contravenes the words of the statute, is clearly contrary to legislative intent, or is otherwise without a rational basis. Wisconsin Electric Power Co. v. LIRC, 226 Wis. 2d 778
, 595 N.W.2d 23
An appeal under s. 102.16 (2m) (e) of a department determination may be served under sub. (1) (b) on the department or the commission. McDonough v. Department of Workforce Development, 227 Wis. 2d 271
, 595 N.W.2d 686
Under s. 102.23 (1) (a), judicial review is available only from an order or award granting or denying compensation. Judicial review by common law certiorari was not available for a claim that LIRC failed to act within the statutory time limitations under sub. (4), which would be subject to judicial review of any subsequent order or award granting or denying compensation in that case. Vidal v. LIRC, 2002 WI 72
, 253 Wis. 2d 426
, 645 N.W.2d 870
The plaintiff complied with the requirement of sub. (1) that every adverse party be made a defendant by naming the defendant's insurer in the caption of the summons and complaint, which were timely filed and served even though the insurer was not mentioned in the complaint's body. Selaiden v. Columbia Hospital, 2002 WI App 99
, 253 Wis. 2d 553
, 644 N.W.2d 690
Sub. (5) requires an employer to make payment to a disabled employee pending appeal of a date of injury defense in an occupational disease case when the employer's liability is not disputed on appeal and the only question is who will pay benefits. Bosco v. LIRC, 2004 WI 77
, 272 Wis. 2d 586
, 681 N.W.2d 157
Because s. 102.18 (1) (bp) specifically allows for the imposition of bad faith penalties on an employer for failure to pay benefits and because sub. (5) specifically directs the employer to pay benefits pending an appeal when the only issue is who will pay benefits, an employer may be subject to bad faith penalties under s. 102.18 (1) (bp), independent from its insurer, when it fails to pay benefits in accordance with sub. (5). Bosco v. LIRC, 2004 WI 77
, 272 Wis. 2d 586
, 681 N.W.2d 157
Under Miller an "adverse party" for worker's compensation actions in circuit court includes any party bound by the Commission's order or award granting or denying compensation to the claimant. The interests of an adverse party need not necessarily be adverse to the party filing a circuit court action. Xcel Energy Services, Inc. v. LIRC, 2012 WI App 19
, 339 Wis. 2d 413
, 810 N.W.2d 865
Judicial review of workmen's compensation cases. Haferman, 1973 WLR 576.
Remanding record. 102.24(1)(1)
Upon the setting aside of any order or award, the court may recommit the controversy and remand the record in the case to the commission for further hearing or proceedings, or it may enter the proper judgment upon the findings of the commission, as the nature of the case shall demand. An abstract of the judgment entered by the trial court upon the review of any order or award shall be made by the clerk of circuit court upon the judgment and lien docket entry of any judgment which may have been rendered upon the order or award. Transcripts of the abstract may be obtained for like entry upon the judgment and lien dockets of the courts of other counties.
After the commencement of an action to review any award of the commission the parties may have the record remanded by the court for such time and under such condition as they may provide, for the purpose of having the department act upon the question of approving or disapproving any settlement or compromise that the parties may desire to have so approved. If approved the action shall be at an end and judgment may be entered upon the approval as upon an award. If not approved the record shall forthwith be returned to the circuit court and the action shall proceed as if no remand had been made.
Appeal from judgment on award. 102.25(1)
Any party aggrieved by a judgment entered upon the review of any order or award may appeal therefrom within the time period specified in s. 808.04 (1)
. A trial court shall not require the commission or any party to the action to execute, serve or file an undertaking under s. 808.07
or to serve, or secure approval of, a transcript of the notes of the stenographic reporter or the tape of the recording machine. The state is a party aggrieved under this subsection if a judgment is entered upon the review confirming any order or award against it. At any time before the case is set down for hearing in the court of appeals or the supreme court, the parties may have the record remanded by the court to the department in the same manner and for the same purposes as provided for remanding from the circuit court to the department under s. 102.24 (2)
It shall be the duty of the clerk of any court rendering a decision affecting an award of the commission to promptly furnish the commission with a copy of such decision without charge.
History: 1971 c. 148
; Sup. Ct. Order, 67 Wis. 2d 585, 774 (1975); 1977 c. 29
; 1979 c. 278
; 1983 a. 219
Judicial Council Note, 1983: Sub. (1) is amended to replace the appeal deadline of 30 days after service of notice of entry of judgment or award by the standard time specified in s. 808.04 (1), stats., for greater uniformity. The subsection is further amended to eliminate the superfluous provisions for calendaring and hearing the appeal. [Bill 151-S]
A court order setting aside an administrative order and remanding the case to the administrative agency disposed of the entire matter in litigation and was appealable as of right. Bearns v. DILHR, 102 Wis. 2d 70
, 306 N.W.2d 22
No fees may be charged by the clerk of any circuit court for the performance of any service required by this chapter, except for the entry of judgments and certified transcripts of judgments. In proceedings to review an order or award, costs as between the parties shall be in the discretion of the court, but no costs may be taxed against the commission.
Unless previously authorized by the department, no fee may be charged or received for the enforcement or collection of any claim for compensation, nor may any contract for that enforcement or collection be enforceable when that fee, inclusive of all taxable attorney fees paid or agreed to be paid for that enforcement or collection, exceeds 20 percent of the amount at which that claim is compromised or of the amount awarded, adjudged, or collected, except that in cases of admitted liability in which there is no dispute as to the amount of compensation due and in which no hearing or appeal is necessary, the fee charged may not exceed 10 percent, but not to exceed $250, of the amount at which that claim is compromised or of the amount awarded, adjudged, or collected. The limitation as to fees shall apply to the combined charges of attorneys, solicitors, representatives, and adjusters who knowingly combine their efforts toward the enforcement or collection of any compensation claim.
Except as provided in par. (b)
, compensation exceeding $100 in favor of any claimant shall be made payable to and delivered directly to the claimant in person.
The department may upon application of any interested party and subject to sub. (2)
fix the fee of the claimant's attorney or representative and provide in the award for that fee to be paid directly to the attorney or representative.
At the request of the claimant medical expense, witness fees and other charges associated with the claim may be ordered paid out of the amount awarded.
The claimant may request the insurer or self-insured employer to pay any compensation that is due the claimant by depositing the payment directly into an account maintained by the claimant at a financial institution. If the insurer or self-insured employer agrees to the request, the insurer or self-insured employer may deposit the payment by direct deposit, electronic funds transfer, or any other money transfer technique approved by the department. The claimant may revoke a request under this subdivision at any time by providing appropriate written notice to the insurer or self-insured employer.
Payment according to the directions of the award shall protect the employer and the employer's insurer, or the uninsured employers fund if applicable, from any claim of attorney's lien.
The charging or receiving of any fee in violation of this section shall be unlawful, and the attorney or other person guilty thereof shall forfeit double the amount retained by the attorney or other person, the same to be collected by the state in an action in debt, upon complaint of the department. Out of the sum recovered the court shall direct payment to the injured party of the amount of the overcharge.
See also s. DWD 80.43
, Wis. adm. code.
The only fee authorized to be paid to any clerk of court under sub. (1) is the fee under s. 814.61 (5), when applicable. 76 Atty. Gen. 148
Claims and awards protected; exceptions. 102.27(1)(1)
Except as provided in sub. (2)
, no claim for compensation shall be assignable, but this provision shall not affect the survival thereof; nor shall any claim for compensation, or compensation awarded, or paid, be taken for the debts of the party entitled thereto.
If a governmental unit provides public assistance under ch. 49
to pay medical costs or living expenses related to a claim under this chapter, the employer or insurance carrier owing compensation shall reimburse that governmental unit any compensation awarded or paid if the governmental unit has given the parties to the claim written notice stating that it provided the assistance and the cost of the assistance provided. Reimbursement shall equal the lesser of either the amount of assistance the governmental unit provided or two-thirds of the amount of the award or payment remaining after deduction of attorney fees and any other fees or costs chargeable under ch. 102
. The department shall comply with this paragraph when making payments under s. 102.81
Preference of claims; worker's compensation insurance. 102.28(1)(1)
The whole claim for compensation for the injury or death of any employee or any award or judgment thereon, and any claim for unpaid compensation insurance premiums are entitled to preference in bankruptcy or insolvency proceedings as is given creditors' actions except as denied or limited by any law of this state or by the federal bankruptcy act, but this section shall not impair the lien of any judgment entered upon any award.
(2) Required insurance; exceptions. 102.28(2)(a)(a)
Duty to insure payment for compensation.
Unless exempted by the department under par. (b)
or sub. (3)
, every employer, as described in s. 102.04 (1)
, shall insure payment for that compensation in an insurer authorized to do business in this state. A joint venture may elect to be an employer under this chapter and obtain insurance for payment of compensation. If a joint venture that is subject to this chapter only because the joint venture elected to be an employer under this chapter is dissolved and cancels or terminates its contract for the insurance of compensation under this chapter, that joint venture is deemed to have effected withdrawal, which shall be effective on the day after the contract is canceled or terminated.
Exemption from duty to insure.
The department may grant a written order of exemption to an employer who shows its financial ability to pay the amount of compensation, agrees to report faithfully all compensable injuries and agrees to comply with this chapter and the rules of the department. The department may condition the granting of an exemption upon the employer's furnishing of satisfactory security to guarantee payment of all claims under compensation. The department may require that bonds or other personal guarantees be enforceable against sureties in the same manner as an award may be enforced. The department may from time to time require proof of financial ability of the employer to pay compensation. Any exemption shall be void if the application for it contains a financial statement which is false in any material respect. An employer who files an application containing a false financial statement remains subject to par. (a)
. The department may promulgate rules establishing an amount to be charged to an initial applicant for exemption under this paragraph and an annual amount to be charged to employers that have been exempted under this paragraph.
Revocation of exemption.
The department, after seeking the advice of the self-insurers council, may revoke an exemption granted to an employer under par. (b)
, upon giving the employer 10 days' written notice, if the department finds that the employer's financial condition is inadequate to pay its employees' claims for compensation, that the employer has received an excessive number of claims for compensation or that the employer has failed to discharge faithfully its obligations according to the agreement contained in the application for exemption. The employer may, within 10 days after receipt of the notice of revocation, request in writing a review of the revocation by the secretary or the secretary's designee and the secretary or the secretary's designee shall review the revocation within 30 days after receipt of the request for review. If the employer is aggrieved by the determination of the secretary or the secretary's designee, the employer may, within 10 days after receipt of notice of that determination, request a hearing under s. 102.17
. If the secretary or the secretary's designee determines that the employer's exemption should be revoked, the employer shall obtain insurance coverage as required under par. (a)
immediately upon receipt of notice of that determination and, notwithstanding the pendency of proceedings under ss. 102.17
, shall keep that coverage in force until another exemption under par. (b)
Effect of insuring with unauthorized insurer.
An employer who procures an exemption under par. (b)
and thereafter enters into any agreement for excess insurance coverage with an insurer not authorized to do business in this state shall report that agreement to the department immediately. The placing of such coverage shall not by itself be grounds for revocation of the exemption.
(3) Provision of alternative benefits.