Civil rights; academic freedom; refusal to hire a nontenure teacher for a constitutionally impermissible reason. 1970 WLR 162.
Fairness of a hearing before a school board on nonrenewal of a teacher's contract. 1971 WLR 354.
Except as provided under subch. IV of ch. 111
, no school board may collectively bargain with its employees.
History: 2011 a. 10
A school board may use value-added analyses of scores on the examinations administered to pupils under s. 118.30
and 20 USC 6311
(b) (2) to evaluate teachers if the school board has developed a teacher evaluation plan that includes all of the following:
A description of the evaluation process.
Multiple criteria in addition to examination results.
The rationale for using examination results to evaluate teachers.
An explanation of how the school board intends to use the evaluations to improve pupil academic achievement.
Populous counties; teacher tenure. 118.23(1)(1)
In this section “teacher" means any person who holds a teacher's certificate or license and whose legal employment requires such certificate or license, who is employed full time and meets the minimum requirements prescribed by the governing body employing such person and who is employed by a school board, board of trustees or governing body of any school operating under chs. 115
and lying entirely and exclusively in a county having a population of 750,000 or more. “Teacher" does not include any superintendent or assistant superintendent; any teacher having civil service status under ss. 63.01
; any teacher in a public school in a 1st class city; or any person who is employed by a school board during time of war as a substitute for a teacher on leave while on full-time duty in the U.S. armed forces or any reserve or auxiliary thereof and who is notified in writing at the time of employment that the position is of a temporary nature.
All teachers shall be employed on probation, but after continuous and successful probation for 3 years and the gaining of the 4th contract in the same school system or school, their employment shall be permanent except as provided in sub. (3)
. All principals shall be employed on probation, but after continuous and successful probation for 3 years and the gaining of a 4th contract in the same school system or school, their employment shall be permanent except as provided in sub. (3)
. Upon accepting employment in another school system or school to which this section applies, a teacher who has acquired permanent employment under this section shall be on probation therein for 2 years. After continuous and successful probation for 2 years and gaining the 3rd contract in such school system or school, employment therein shall be permanent except as provided in sub. (3)
. A person who acquired tenure as a teacher under this section shall not be deprived of tenure as a teacher by reason of the person's employment as a principal.
No teacher who has become permanently employed under this section may be refused employment, dismissed, removed or discharged, except for inefficiency or immorality, for willful and persistent violation of reasonable regulations of the governing body of the school system or school or for other good cause, upon written charges based on fact preferred by the governing body or other proper officer of the school system or school in which the teacher is employed. Upon the teacher's written request and no less than 10 nor more than 30 days after receipt of notice by the teacher, the charges shall be heard and determined by the governing body of the school system or school by which the teacher is employed. Hearings shall be public when requested by the teacher and all proceedings thereat shall be taken by a court reporter. All parties shall be entitled to be represented by counsel at the hearing. The action of the governing body is final.
If necessary to decrease the number of permanently employed teachers by reason of a substantial decrease of pupil population within the school district, the governing body of the school system or school may lay off the necessary number of teachers, but only in the inverse order of the appointment of such teachers. No permanently employed teacher may be prevented from securing other employment during the period that the teacher is laid off under this subsection. Such teachers shall be reinstated in inverse order of their being laid off, if qualified to fill the vacancies. Such reinstatement shall not result in a loss of credit for previous years of service. No new permanent or substitute appointments may be made while there are laid off permanent teachers available who are qualified to fill the vacancies.
This section does not apply after December 21, 1995. Any person whose employment is permanent under sub. (3)
on December 21, 1995, shall retain all of the rights and privileges of such permanent employment after that date.
Layoff and reinstatement provisions in this section are to be applied separately to classroom teachers and principals. 70 Atty. Gen. 6.
Lunch period for teachers.
Every school board shall grant daily a duty-free lunch period to each of its teachers, except that a school district may contract with any teacher employed by it for services during such period. Such period shall be not less than 30 minutes and shall be provided at or near the time of the regular school lunch period.
School district administrator. 118.24(1)(1)
A school board may employ a school district administrator, a business manager and school principals and assistants to such persons. The term of each employment contract may not exceed 2 years. A contract for a term of 2 years may provide for one or more extensions of one year each.
Under the direction of the employing school board, the school district administrator shall have general supervision and management of the professional work of the schools and the promotion of pupils.
The school district administrator shall not be a member of the school board and shall not engage in any pursuit which interferes with the proper discharge of the duties.
The school district administrator shall make written recommendations to the school board on teachers, courses of study, discipline and such other matters as the administrator thinks advisable and shall perform such other duties as the school board requires.
The school district administrator may act as principal or teacher in any school under the administrator's supervision.
The school district administrator shall ensure that the administrative and pupil service staff in the district cooperate with the county department under s. 51.42
in the dissemination of information regarding the availability of alcohol and drug abuse services and to jointly establish procedures for the referral to appropriate agencies of students experiencing problems resulting from the use of alcohol or other drugs.
The principal shall perform such administrative and instructional leadership responsibilities as are assigned by the district administrator under the rules and regulations of the school board.
A business administrator shall perform such fiscal and business management and other administrative duties as are assigned by the district administrator subject to the rules, regulations and approval of the school board.
School principals and business administrators, and assistants thereto, may, upon authorization from the school board or district administrator, attend conventions for the purpose of promoting and stimulating their professional growth and for improving the schools of the district and the state. For such approved attendance they may be reimbursed for actual and necessary expenses incurred for travel, board, lodging and attendance at such conventions upon proper filing of proof of attendance and of such necessary expenditures.
The employment contract of any person described under sub. (1)
shall be in writing and filed with the school district clerk. At least 4 months prior to the expiration of the employment contract, the employing school board shall give notice in writing of either renewal of the contract or of refusal to renew such person's contract. If no such notice is given, the contract then in force shall continue in force for 2 years. Any such person who receives notice of renewal or who does not receive notice of renewal or refusal to renew the person's contract at least 4 months before the contract expiration shall accept or reject the contract in writing on or before a date 3 months prior to the contract expiration. No such person may be employed or dismissed except by a majority vote of the full membership of the school board. Nothing in this section prevents the modification or termination of an employment contract by mutual agreement of the parties. No school board may enter into a contract of employment with any such person for a period of time as to which such person is then under a contract of employment with another school board.
Prior to giving notice of refusal to renew the contract of any person described under sub. (1)
, the employing board shall give such person preliminary notice in writing by registered mail at least 5 months prior to the expiration of such contract that the board is considering nonrenewal of the contract, and that if such person files a written request with the board within 7 days after receiving such notice, the person has the right to a hearing before the board prior to being given written notice of refusal to renew the contract. The written request for a hearing shall include a statement requesting either a private hearing or a public hearing before the board. Section 118.22
does not apply to such a proceeding. If a hearing concerning nonrenewal of the contract is requested, the reasons upon which the board is considering nonrenewal may also be requested and the board shall furnish such reasons before the hearing in writing.
Personnel administrators and supervisors, curriculum administrators and assistants to such administrative personnel, when employed by the school board of any school district to perform administrative duties only, may be employed for a term that does not exceed 2 years. A contract for a term of 2 years may provide for one or more extensions of one year each. Subsections (5)
are applicable to such persons when they are employed to perform administrative duties only.
Nothing in this section shall be construed:
To prohibit the school board of any district from hiring part-time administrative personnel; or
To prohibit the employment relations commission from making a determination that persons hired as part-time administrative personnel shall be included in the collective bargaining unit of persons hired as teachers and shall be covered by the terms of a collective bargaining agreement which exists pursuant to s. 111.70
No principal or assistant principal may be granted tenure or permanent employment.
The school board and district under sub. (3) can require a principal to perform administrative responsibilities as long as their performance does not modify the terms of an employment contract. Kabes v. School District of River Falls, 2004 WI App 55
, 270 Wis. 2d 502
, 677 N.W.2d 667
The statutes do not support the existence of a school principal's property interest in performing specific duties. Ulichny v. Merton Community School District, 93 F. Supp. 2d 1011
(2000). Affirmed. 249 F.3d 686
Due process does not require that an outside decisionmaker conduct the hearing provided for under sub. (7). Beischel v. Stone Bank School District, 362 F.3d 430
Referendum; increase in employee wages. 118.245(1)(1)
If a school board wishes to increase the total base wages of its employees in an amount that exceeds the limit under s. 111.70 (4) (mb) 2.
, the school board shall adopt a resolution to that effect. The resolution shall specify the amount by which the proposed total base wages increase will exceed the limit under s. 111.70 (4) (mb) 2.
The resolution may not take effect unless it is approved in a referendum called for that purpose. The referendum shall occur in April for collective bargaining agreements that begin in July of that year. The results of a referendum apply to the total base wages only in the next collective bargaining agreement.
The question submitted in the referendum shall be substantially as follows: “Shall the employees in the .... [school district] receive a total increase on wages from $....[current total base wages] to $....[proposed total base wages], which is a percentage wage increase that is .... [x] percent higher than the percent of the consumer price index increase, for a total percentage increase in wages of .... [x]?"
History: 2011 a. 10
This section does not violate the plaintiffs' associational rights. No matter the limitations or burdens a legislative enactment places on the collective bargaining process, collective bargaining remains a creation of legislative grace and not constitutional obligation. The restrictions attached to the statutory scheme of collective bargaining are irrelevant in regards to freedom of association because no condition is being placed on the decision to participate. If a general employee participates in collective bargaining under 2011 Wis. Act 10
's statutory framework, that general employee has not relinquished a constitutional right. They have only acquired a benefit to which they were never constitutionally entitled. Madison Teachers, Inc. v. Walker, 2014 WI 99
, 358 Wis. 2d 1
, 851 N.W.2d 337
Health examinations. 118.25(1)(a)
“Practitioner" means a person licensed as a physician or as a physician assistant in any state or licensed or certified as an advanced practice nurse prescriber in any state. In this paragraph, “physician” has the meaning given in s. 448.01 (5)
“School employee" means a person employed by a school board who comes in contact with children or who handles or prepares food for children while they are under the supervision of school authorities.
Subject to par. (b)
, a school board shall, as a condition of employment, require a physical examination of every school employee of the school district. The school board shall ensure that the physical examination includes a screening questionnaire for tuberculosis approved by the department of health services and, if indicated, a test to determine the presence or absence of tuberculosis in a communicable form. Freedom from tuberculosis in a communicable form is a condition of employment. The school employee shall be examined by a practitioner in the employ of or under contract with the school district, but if a practitioner is not employed or under contract, the examination shall be made by a practitioner selected by the school employee.
The school board may require a school employee to complete additional health examinations, including physical examinations and an examination consisting of a screening questionnaire for tuberculosis approved by the department of health services, at intervals determined by the school board. A screening questionnaire administered as permitted under this subdivision may be administered by a school nurse or by a registered nurse selected by the school employee and licensed under s. 441.06
or in a party state, as defined in s. 441.50 (2) (j)
Section 441.50 was repealed by 2017 Wis. Act 135
and replaced by s. 441.51. Corrective legislation is pending.
The school board may not require physical examinations of any school employee who files with the school board an affidavit setting forth that the employee depends exclusively upon prayer or spiritual means for healing in accordance with the teachings of a bona fide religious sect, denomination, or organization and that the employee is to the best of the employee's knowledge and belief in good health and that the employee claims exemption from health examination on these grounds. Notwithstanding the filing of such affidavit, if there is reasonable cause to believe that such employee is suffering from an illness detrimental to the health of the pupils, the school board may require a health examination of such school employee sufficient to indicate whether or not such school employee is suffering from such an illness. No school employee may be discriminated against by reason of the employee's filing such affidavit.
A practitioner performing a physical examination under par. (a)
shall complete a report of the examination upon a standard form prepared by the department of health services. The practitioner shall retain a copy of the report in his or her files and shall make confidential recommendations therefrom to the school board and to the school employee on a form prepared by the department of health services. The recommendation form shall contain space for a certificate that the person examined by the practitioner appears to be free from tuberculosis in a communicable form.
A registered nurse or school nurse administering a screening questionnaire under par. (a) 2.
shall provide a copy of the screening questionnaire to the school board and shall make confidential recommendations therefrom to the school board and to the school employee on a form prepared by the department of health services. The screening questionnaire shall contain space for a certificate that the person examined by the registered nurse or school nurse does not have risk factors for tuberculosis. If tuberculosis risk factors are identified on the screening questionnaire, the registered nurse or school nurse shall recommend that the person receive a test from a practitioner to determine the presence or absence of tuberculosis in a communicable form. If a test to determine the presence or absence of tuberculosis in a communicable form is recommended of the person, and if the test indicates the absence of tuberculosis in a communicable form, the practitioner who administers the test shall certify, on a form prepared by the department of health services, that the person appears to be free from tuberculosis in a communicable form.
The school board shall pay the cost of the examinations required under par. (a)
, including X-rays and tuberculin tests if needed, out of school district funds.
In counties having a population of less than 750,000, the school board may require periodic health examinations of pupils by physicians, under the supervision of local health departments and the department of health services, and may pay the cost of the examinations out of school district funds.
If a health or physical examination made under this section includes the testing of vision, such test may be made by an optometrist. Forms used for reporting such vision tests shall so indicate.
As a condition of employment, special teachers, school psychologists, school social workers, cooperative educational service agency personnel and other personnel working in public schools shall have physical examinations under sub. (2)
. The employing school district or agency shall pay the cost of such examinations.
As a condition of employment, employees of the state superintendent whose work brings them into contact with school children or with school employees shall have physical examinations under sub. (2)
Health treatment services for children with special physical or mental health treatment needs. 118.255(1)(a)
Under this section “physical or mental health treatment services" means treatment for physical or orthopedic disability, developmental disability, emotional disturbance, hearing impairment, visual disability, speech or language disability; and includes itinerant services such as evaluative and diagnostic services.
Words and phrases used in this section which are identical to words and phrases defined in s. 115.76
shall be given the meaning contained in s. 115.76
If a school board, cooperative educational service agency, or county children with disabilities education board provides physical or mental health treatment services to its pupils, it may also provide such services within the private school or tribal school facilities to those private school or tribal school pupils who are referred to the public school board, cooperative educational service agency, or county children with disabilities education board by the administrator of a private school or tribal school for evaluation for possible servicing. There shall be no charge for health treatment services provided to any pupils unless public school students or their parents are charged for similar services. For purposes of state aid, as it is provided under s. 115.88
to the public school district, for the health treatment service program, private school and tribal school pupils receiving such health treatment services shall be counted among the pupils of the public school district receiving such services, although each child may receive health treatment services within the child's own school facilities, whether public, private, or tribal.
A school board, cooperative educational service agency, or county children with disabilities education board providing services under this section may enter into agreements with the administrator of a private school or tribal school on the scheduling, space, and other necessary arrangements for performance of such health treatment services. A school board, cooperative educational service agency, or county children with disabilities education board shall not pay any private school or tribal school for any services or facilities provided under this section. Control of the health treatment services program shall rest with the public school board, cooperative educational service agency, or county children with disabilities education board.
A school board, cooperative educational service agency, or county children with disabilities education board may provide health treatment services only within private school or tribal school facilities located within the boundaries of the school district, cooperative educational service agency, or county.
The school board, cooperative educational service agency or county children with disabilities education board maintaining health treatment services shall report annually to the department, and at such other times as the department directs, such information as the department requires.
If the state superintendent is satisfied that the health treatment services program has been maintained during the preceding school year in accordance with law, the state superintendent shall certify to the department of administration in favor of each school board, cooperative educational service agency and county children with disabilities education board maintaining such health treatment services, an amount equal to the amount expended for items listed in s. 115.88 (1m)
by the school board, cooperative educational service agency and county children with disabilities education board during the preceding year for these health treatment services as costs eligible for reimbursement from the appropriation under s. 20.255 (2) (b)
This section authorizes local school districts to provide health and welfare services, but not educational services, to students attending private schools; it may be unconstitutional to the extent that any of the services authorized thereby are rendered in church-affiliated private schools. 64 Atty. Gen. 75.
Liability for referral to police. 118.257(1)(c)
“Pupil services professional" means a school counselor, school social worker, school psychologist or school nurse.
“School" means a public, parochial, private, or tribal school which provides an educational program for one or more grades between grades 1 and 12 and which is commonly known as an elementary school, middle school, junior high school, senior high school, or high school.
A school administrator, principal, pupil services professional or teacher employed by a school board is not liable for referring a pupil enrolled in the school district to law enforcement authorities, or for removing a pupil from the school premises or from participation in a school-sponsored activity, for suspicion of possession, distribution, delivery or consumption of an alcohol beverage or a controlled substance or controlled substance analog.
Electronic communication devices prohibited. 118.258(1)(1)
Each school board may adopt rules prohibiting a pupil from using or possessing an electronic communication device while on premises owned or rented by or under the control of a public school.