Single-sex schools and courses.
Operate one or more schools that enroll only one sex or provide one or more courses that enroll only one sex if the school board makes available to the opposite sex, under the same policies and criteria of admission, schools or courses that are comparable to each such school or course.
Hunting in school forests.
Allow hunting in its school forest, as defined in s. 26.39 (1) (a)
, except that the board may not allow hunting for a wild animal when there is not an open season for that animal on land adjacent to the school forest. This subsection does not affect the authority of the department of natural resources to remove a wild animal under s. 29.885 (2) (a)
History: 1973 c. 94
; 1975 c. 115
; 1977 c. 206
; 1979 c. 20
; 1981 c. 96
; 1983 a. 27
; 1985 a. 29
; 1985 a. 101
; 1985 a. 218
; 1985 a. 332
; 1987 a. 88
; 1989 a. 31
; 1991 a. 39
; 1993 a. 16
; 1995 a. 27
, 9126 (19)
, 9145 (1)
; 1995 a. 29
; 1997 a. 27
; 1999 a. 9
; 1999 a. 150
; 1999 a. 186
; 2001 a. 38
; 2003 a. 254
; 2005 a. 22
; 2005 a. 443
; 2007 a. 20
, 9121 (6) (a)
; 2007 a. 36
; 2009 a. 14
; 2011 a. 105
; 2013 a. 186
; 2015 a. 55
; 2017 a. 11
; 2017 a. 364
; 2019 a. 9
A school board may issue a subpoena to compel the attendance of a witness at an expulsion hearing. Expulsion may be partially based on hearsay statements by school staff. Due process is discussed. Racine Unified School District v. Thompson, 107 Wis. 2d 657
, 321 N.W.2d 334
(Ct. App. 1982).
Neither sub. (1) (c) or (e) expressly or impliedly authorizes the state superintendent to review a challenged suspension when the superintendent reviews an expulsion decision under those provisions. Madison Metropolitan School District v. DPI, 199 Wis. 2d 1
, 543 N.W.2d 843
(Ct. App. 1995), 94-0199
Section 66.185 [now s. 66.0137] does not prohibit providing health insurance benefits to persons not listed in the statute if authority is granted by other statutes. Sections 120.12, 120.13, and 120.44, broadly construed as required by s. 118.001, grant broad powers, including that of providing insurance to persons not listed in this section. Pritchard v. Madison Metropolitan School District, 2001 WI App 62
, 242 Wis. 2d 301
, 625 N.W.2d 613
The section (intro) expresses the legislature's intent to give school boards broader powers and wide discretion in exercising its powers, but it does not mean that, when the legislature had previously authorized a board to take particular actions using specified procedures, the board has the authority to follow other procedures in taking those particular actions. While school boards have powers beyond those enumerated in subs. (1) to (37), they do not have the power to violate the provisions of subs. (1) to (37). Madison Metropolitan School District v. Burmaster, 2006 WI App 17
, 288 Wis. 2d 771
, 709 N.W.2d 73
The only reasonable construction of sub. (1) (e) 3. is that, if a school district elects to have a hearing officer conduct an expulsion hearing, the district must comply with the procedures specified in that paragraph. Because sub. (1) (e) 3. provides for review by the board of a hearing officer's decision only if the officer has ordered expulsion, the board does not have the authority to review and reverse the hearing officer's decision not to order an expulsion. Madison Metropolitan School District v. Burmaster, 2006 WI App 17
, 288 Wis. 2d 771
, 709 N.W.2d 73
The duties and powers under ss. 118.001, 120.12 (14), and 120.13 extend to individual teachers as employees of the school board. It would be absurd to require teachers to obtain special permission from the school board with respect to every detail of their teaching. Summer homework, particularly for an honors class for which students receive additional credit, fits comfortably within the range of what is reasonable and is not unconstitutional. Larson v. Burmaster, 2006 WI App 142
, 295 Wis. 2d 333
, 720 N.W.2d 134
Because of a lack of statutory authority, speech therapists may not supply services to students attending therapy sessions in parochial school buildings. 63 Atty. Gen. 8.
Students may have bus riding privileges suspended without being suspended or expelled from school. However, both public and private school students must be afforded due process under sub. (1) before such a suspension can take place. 63 Atty. Gen. 526.
School boards have authority to enforce policies that mandate the manner, conditions, and content of police interviews with students on school premises during school hours. 81 Atty. Gen. 126
Sub. (1) (f) does not allow a school board to deny enrollment to a pupil who is currently expelled either from an out-of-state public school district or from a private school. OAG 5-08
Having established the right to an education, the state may not withdraw the right on grounds of misconduct absent fundamentally fair procedures to determine if misconduct occurred. Attendance by the student at expulsion deliberations is not mandatory; all that is required is that the student have the opportunity to attend and present his or her case. Remer v. Burlington Area School District, 149 F. Supp. 2d 665
Democracy in the classroom: due process and school discipline. 58 MLR 705.
In Wisconsin Expulsions, We Don't Have to Leave Children Behind. Kratochvil. 91 MLR 1213 (2008).
School Expulsions: Not all are Equal. Julien & Engel. Wis. Law. Oct. 2001.
Children in School: Student Discipline and the School-to-Prison Pipeline. Spitzer-Resnick. Wis. Law. Sept. 2014.
Capital improvement fund. 120.135(1)(1)
By July 1, 2000, by a two-thirds vote of the members elect, a school board may adopt a resolution creating a capital improvement fund for the purpose of financing the cost of acquiring and improving sites, constructing school facilities and major maintenance of or remodeling, renovating and improving school facilities if all of the following are true:
A tax incremental district that is located in whole or in part in the school district is terminated before the maximum number of years that the tax incremental district would have existed under s. 66.1105 (7) (am)
The value increment of the tax incremental district exceeds $300,000,000.
In each year in which the school board adopts a resolution by a two-thirds vote of the members elect expressing its intention to do so until the year after the year in which the tax incremental district would have been required to terminate under s. 66.1105 (7) (am)
, the school board may deposit into the capital improvement fund the percentage, not to exceed 100 percent, specified in the resolution of the school district's portion of the positive tax increment of the tax incremental district in that year, as determined by the department of revenue under s. 66.1105
The school board shall use the balance of the school district's portion of the positive tax increment of the tax incremental district to reduce the levy that otherwise would be imposed.
Money in the capital improvement fund may not be used for any purpose or be transferred to any other fund without the approval of a majority of the electors of the school district voting on the question at a referendum.
The school board may not deposit into the capital improvement fund any amount other than the percentage specified under sub. (2)
The school board shall submit a report by January 1 of each odd-numbered year to the governor and the joint committee on finance describing the use of the moneys deposited into the fund under sub. (1)
and the effects of that use.
History: 1999 a. 17
; 2001 a. 30
; 2013 a. 8
Long-term capital improvement trust fund. 120.137(1)(1)
In this section, a “long-term capital improvement plan" is a capital improvement plan for at least a 10-year period.
A school board that has approved a long-term capital improvement plan may create a long-term capital improvement trust fund for the purpose of financing the costs of the capital improvements included in the school board's approved long-term capital improvement plan.
A school board may not expend money deposited in a long-term capital improvement trust fund created under sub. (2)
for a period of 5 years beginning on the date the trust fund is created.
After the 5-year period described in par. (a)
, a school board may make expenditures from a long-term capital improvement trust fund solely for the purposes described in the school board's approved long-term capital improvement plan and may not transfer money from a long-term capital improvement trust fund to any other school district fund.
History: 2013 a. 336
Audit of school district accounts.
In a common or union high school district:
At the close of each fiscal year, the school board of each school district shall employ a licensed accountant to audit the school district accounts and certify the audit. The audit shall include information concerning the school district's self-insurance plan under s. 66.0137 (4m)
or 120.13 (2) (b)
, as specified by the commissioner of insurance, and information about expenditures for community programs and services under s. 120.13 (19)
. If required by the state superintendent under s. 115.28 (18)
, the audit shall include an audit of the number of pupils reported for membership purposes under s. 121.004 (5)
. The cost of the audit shall be paid from school district funds. Annually by September 15, the school district clerk shall file a financial audit statement with the state superintendent.
The annual meeting may authorize and direct an audit of the school district accounts by a certified public accountant licensed or certified under ch. 442
The department shall establish by rule a standard contract and minimum standards for audits performed under this section.
See also s. PI 14.03
, Wis. adm. code.
School district president; duties.
The school district president of a common or union high school district shall:
Countersign all checks, share drafts or other drafts for disbursement of school district moneys.
Defend on behalf of the school district all actions brought against the school district.
Prosecute, when authorized by an annual meeting or the school board, actions brought by the school district.
Prosecute an action for the recovery of any forfeiture incurred under chs. 115
in which the school district is interested. If the school district president has incurred the forfeiture, such action shall be prosecuted by the school district treasurer. Of the net sum recovered under such action, one-half shall be paid into the school district treasury and one-half to the county treasury for the benefit of the school fund.
Act as chairperson of school board meetings and see that minutes of the meetings are properly recorded, approved and signed. In the absence of the president, the vice president or, in the case of a 3-member board, another school board member selected by the school board, shall act as chairperson of school board meetings.
School district treasurer; duties.
The school district treasurer of a common or union high school district shall:
Apply for, receive and sue for all money appropriated to or collected for the school district and disburse the same in accordance with this subsection and s. 66.0607
. Disbursements from the school district treasury shall be made by the school district treasurer upon the written order of the school district clerk after proper vouchers have been filed with the school district clerk. Such disbursements shall be by order check, share draft or other draft and no order check, share draft or other draft is valid nor may it be released to the payee unless signed by the school district clerk and school district treasurer and countersigned by the school district president. In a school district having 5 or more school board members, another school board member may countersign such order checks, share draft or other draft in lieu of the school district president. No order check, share draft or other draft may be drawn for the payment of which money has not been appropriated according to law. The school district treasurer may receive money raised in extracurricular activities. The school board may by resolution authorize the use of facsimile signatures as provided in s. 66.0607 (3)
. A certified copy of the resolution shall be filed with the school district clerk and each public depository concerned.
Enter in the treasurer's account books all money received and disbursed by the treasurer, specifying the source from which it was received, the person to whom it was paid and the object for which it was paid.
Present to the annual meeting a written statement of all money received and disbursed by the treasurer during the preceding year.
Immediately upon receipt, deposit the funds of the school district in the name of the school district in a public depository deposit designated by the school board under s. 120.12 (7)
. Failure to comply with this subsection shall be prima facie grounds for removal from office. When such funds are so deposited, the school district treasurer and his or her bonders are not liable for losses as defined in s. 34.01 (2)
. The interest derived from such funds shall be paid into the school district treasury.
Withdraw funds of the school district deposited in savings or time deposits by written transfer order in accordance with this subsection and s. 66.0607
. Written transfer orders may be executed only for the purpose of transferring deposits to an authorized deposit of the school district in the same or another authorized public depository. The transfer shall be made directly by the public depository from which the withdrawal is made. No transfer order is valid unless signed by the school district clerk and school district treasurer and countersigned by the school district president. In a school district having 5 or more school board members, another school board member may countersign transfer orders in lieu of the school district president. The school board may, by resolution, authorize the use of facsimile signatures as provided in s. 66.0607 (3)
. A certified copy of the resolution shall be filed with the school district clerk and each public depository concerned.
School district clerk; duties.
The school district clerk of a common or union high school district shall:
Report the name and post-office address of each officer of the school district, within 10 days after the election or appointment of the officer, to the clerk and treasurer of each municipality having territory within the school district.
Act as clerk and record the proceedings of annual and special meetings.
Enter in the record book provided by the school board the minutes of its meetings, orders, resolutions and other proceedings.
Enter in the record book copies of all the school district clerk's reports to the municipal clerks and the certificate of the proceedings of a meeting returned by a temporary school district clerk.
Draw orders on the school district treasurer as directed by an annual or special meeting or the school board and record all orders drawn on the school district treasurer.
Furnish each teacher with a copy of the contract between the teacher and the school board.
Annually on or before November 10, deliver to the clerk of each municipality having territory within the school district a certified statement showing that proportion of the amount of taxes voted and not before reported, and that proportion of the amount of tax to be collected in such year, if any, for the annual payment of any loan to be assessed on that part of the school district territory lying within the municipality. Such proportion shall be determined from the full values certified to the school district clerk under s. 121.06 (2)
If the equalized valuation of that part of a municipality lying within a school district is reduced due to the removal of property from the tax roll because the imposition of the property tax on that property is found unconstitutional, the school district clerk shall notify the supervisor of equalization. The supervisor of equalization shall reduce the equalized valuation by the full value of the property so removed and certify the resulting equalized valuation to the state superintendent and the school district clerk for use in computing the tax levy certifications under this subsection. Corrections may be made under this paragraph only for the valuations used by the department for the last 2 school years.
If an order of school district reorganization under ch. 117
is effective after January 1 and before July 1 of any year, the school district clerks of the school districts affected shall prepare the statement under par. (a)
based on the equalized valuation of the school districts as altered by the order and related to the equalized valuation of the year upon which the tax levy is required to be made. If the school district clerk has filed the statement prior to the effective date of the order, the clerk shall file a corrected certification which shall be accepted by the clerks of the municipalities affected and acted upon by them as provided in par. (a)
. Failure of the school district clerk to file a corrected certification of the levy based on the equalized valuation of each of the municipalities or portions thereof within the school district shall be corrected by the school district clerk by an appropriate adjustment in the levy certified in the following year.
Within 5 days after receipt of notification from the school board of the name of a new school, notify the proper postmaster of the name and location of the school and the number of the school district. If a school is not located on a mail route, the school district clerk shall furnish the postmaster with the names of persons to whom the mail for the school may be delivered. The school board may rent a lock box at school district expense for each school not on a mail route. The school district clerk shall notify the postmaster of school vacations and shall direct what disposition shall be made of the school mail during vacations.
Have authority to administer the oath of office to school board members.
Annual school district report. 120.18(1)(1)
Annually at such time as the department prescribes but after the end of the school year and no later than September 1, the school district clerk of a common or union high school district shall file a verified annual school district report with the department, on forms supplied by the department. The school district clerk shall send a copy of the annual school district report to the school district administrator and shall notify the person in charge of each school in the school district that the reports are on file in the school district clerk's office. Accounting and financial information provided by the school district in the annual report shall be prepared from the system of accounts prescribed by the department. If the school district clerk neglects to make the annual report, the clerk shall be liable to the school district for the whole amount of money lost by the school district because of such neglect. The annual report shall contain:
The school count, showing the numbers and ages of persons who are at least 4 years old but not yet 14 years old and who reside in a school district operating only elementary grades, showing the number and ages of persons between the ages of 14 and 20 residing in a union high school district and showing the number and ages of persons between the ages of 4 and 20 residing in any other school district. Children cared for at a charitable or penal institution of this state may not be included in the report. The school district clerk may employ a competent person to take the school count. The count may be determined by using any of the following methods:
Conducting a school census on the preceding June 30.
Adding the number of persons under this paragraph who were residents of the school district and were enrolled in the school district on the 3rd Friday of September of the previous school year; plus the number of persons under this paragraph who were residents of the school district and who were enrolled in private schools, tribal schools, home-based private educational programs, or other school districts on the 3rd Friday of September of the previous school year; plus the number or an estimate of the number of those persons under this paragraph who were residents of the school district and not enrolled in the school district, private schools, tribal schools, home-based private educational programs, or other school districts on the 3rd Friday of September of the previous school year.
The number of children between the ages of 4 and 20 taught in the schools of the school district during the school year.
The number of children attending the schools of the school district during the school year under the age of 4 and over the age of 20 years.
The number of school days taught, including holidays, and the number of hours of direct pupil instruction provided in each school, by teachers legally qualified to teach.
The names of all teachers employed by the school district during the school year; the number of days taught by each, including holidays; the monthly salary paid to each; and the time allowed each teacher for attendance at an educational convention for which no wages were deducted.
The amount of money received during the school year, designating separately the amount received from the school fund income, from taxes levied by the county board, from taxes voted by the school district and from all other sources and the manner in which such money was expended, showing separately the expenditure of school money received from the state.
The amount and character of school district debts.
Payroll and related benefit costs for all school district employees in the previous school year. Payroll costs for represented employees shall be based upon the costs of wages of any collective bargaining agreements covering such employees for the previous school year. If, as of the time specified by the department for filing the report, the school district has not entered into a collective bargaining agreement for any portion of the previous school year with the recognized or certified representative of any of its employees, increased costs of wages reflected in the report shall be equal to the maximum wage expenditure that is subject to collective bargaining under s. 111.70 (4) (mb) 2.
for the employees. The school district shall amend the annual report to reflect any change in such costs as a result of any collective bargaining agreement entered into between the date of filing the report and October 1. Any such amendment shall be concurred in by the certified public accountant licensed or certified under ch. 442
certifying the school district audit.
A description of the educational technology used by the school district, including the uses made of the technology, the cost of the technology, and the number of persons using or served by the technology. In this paragraph, “educational technology" has the meaning given in s. 16.99 (3)
The number of pupils enrolled in each school transferred to an opportunity schools and partnership program under subch. IX of ch. 115
, as reported by the commissioner in the enrollment report submitted pursuant to s. 115.999 (4)
Such other facts and statistics in relation to the public, private or tribal schools, in the school district as the department requires.
The state superintendent may promulgate rules to implement and administer this section.
School board members; compatible positions. 120.20(1)(1)
A school board member may serve as a volunteer coach or a supervisor of an extracurricular activity if all of the following apply: