165.75(1)(1)In this section and ss. 165.77 to 165.81:
165.75(1)(a) (a) “Department" means the department of justice.
165.75(1)(b) (b) “Employee" means any person in the service of the laboratories. “Employee" does not include any division administrator.
165.75(1)(c) (c) “Laboratories" means the crime laboratories.
165.75(2) (2)The personnel of the laboratories shall consist of such employees as are authorized under s. 20.922.
165.75(3) (3)
165.75(3)(a)(a) The purpose of the laboratories is to establish, maintain and operate crime laboratories to provide technical assistance to local law enforcement officers in the various fields of scientific investigation in the aid of law enforcement. Without limitation because of enumeration the laboratories shall maintain services and employ the necessary specialists, technical and scientific employees for the recognition and proper preservation, marking and scientific analysis of evidence material in the investigation and prosecution of crimes in such fields as firearms identification, the comparison and identification of toolmarks, chemistry, identification of questioned documents, metallurgy, comparative microscopy, instrumental detection of deception, the identification of fingerprints, toxicology, serology and forensic photography.
165.75(3)(b) (b) The employees are not peace officers and have no power of arrest or to serve or execute criminal process. They shall not be appointed as deputy sheriffs and shall not be given police powers by appointment or election to any office. Employees shall not undertake investigation of criminal conduct except upon the request of a sheriff, coroner, medical examiner, district attorney, chief of police, warden or superintendent of any state prison, attorney general or governor. The head of any state agency may request investigations but in those cases the services shall be limited to the field of health, welfare and law enforcement responsibility which has by statute been vested in the particular state agency.
165.75(3)(c) (c) Upon request under par. (b), the laboratories shall collaborate fully in the complete investigation of criminal conduct within their competence in the forensic sciences including field investigation at the scene of the crime and for this purpose may equip a mobile unit or units.
165.75(3)(d) (d) The services of the laboratories available to such officer shall include appearances in court as expert witnesses.
165.75(3)(e) (e) The department may decline to provide laboratory service in any case not involving a potential charge of felony.
165.75(3)(f) (f) The services of the laboratories may be provided in civil cases in which the state or any department, bureau, agency or officer of the state is a party in an official capacity, when requested to do so by the attorney general.
165.75(3)(g) (g) Deoxyribonucleic acid testing ordered under s. 974.07 shall have priority, consistent with the right of a defendant or the state to a speedy trial and consistent with the right of a victim to the prompt disposition of a case.
165.75(4) (4)The operation of the laboratories shall conform to the rules and policies established by the attorney general.
165.75(5) (5)Except as provided in s. 20.001 (5), all moneys received as restitution payments reimbursing the department for moneys expended by the laboratories shall be deposited as general purpose revenue — earned.
165.75 Annotation Sub. (1) (b) refers to employees as persons in the service of the laboratories. However, sub. (2) explicitly states that “the personnel of the laboratories shall consist of such employees as are authorized under s. 20.922." Section 20.922 authorizes state agencies to appoint employees. The Department of Justice is the state agency of which the crime laboratories are a part. Thus the crime laboratory is not a suable entity separate from the department. Odogba v. Wisconsin Department of Justice, 22 F. Supp. 3d 895 (2014).
165.75 Annotation An evaluation of drug testing procedures. Stein, Laessig, Indriksons, 1973 WLR 727.
165.755 165.755 Crime laboratories and drug law enforcement surcharge.
165.755(1)(a) (a) Except as provided in par. (b), a court shall impose under ch. 814 a crime laboratories and drug law enforcement surcharge of $13 if the court imposes a sentence, places a person on probation, or imposes a forfeiture for a violation of state law or for a violation of a municipal or county ordinance.
165.755(1)(b) (b) A court may not impose the crime laboratories and drug law enforcement surcharge under par. (a) for a violation of s. 101.123 (2) or (2m), for a financial responsibility violation under s. 344.62 (2), or for a violation of a state law or municipal or county ordinance involving a nonmoving traffic violation, a violation under s. 343.51 (1m) (b), or a safety belt use violation under s. 347.48 (2m).
165.755(2) (2)If the court under sub. (1) (a) imposes a sentence or forfeiture for multiple offenses or places a person on probation for multiple offenses, a separate crime laboratories and drug law enforcement surcharge shall be imposed under ch. 814 for each separate offense.
165.755(3) (3)Except as provided in sub. (4), after the court determines the amount due under sub. (1) (a), the clerk of the court shall collect and transmit the amount to the county treasurer under s. 59.40 (2) (m). The county treasurer shall then make payment to the secretary of administration under s. 59.25 (3) (f) 2.
165.755(4) (4)If a municipal court imposes a forfeiture, after determining the amount due under sub. (1) (a) the court shall collect and transmit such amount to the treasurer of the county, city, town, or village, and that treasurer shall make payment to the secretary of administration as provided in s. 66.0114 (1) (bm).
165.755(5) (5)If any deposit of bail is made for a noncriminal offense to which sub. (1) (a) applies, the person making the deposit shall also deposit a sufficient amount to include the surcharge under sub. (1) (a) for forfeited bail. If bail is forfeited, the amount of the surcharge under sub. (1) (a) shall be transmitted monthly to the secretary of administration under this section. If bail is returned, the surcharge shall also be returned.
165.755(6) (6)If an inmate in a state prison or a person sentenced to a state prison has not paid the crime laboratories and drug law enforcement surcharge under sub. (1) (a), the department shall assess and collect the amount owed from the inmate's wages or other moneys. Any amount collected shall be transmitted to the secretary of administration.
165.755(7) (7)All moneys collected from crime laboratories and drug law enforcement surcharges under this section shall be deposited by the secretary of administration and used as specified in ss. 20.455 (2) (jb), (kd), and (Lm) and 20.475 (1) (km).
165.76 165.76 Submission of human biological specimen.
165.76(1)(1)A person shall provide a biological specimen to the state crime laboratories for deoxyribonucleic acid analysis if he or she meets any of the following criteria:
165.76(1)(a) (a) Is or was in a juvenile correctional facility, as defined in s. 938.02 (10p), or a secured residential care center for children and youth, as defined in s. 938.02 (15g), or on probation, extended supervision, parole, supervision, or aftercare supervision on or after August 12, 1993, for any violation of s. 940.225 (1) or (2), 948.02 (1) or (2), 948.025, or 948.085.
165.76(1)(ag) (ag) Is or was in prison on or after August 12, 1993, and before January 1, 2000, for any violation of s. 940.225 (1) or (2), 948.02 (1) or (2), or 948.025.
165.76(1)(am) (am) Is or was adjudicated delinquent for an act that if committed by an adult in this state would be a felony or for a violation of s. 940.225 (3m), 941.20 (1), 944.20, 944.30 (1m), 944.31 (1), 944.33, 946.52, or 948.10 (1) (b).
165.76(1)(ar) (ar) Is or was in prison on or after January 1, 2000, for a felony committed in this state.
165.76(1)(as) (as) Is or was found guilty of any misdemeanor on or after April 1, 2015.
165.76(1)(av) (av) Is or was found guilty on or after January 1, 2000, of any of the following:
165.76(1)(av)1. 1. Any felony.
165.76(1)(av)2. 2. Before April 1, 2015, any violation of s. 165.765 (1), 2011 stats., or of s. 940.225 (3m), 944.20, or 948.10 (1) (b).
165.76(1)(aw) (aw) Is or was found guilty on or after January 1, 2000, and before April 1, 2015, of any violation of s. 940.225 (3m), 944.20, or 948.10.
165.76(1)(bg) (bg) Is or was sentenced or placed on probation on or after August 12, 1993, for a violation of s. 940.225, 948.02 (1) or (2), or 948.025.
165.76(1)(bm) (bm) Has been found not guilty or not responsible by reason of mental disease or defect on or after August 12, 1993, and committed under s. 51.20 or 971.17 for any violation of s. 940.225 (1) or (2), 948.02 (1) or (2), 948.025, or 948.085.
165.76(1)(br) (br) Has been found not guilty or not responsible by reason of mental disease or defect on or after January 1, 2000, and committed under s. 51.20 or 971.17, for any felony or a violation of s. 165.765 (1), 2011 stats., or of s. 940.225 (3m), 944.20, 946.52, or 948.10 (1) (b).
165.76(1)(c) (c) Is or was in institutional care on or after August 12, 1993, for any violation of s. 940.225 (1) or (2), 948.02 (1) or (2), 948.025, or 948.085.
165.76(1)(cr) (cr) Is or was in institutional care on or after January 1, 2000, for a felony or any violation of s. 165.765 (1), 2011 stats., or of s. 940.225 (3m), 944.20, 946.52, or 948.10 (1) (b).
165.76(1)(d) (d) Has been found to be a sexually violent person under ch. 980 on or after June 2, 1994.
165.76(1)(e) (e) Is or was released on parole or extended supervision or placed on probation in another state before January 1, 2000, and is or was on parole, extended supervision, or probation in this state from the other state under s. 304.13 (1m), 304.135, or 304.16 on or after July 9, 1996, for a violation of the law of the other state that the department of corrections determines, under s. 304.137 (1), is comparable to a violation of s. 940.225 (1) or (2), 948.02 (1) or (2), 948.025, or 948.085.
165.76(1)(f) (f) Is or was released on parole or extended supervision or placed on probation in another state on or after January 1, 2000, and is or was on parole, extended supervision, or probation in this state from the other state under s. 304.13 (1m), 304.135, or 304.16 for a violation of the law of the other state that the department of corrections determines, under s. 304.137 (2), would constitute a felony if committed by an adult in this state.
165.76(1)(g) (g) Has been required by a court under s. 51.20 (13) (cr), 938.21 (1m), 938.30 (2m), 938.34 (15), 970.02 (8), 971.17 (1m) (a), 973.047, or 980.063 to provide a biological specimen to the state crime laboratories for deoxyribonucleic acid analysis.
165.76(1)(gm) (gm) Is arrested for a violent crime, as defined in s. 165.84 (7) (ab), or is taken into custody for a juvenile offense that would be a violent crime, as defined in s. 165.84 (7) (ab), if committed by an adult in this state.
165.76(1)(h) (h) Is notified by the department of justice, the department of corrections, a district attorney, or a county sheriff under sub. (1m) that the person is required to provide a biological specimen.
165.76(1m) (1m)If a person is required to provide a biological specimen under sub. (1) (a) to (gm) and the department of justice does not have the data obtained from analysis of a biological specimen from the person that the department is required to maintain in the data bank under s. 165.77 (3), the department may require the person to provide a biological specimen, regardless of whether the person previously provided a biological specimen under this section or s. 51.20 (13) (cr), 165.84 (7), 938.21 (1m), 938.30 (2m), 938.34 (15), 970.02 (8), 971.17 (1m) (a), 973.047, or 980.063. The department of justice, the department of corrections, a district attorney, or a county sheriff, shall notify any person whom the department of justice requires to provide a biological specimen under this subsection.
165.76(2r) (2r)Failure by a person who is required to provide a biological specimen under sub. (1) to provide the biological specimen in accordance with the rules promulgated under sub. (4) does not relieve the person of the obligation to provide a biological specimen to the state crime laboratories for deoxyribonucleic acid analysis.
165.76(4) (4)The department of justice shall promulgate rules to do all of the following:
165.76(4)(a) (a) Establish procedures and time limits for obtaining and submitting biological specimens under this section and ss. 51.20 (13) (cr), 165.84 (7), 938.21 (1m), 938.30 (2m), 938.34 (15), 970.02 (8), 971.17 (1m) (a), 973.047, and 980.063.
165.76(4)(b) (b) Specify whether an individual who is required under this section or s. 51.20 (13) (cr), 165.84 (7), 938.21 (1m), 938.30 (2m), 938.34 (15), 970.02 (8), 971.17 (1m) (a), 973.047, or 980.063 to provide a biological specimen for deoxyribonucleic acid analysis must provide a new biological specimen if the crime laboratories already have a biological specimen from the individual or if data obtained from deoxyribonucleic acid analysis of the individual's biological specimen are already included in the data bank under s. 165.77 (3).
165.76(4)(c) (c) Allow a biological specimen, or data obtained from analysis of a biological specimen, obtained under this section, under s. 51.20 (13) (cr), 938.21 (1m), 938.30 (2m), 938.34 (15), 970.02 (8), 971.17 (1m) (a), 973.047, or 980.063, or, if the specimen is required to be analyzed under s. 165.84 (7) (am) 1m., under s. 165.84 (7) (ah), to be submitted for inclusion in an index established under 42 USC 14132 (a) or in another national index system.
165.76(4)(d) (d) Provide reimbursement from s. 20.455 (2) (Lm) to a person in charge of a law enforcement agency or tribal law enforcement agency at a rate of $10 per specimen except that, if the department already has a biological specimen, or data obtained from analysis of a biological specimen, from the individual, the department may not reimburse the person in charge of the agency.
165.76(4)(e) (e) Carry out the department's duties under this section.
165.76(5) (5)The departments of corrections and health services, county departments under ss. 46.215, 46.22 and 46.23 and county sheriffs shall cooperate with the department of justice in obtaining specimens under this section.
165.76(6) (6)
165.76(6)(a)(a) If a person who is required to provide a biological specimen under sub. (1) refuses or fails to provide a biological specimen, a district attorney may file a petition with the circuit court for an order compelling the person to provide a biological specimen to the state crime laboratories for deoxyribonucleic acid analysis. A petition under this paragraph shall establish reasonable cause to believe that the person is required to provide a biological specimen under sub. (1) and that the person's biological specimen is not included in the data bank under s. 165.77 (3).
165.76(6)(b) (b) If the court determines that a district attorney's petition satisfies the conditions under par. (a), the court shall issue an order requiring the person to appear in court at a specified time for a hearing to show cause why he or she is not required to provide a biological specimen under sub. (1) or, instead of appearing at the hearing, to provide a biological specimen at the office of the county sheriff before the time for which the hearing is scheduled. The hearing shall be scheduled for not less than 10 and not more than 45 days after the date the court enters the order. The order, together with a copy of the petition and any supporting material, shall be served upon the person in the manner provided for serving a summons under s. 801.11. The order shall be in substantially the following form:
STATE OF WISCONSIN
CIRCUIT COURT: .... County
STATE OF WISCONSIN File No. ......
vs. ORDER
A.B.
Address
City, State, Zip Code
, Respondent
THE STATE OF WISCONSIN, To the Respondent named above:
Unless you choose to contest this Order, by appearing at the time, date, and place set forth below, you are ordered to present yourself to the .... county sheriff, [ADDRESS], no later than ...., between the hours of .... and ...., for the collection of a biological specimen, obtained by buccal swab, for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) analysis and inclusion of the results of that analysis in the state crime laboratory's DNA database. YOU MUST BRING A COPY OF THIS ORDER WITH YOU. YOU MUST ALSO BRING TWO FORMS OF IDENTIFICATION, INCLUDING ONE FORM OF GOVERNMENT-ISSUED, PHOTOGRAPHIC IDENTIFICATION. A copy of the petition submitted to obtain this order is attached.
If you wish to contest this order, you may do so by appearing in person at the time, date, and place set forth below, at which time you will have the opportunity to show cause to the court why you should not be required to provide a biological specimen for DNA analysis:
[Court information]
If you do not appear in person to contest this order at the time, date, and place set forth above, and you do not present yourself for collection of a biological specimen as directed, all of the following apply:
165.76(6)(b)1. 1. You may be held in contempt of court and be subject to sanctions as provided in chapter 785 of the Wisconsin Statutes.
165.76(6)(b)2. 2. The court will issue an order to facilitate collection of a biological specimen which, in the court's discretion, may authorize arrest or detention or use of reasonable force against you to collect the biological specimen.
Dated: ...., .... (year)
By the Court signed: .... ....
This Order is entered under section 165.76 (6) of the Wisconsin Statutes. A copy of that section is attached.
165.76(6)(c) (c) At a hearing on a petition under par. (a), the person has the burden of rebutting the matters established in the petition by demonstrating that he or she is not required to submit a biological specimen under sub. (1).
165.76(6)(d) (d) If the court determines after the hearing under par. (c) that the person is required to submit a biological specimen under sub. (1) and that the person's specimen is not included in the data bank under s. 165.77 (3), the court shall issue an order to facilitate collection of a biological specimen from the person, which may authorize arrest or detention of the person or use of reasonable force against the person to collect the biological specimen.
165.76 Annotation When officers make an arrest supported by probable cause for a serious offense and bring the suspect to the station to be detained in custody, taking and analyzing a cheek swab of the arrestee's DNA is, like fingerprinting and photographing, a legitimate police booking procedure that is reasonable under the 4th amendment. In the context of a valid arrest supported by probable cause, the arrestee's expectations of privacy were not offended by the minor intrusion of a brief swab of his cheeks for DNA. That same context of arrest gives rise to significant state interests in identifying respondent not only so that the proper name can be attached to his charges but also so that the criminal justice system can make informed decisions concerning pretrial custody. Upon these considerations, DNA identification of arrestees is a reasonable search that can be considered part of a routine booking procedure. Maryland v. King, 569 U.S. 435, 133 S. Ct. 1958, 186 L. Ed. 2d 1, (2013).
165.76 AnnotationDNA sampling under this section is constitutional. Shelton v. Grudman, 934 F. Supp. 1048 (1996).
165.76 Annotation DNA Extraction on Arrest: Maryland v. King and Wisconsin's New Extraction Law. Dupuis. Wis. Law. Sept. 2013.
165.765 165.765 Biological specimen; force and immunity.
165.765(1g)(1g)In this section:
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2015-16 Wisconsin Statutes updated through 2017 Wis. Act 367 and all Supreme Court and Controlled Substances Board Orders effective on or before October 1, 2018. Published and certified under s. 35.18. Changes effective after October 1, 2018 are designated by NOTES. (Published 10-1-18)