An agency may promulgate a rule as an emergency rule without complying with the notice, hearing and publication requirements under this chapter if preservation of the public peace, health, safety or welfare necessitates putting the rule into effect prior to the time it would take effect if the agency complied with the procedures.
A rule promulgated under par. (a)
takes effect upon publication in the official state newspaper or on any later date specified in the rule and, except as provided under sub. (2)
, remains in effect only for 150 days.
A rule promulgated under par. (b)
takes effect upon publication in the official state newspaper or on any later date specified in the rule and remains in effect for one year or until it is suspended or the proposed rule corresponding to it is objected to by the joint committee for review of administrative rules, whichever is sooner. If a rule under par. (b)
is suspended or a proposed rule under s. 186.235 (21)
, 215.02 (18)
or 220.04 (8)
is objected to by the joint committee for review of administrative rules, any person may complete any transaction entered into or committed to in reliance on that rule and shall have 45 days to discontinue other activity undertaken in reliance on that rule.
An agency that promulgates a rule under this subsection shall do all of the following:
Prepare a statement of the scope of the proposed emergency rule as provided in s. 227.135 (1)
, obtain approval of the statement as provided in s. 227.135 (2)
, and send the statement to the legislative reference bureau for publication in the register as provided in s. 227.135 (3)
. If the agency changes the scope of a proposed emergency rule as described in s. 227.135 (4)
, the agency shall prepare and obtain approval of a revised statement of the scope of the proposed emergency rule as provided in s. 227.135 (4)
. No state employee or official may perform any activity in connection with the drafting of a proposed emergency rule except for an activity necessary to prepare the statement of the scope of the proposed emergency rule until the governor and the individual or body with policy-making powers over the subject matter of the proposed emergency rule approves the statement.
Submit the proposed emergency rule in final draft form to the governor for approval. The governor, in his or her discretion, may approve or reject the proposed emergency rule. If the governor approves a proposed emergency rule, the governor shall provide the agency with a written notice of that approval. An agency may not file an emergency rule with the legislative reference bureau as provided in s. 227.20
and an emergency rule may not be published until the governor approves the emergency rule in writing.
Prepare a plain language analysis of the rule in the format prescribed under s. 227.14 (2)
and print the plain language analysis with the rule when it is published.
Prepare a fiscal estimate of the rule in the format prescribed under s. 227.14 (4)
and mail the fiscal estimate to each member of the legislature not later than 10 days after the date on which the rule is published.
At the request of an agency, the joint committee for review of administrative rules may, at any time prior to the expiration date of a rule promulgated under sub. (1) (a)
, extend the effective period of the emergency rule or part of the emergency rule for a period specified by the committee not to exceed 60 days. Any number of extensions may be granted under this paragraph, but the total period for all extensions may not exceed 120 days.
Any request by an agency to extend the effective period of the emergency rule or part of the emergency rule shall be made in writing to the joint committee for review of administrative rules no later than 30 days before the initial expiration date of the emergency rule.
In making the request for an extension, the agency shall provide the committee with the following:
Evidence that there is a threat to the public peace, health, safety or welfare that can be avoided only by extension of the emergency rule or part of the emergency rule.
Evidence that it is impossible for the agency to promulgate a permanent rule prior to the expiration date of the emergency rule under sub. (1) (c)
Whenever the committee extends an emergency rule or part of an emergency rule under par. (a)
, it shall file a statement of its action with the agency promulgating the emergency rule and the legislative reference bureau. The statement shall identify the specific emergency rule or part of an emergency rule to which it relates.
An agency shall file a rule promulgated under sub. (1)
as provided in s. 227.20
, shall mail a copy to the chief clerk of each house and to each member of the legislature at the time that the rule is filed and shall take any other step it considers feasible to make the rule known to persons who will be affected by it. The legislative reference bureau shall insert in the notice section of each issue of the register a brief description of each rule under sub. (1)
that is currently in effect. Each copy, notice or description of a rule promulgated under sub. (1) (a)
shall be accompanied by a statement of the emergency finding by the agency or by a statement that the rule is promulgated at the direction of the joint committee for review of administrative rules under s. 227.26 (2) (b)
(3m) Review by the small business regulatory review board.
On the same day that the agency files a rule under sub. (3)
that may have an economic impact on small businesses, as defined in s. 227.114 (1)
, the agency shall submit a copy of the rule to the small business regulatory review board. The board may use cost-benefit analysis to determine the fiscal effect of the emergency rule on small businesses and shall determine whether the emergency rule will have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small businesses and whether the agency complied with ss. 227.114 (2)
and 227.14 (2m)
. If the board determines that the emergency rule will not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small businesses, the board shall submit a statement to that effect to the agency that sets forth the reason for the board's decision. If the board determines that the emergency rule will have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small businesses, the board may submit to the agency and to the legislative council staff suggested changes in the emergency rule to minimize the economic impact of the emergency rule. If the board determines that the agency failed to comply with s. 227.114 (2)
or 227.14 (2m)
, the board shall notify the agency of that determination and ask the agency to comply with any of those provisions. In addition, the board may submit other suggested changes in the proposed rule to the agency and may include a request that the agency do any of the following:
Explain how the agency has responded to comments received from small businesses regarding the emergency rule.
Verify that the emergency rule does not conflict with, overlap, or duplicate other rules or federal regulations.
(4) Public hearing.
Notwithstanding sub. (1) (a)
, an agency shall hold a public hearing within 45 days after it promulgates a rule under sub. (1)
. If within that 45-day period the agency submits to the legislative council staff under s. 227.15
a proposed rule corresponding to the rule under sub. (1)
, it shall hold a public hearing on both rules within 90 days after promulgation of the rule under sub. (1)
, or within 30 days after the agency receives the report on the proposed rule prepared by the legislative council under s. 227.15 (2)
, whichever occurs later.
The effectiveness of an emergency rule may not be extended beyond the initial effective period by simply refiling it. 62 Atty Gen. 305.
Legislative reference bureau. 227.25(1)
The legislative reference bureau shall, in cooperation with the legislative council staff under s. 227.15 (7)
, prepare a manual informing agencies about the form, style and placement of rules in the code.
The legislative reference bureau shall, upon request, furnish an agency with advice and assistance on the form and mechanics of rule drafting.
An agency may request an advance commitment as to the title or numbering of a proposed rule by submitting a copy of the proposed rule indicating the requested title and numbering to the legislative reference bureau prior to filing. As soon as possible after that, the legislative reference bureau shall either approve the request or inform the agency of any change necessary to preserve uniformity in the code.
The legislative reference bureau may, prior to publication, edit the analysis of a proposed rule and any other material submitted for publication in the code and register, may refer to the fact that those materials are on file or may eliminate them and any reference to them in the code and register if they do not appreciably add to an understanding of the rule. The legislative reference bureau shall submit the edited version of any material to the agency for its comments prior to publication.
Legislative review after promulgation; joint committee for review of administrative rules. 227.26(1)
In this section, "rule" means all or any part of a rule which has taken effect as provided under s. 227.22 (2)
The joint committee for review of administrative rules shall promote adequate and proper rules, statements of general policy and interpretations of statutes by agencies and an understanding upon the part of the public respecting the rules, statements and interpretations.
Requirement for promulgation.
If the committee determines that a statement of policy or an interpretation of a statute meets the definition of a rule, it may direct the agency to promulgate the statement or interpretation as an emergency rule under s. 227.24 (1) (a)
within 30 days after the committee's action.
The committee shall hold a public hearing to investigate any complaint with respect to a rule if it considers the complaint meritorious and worthy of attention.
Temporary suspension of rules.
The committee may suspend any rule by a majority vote of a quorum of the committee. A rule may be suspended only on the basis of testimony in relation to that rule received at a public hearing and only for one or more of the reasons specified under s. 227.19 (4) (d)
When the committee suspends a rule, it shall publish a class 1 notice, under ch. 985
, of the suspension in the official state newspaper and give any other notice it considers appropriate.
Introduction of bills.
If any rule is suspended, the committee shall, within 30 days after the suspension, meet and take executive action regarding the introduction, in each house of the legislature, of a bill to support the suspension. The committee shall introduce the bills within 5 working days after taking executive action in favor of introduction of the bills unless the bills cannot be introduced during this time period under the joint rules of the legislature.
Committee report required.
No bill required by this subsection may be considered by the legislature until the committee submits a written report on the proposed bill. The report shall be printed as an appendix to the bills introduced under par. (f)
. The report shall contain all of the following:
An explanation of the issue regarding the suspended rule and the factual situation out of which the issue arose.
Arguments presented for and against the suspension action at the public hearing held under par. (c)
A statement of the action taken by the committee regarding the rule.
A statement and analysis of the grounds upon which the committee relies for suspending the rule.
Upon the introduction of bills by the committee under this subsection, the presiding officer of each house of the legislature shall refer the bill introduced in that house to the appropriate committee, to the calendar scheduling committee or directly to the calendar. If the committee to which a bill is referred makes no report within 30 days after referral, the bill shall be considered reported without recommendation. No later than 40 days after referral, or as soon thereafter as is possible if the legislature is not in a floorperiod 40 days after referral, the bills shall be placed on the calendar of each house of the legislature according to its rule governing the placement of proposals on the calendar. A bill introduced under this subsection which is received in the 2nd house shall be referred, reported and placed on the calendar in the same manner as an original bill introduced under this subsection.
Timely introduction of bills; effect.
If both bills required under this subsection are defeated, or fail to be enacted in any other manner, the rule remains in effect and the committee may not suspend it again. If either bill becomes law, the rule is repealed and may not be promulgated again unless a subsequent law specifically authorizes such action. This paragraph applies to bills that are introduced on or after the day specified under s. 13.02 (1)
for the legislature to convene and before February 1 of an even-numbered year.
Late introduction of bills; effect.
If the bills required under par. (f)
are introduced on or after February 1 of an even-numbered year and before the next regular session of the legislature commences, as provided under s. 13.02 (2)
, or if the bills cannot be introduced during this time period under the joint rules of the legislature, unless either house adversely disposes of either bill, the committee shall introduce the bills on the first day of the next regular session of the legislature. If the committee is required to introduce the bills on the first day of the next regular session, the rule to which the bills pertain remains suspended except as provided in par. (i)
. If either house adversely disposes of either bill, the rule remains in effect and the committee may not suspend it again. In this paragraph, "adversely disposes of" has the meaning given under s. 227.19 (5) (g)
The committee shall submit a biennial report of its activities to the chief clerk of each house of the legislature, for distribution to the legislature under s. 13.172 (2)
, and to the governor and include recommendations.
If the committee suspends an emergency rule under this section, the agency may not submit to the legislature under s. 227.19 (2)
the substance of the emergency rule as a proposed permanent rule during the time the emergency rule is suspended.
(3) Public hearings by state agencies.
By a majority vote of a quorum of the committee, the committee may require any agency to hold a public hearing in respect to recommendations made under sub. (2)
and to report its action to the committee within the time specified by the committee. The agency shall publish a class 1 notice, under ch. 985
, of the hearing in the official state newspaper and give any other notice which the committee directs. The hearing shall be conducted in accordance with s. 227.18
and shall be held not more than 60 days after receipt of notice of the requirement.
History: 1985 a. 182
; 1987 a. 186
; 2005 a. 249
Rule suspension under sub. (2) (d) does not violate the separation of powers doctrine. Martinez v. DILHR, 165 Wis. 2d 687
, 478 N.W.2d 582
A collective bargaining agreement between the regents and the teaching assistants association is not subject to review by the committee. 59 Atty. Gen. 200.
In giving notice of public hearings held under sub. (2), the committee should concurrently employ the various forms of notice available that best fit the particular circumstances. 62 Atty. Gen. 299.
If an administrative rule is properly adopted and is within the power of the legislature to delegate there is no material difference between it and a law. No law, including a valid rule can be revoked by a joint resolution of the legislature as such a resolution deprives the executive its power to veto an act of the legislature. 63 Atty. Gen. 159.
Legislative committee review of administrative rules in Wisconsin. Bunn and Gallagher. 1977 WLR 935.
Construction of administrative rules. 227.27(2)
The code shall be prima facie evidence in all courts and proceedings as provided by s. 889.01
, but this does not preclude reference to or, in case of a discrepancy, control over a rule filed with the legislative reference bureau or the secretary of state, and the certified copy of a rule shall also and in the same degree be prima facie evidence in all courts and proceedings.
History: 1983 a. 544
; 1985 a. 182
, 55 (2)
, (3); Stats. 1985 s. 227.27; 2005 a. 249
; 2007 a. 20
Review of administrative rules or guidelines. 227.30(1)(1)
The small business regulatory review board may review the rules and guidelines of any agency to determine whether any of those rules or guidelines place an unnecessary burden on the ability of small businesses, as defined in s. 227.114 (1)
, to conduct their affairs. If the board determines that a rule or guideline places an unnecessary burden on the ability of a small business to conduct its affairs, the board shall submit a report and recommendations regarding the rule or guideline to the joint committee for review of administrative rules and to the agency.
When reviewing the report, the joint committee for review of administrative rules shall consider all of the following:
The continued need for the rule or guideline.
The nature of the complaints and comments received from the public regarding the rule or guideline.
The extent to which the rule or guideline overlaps, duplicates, or conflicts with federal regulations, other state rules, or local ordinances.
The length of time since the rule or guideline has been evaluated.
The degree to which technology, economic conditions, or other factors have changed in the subject area affected by the rule or guideline since the rule or guideline was promulgated.
The joint committee for review of administrative rules may refer the report regarding the rule or guideline to the presiding officer of each house of the legislature for referral to a committee under s. 227.19 (2)
or may review the rule or guideline as provided under s. 227.26
History: 2003 a. 145
; 2005 a. 249
ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIONS AND JUDICIAL REVIEW
Subch. III of ch. 227 Cross-reference
See also ch. NR 2
, Wis. adm. code.
Declaratory judgment proceedings. 227.40(1)
Except as provided in sub. (2)
, the exclusive means of judicial review of the validity of a rule shall be an action for declaratory judgment as to the validity of the rule brought in the circuit court for the county where the party asserting the invalidity of the rule resides or has its principal place of business or, if that party is a nonresident or does not have its principal place of business in this state, in the circuit court for the county where the dispute arose. The officer or other agency whose rule is involved shall be the party defendant. The summons in the action shall be served as provided in s. 801.11 (3)
and by delivering a copy to that officer or, if the agency is composed of more than one person, to the secretary or clerk of the agency or to any member of the agency. The court shall render a declaratory judgment in the action only when it appears from the complaint and the supporting evidence that the rule or its threatened application interferes with or impairs, or threatens to interfere with or impair, the legal rights and privileges of the plaintiff. A declaratory judgment may be rendered whether or not the plaintiff has first requested the agency to pass upon the validity of the rule in question.
The validity of a rule may be determined in any of the following judicial proceedings when material therein:
Any civil proceeding by the state or any officer or agency thereof to enforce a statute or to recover thereunder, provided such proceeding is not based upon a matter as to which the opposing party is accorded an administrative review or a judicial review by other provisions of the statutes and such opposing party has failed to exercise such right to review so accorded;
Proceedings or prosecutions for violations of county or municipal ordinances;
Habeas corpus proceedings relating to criminal prosecution;
Proceedings under s. 66.191
, 1981 stats., or s. 40.65 (2)
, 303.07 (7)
or ss. 227.52
or under ch. 102
for review of decisions and orders of administrative agencies if the validity of the rule involved was duly challenged in the proceeding before the agency in which the order or decision sought to be reviewed was made or entered.
In any judicial proceeding other than one set out above, in which the invalidity of a rule is material to the cause of action or any defense thereto, the assertion of such invalidity shall be set forth in the pleading of the party so maintaining the invalidity of such rule in that proceeding. The party so asserting the invalidity of such rule shall, within 30 days after the service of the pleading in which the party sets forth such invalidity, apply to the court in which such proceedings are had for an order suspending the trial of said proceeding until after a determination of the validity of said rule in an action for declaratory judgment under sub. (1)
Upon the hearing of such application if the court is satisfied that the validity of such rule is material to the issues of the case, an order shall be entered staying the trial of said proceeding until the rendition of a final declaratory judgment in proceedings to be instituted forthwith by the party asserting the invalidity of such rule. If the court shall find that the asserted invalidity of a rule is not material to the case, an order shall be entered denying the application for stay.
Upon the entry of a final order in said declaratory judgment action, it shall be the duty of the party who asserts the invalidity of the rule to formally advise the court of the outcome of the declaratory judgment action so brought as ordered by the court. After the final disposition of the declaratory judgment action the court shall be bound by and apply the judgment so entered in the trial of the proceeding in which the invalidity of the rule is asserted.
Failure to set forth invalidity of a rule in a pleading or to commence a declaratory judgment proceeding within a reasonable time pursuant to such order of the court or to prosecute such declaratory judgment action without undue delay shall preclude such party from asserting or maintaining such rule is invalid.
In any proceeding pursuant to this section for judicial review of a rule, the court shall declare the rule invalid if it finds that it violates constitutional provisions or exceeds the statutory authority of the agency or was promulgated without compliance with statutory rule-making procedures.
Notwithstanding s. 227.54
, in any proceeding under this section for judicial review of a rule, a court may not restrain, enjoin or suspend enforcement of the rule during the course of the proceeding on the basis of the alleged failure of the agency promulgating the rule to comply with s. 227.114