407.209(3)(b) (b) Acquiesce in the procurement by the bailor or its nominee of any document.
407.209(4) (4)A warehouse's lien on household goods for charges and expenses in relation to the goods under sub. (1) is also effective against all persons if the depositor was the legal possessor of the goods at the time of deposit. In this subsection, “household goods" means furniture, furnishings, or personal effects used by the depositor in a dwelling.
407.209(5) (5)A warehouse loses its lien on any goods that it voluntarily delivers or unjustifiably refuses to deliver.
407.209 History History: 2009 a. 322.
407.210 407.210 Enforcement of warehouse's lien.
407.210(1)(1)Except as otherwise provided in sub. (2), a warehouse's lien may be enforced by public or private sale of the goods, in bulk or in packages, at any time or place and on any terms that are commercially reasonable, after notifying all persons known to claim an interest in the goods. The notification must include a statement of the amount due, the nature of the proposed sale, and the time and place of any public sale. The fact that a better price could have been obtained by a sale at a different time or in a different method from that selected by the warehouse is not of itself sufficient to establish that the sale was not made in a commercially reasonable manner. The warehouse has sold in a commercially reasonable manner if the warehouse sells the goods in the usual manner in any recognized market therefor, sells at the price current in that market at the time of the sale, or has otherwise sold in conformity with commercially reasonable practices among dealers in the type of goods sold. A sale of more goods than apparently necessary to be offered to ensure satisfaction of the obligation is not commercially reasonable, except in cases covered by the preceding sentence.
407.210(2) (2)A warehouse's lien on goods, other than goods stored by a merchant in the course of its business, may be enforced only if all of the following requirements are satisfied:
407.210(2)(a) (a) All persons known to claim an interest in the goods must be notified.
407.210(2)(b) (b) The notification must include an itemized statement of the claim, a description of the goods subject to the lien, a demand for payment within a specified time not less than 10 days after receipt of the notification, and a conspicuous statement that unless the claim is paid within that time the goods will be advertised for sale and sold by auction at a specified time and place.
407.210(2)(c) (c) The sale must conform to the terms of the notification.
407.210(2)(d) (d) The sale must be held at the nearest suitable place to where the goods are held or stored.
407.210(2)(e) (e) After the expiration of the time given in the notification, an advertisement of the sale must be published once a week for 2 weeks consecutively in a newspaper of general circulation where the sale is to be held. The advertisement must include a description of the goods, the name of the person on whose account the goods are being held, and the time and place of the sale. The sale must take place at least 15 days after the first publication. If there is no newspaper of general circulation where the sale is to be held, the advertisement must be posted at least 10 days before the sale in not less than 6 conspicuous places in the neighborhood of the proposed sale.
407.210(3) (3)Before any sale pursuant to this section, any person claiming a right in the goods may pay the amount necessary to satisfy the lien and the reasonable expenses incurred in complying with this section. In that event, the goods may not be sold but must be retained by the warehouse subject to the terms of the receipt and this chapter.
407.210(4) (4)A warehouse may buy at any public sale held pursuant to this section.
407.210(5) (5)A purchaser in good faith of goods sold to enforce a warehouse's lien takes the goods free of any rights of persons against which the lien was valid, despite the warehouse's noncompliance with this section.
407.210(6) (6)A warehouse may satisfy its lien from the proceeds of any sale pursuant to this section but shall hold the balance, if any, for delivery on demand to any person to which the warehouse would have been bound to deliver the goods.
407.210(7) (7)The rights provided by this section are in addition to all other rights allowed by law to a creditor against a debtor.
407.210(8) (8)If a lien is on goods stored by a merchant in the course of its business, the lien may be enforced in accordance with sub. (1) or (2).
407.210(9) (9)A warehouse is liable for damages caused by failure to comply with the requirements for sale under this section and, in case of willful violation, is liable for conversion.
407.210 History History: 2009 a. 322.
subch. III of ch. 407 SUBCHAPTER III
BILLS OF LADING: SPECIAL PROVISIONS
407.301 407.301 Liability for nonreceipt or misdescription; “said to contain"; “shipper's load and count"; improper handling.
407.301(1)(1)A consignee of a nonnegotiable bill of lading which has given value in good faith, or a holder to which a negotiable bill has been duly negotiated, relying upon the description of the goods in the bill or upon the date shown in the bill, may recover from the issuer damages caused by the misdating of the bill or the nonreceipt or misdescription of the goods, except to the extent that the document of title indicates that the issuer does not know whether any part or all of the goods in fact were received or conform to the description, such as in a case in which the description is in terms of marks or labels or kind, quantity, or condition or the receipt or description is qualified by “contents or condition of contents of packages unknown," “said to contain," “shipper's weight, load, and count," or words of similar import, if that indication is true.
407.301(2) (2)If goods are loaded by the issuer of the bill of lading, the issuer shall count the packages of goods if shipped in packages and ascertain the kind and quantity if shipped in bulk and words such as “shipper's weight, load, and count," or words of similar import indicating that the description was made by the shipper are ineffective except as to goods concealed by packages.
407.301(3) (3)If bulk goods are loaded by a shipper that makes available to the issuer of the bill of lading adequate facilities for weighing those goods, the issuer shall ascertain the kind and quantity within a reasonable time after receiving the shipper's request in a record to do so. In that case, “shipper's weight" or words of similar import are ineffective.
407.301(4) (4)The issuer, by including in the bill of lading the words “shipper's weight, load, and count," or words of similar import, may indicate that the goods were loaded by the shipper, and, if that statement is true, the issuer is not liable for damages caused by the improper loading. However, omission of such words does not imply liability for damages caused by improper loading.
407.301(5) (5)A shipper guarantees to the issuer the accuracy at the time of shipment of the description, marks, labels, number, kind, quantity, condition, and weight, as furnished by the shipper, and the shipper shall indemnify the issuer against damage caused by inaccuracies in those particulars. This right of the issuer to that indemnity does not limit its responsibility or liability under the contract of carriage to any person other than the shipper.
407.301 History History: 2009 a. 322.
407.302 407.302 Through bills of lading and similar documents of title.
407.302(1)(1)The issuer of a through bill of lading or other document of title embodying an undertaking to be performed in part by a person acting as its agent or by a performing carrier is liable to any person entitled to recover on the document for any breach by the other person or the performing carrier of its obligation under the document. However, to the extent that the bill covers an undertaking to be performed overseas or in territory not contiguous to the continental United States or an undertaking including matters other than transportation, this liability for breach by the other person or the performing carrier may be varied by agreement of the parties.
407.302(2) (2)If goods covered by a through bill of lading or other document of title embodying an undertaking to be performed in part by a person other than the issuer are received by that person, the person is subject, with respect to its own performance while the goods are in its possession, to the obligation of the issuer. The person's obligation is discharged by delivery of the goods to another person pursuant to the document and does not include liability for breach by any other person or by the issuer.
407.302(3) (3)The issuer of a through bill of lading or other document of title described in sub. (1) is entitled to recover from the performing carrier, or other person in possession of the goods when the breach of the obligation under the document occurred, all of the following:
407.302(3)(a) (a) The amount it may be required to pay to any person entitled to recover on the document for the breach, as may be evidenced by any receipt, judgment, or transcript of judgment.
407.302(3)(b) (b) The amount of any expense reasonably incurred by the issuer in defending any action commenced by any person entitled to recover on the document for the breach.
407.302 History History: 2009 a. 322.
407.303 407.303 Diversion; reconsignment; change of instructions.
407.303(1)(1)Unless the bill of lading otherwise provides, a carrier may deliver the goods to a person or destination other than that stated in the bill or may otherwise dispose of the goods, without liability for misdelivery, on instructions from any of the following:
407.303(1)(a) (a) The holder of a negotiable bill.
407.303(1)(b) (b) The consignor on a nonnegotiable bill even if the consignee has given contrary instructions.
407.303(1)(c) (c) The consignee on a nonnegotiable bill in the absence of contrary instructions from the consignor, if the goods have arrived at the billed destination or if the consignee is in possession of the tangible bill or in control of the electronic bill.
407.303(1)(d) (d) The consignee on a nonnegotiable bill, if the consignee is entitled as against the consignor to dispose of the goods.
407.303(2) (2)Unless instructions described in sub. (1) are included in a negotiable bill of lading, a person to which the bill is duly negotiated may hold the bailee according to the original terms.
407.303 History History: 2009 a. 322.
407.304 407.304 Tangible bills of lading in a set.
407.304(1)(1)Except as customary in international transportation, a tangible bill of lading may not be issued in a set of parts. The issuer is liable for damages caused by violation of this subsection.
407.304(2) (2)If a tangible bill of lading is lawfully issued in a set of parts, each of which contains an identification code and is expressed to be valid only if the goods have not been delivered against any other part, the whole of the parts constitutes one bill.
407.304(3) (3)If a tangible negotiable bill of lading is lawfully issued in a set of parts and different parts are negotiated to different persons, the title of the holder to which the first due negotiation is made prevails as to both the document of title and the goods even if any later holder may have received the goods from the carrier in good faith and discharged the carrier's obligation by surrendering its part.
407.304(4) (4)A person that negotiates or transfers a single part of a tangible bill of lading issued in a set is liable to holders of that part as if it were the whole set.
407.304(5) (5)The bailee is obliged to deliver in accordance with subch. IV against the first presented part of a tangible bill of lading lawfully issued in a set. Delivery in this manner discharges the bailee's obligation on the whole bill.
407.304 History History: 2009 a. 322.
407.305 407.305 Destination bills.
407.305(1)(1)Instead of issuing a bill of lading to the consignor at the place of shipment, a carrier, at the request of the consignor, may procure the bill to be issued at destination or at any other place designated in the request.
407.305(2) (2)Upon request of any person entitled as against a carrier to control the goods while in transit and on surrender of possession or control of any outstanding bill of lading or other receipt covering the goods, the issuer, subject to s. 407.105, may procure a substitute bill to be issued at any place designated in the request.
407.305 History History: 2009 a. 322.
407.306 407.306 Altered bills of lading. An unauthorized alteration or filling in of a blank in a bill of lading leaves the bill enforceable according to its original tenor.
407.306 History History: 2009 a. 322.
407.307 407.307 Lien of carrier.
407.307(1)(1)A carrier has a lien on the goods covered by a bill of lading or on the proceeds thereof in its possession for charges after the date of the carrier's receipt of the goods for storage or transportation, including demurrage and terminal charges, and for expenses necessary for preservation of the goods incident to their transportation or reasonably incurred in their sale pursuant to law. However, against a purchaser for value of a negotiable bill of lading, a carrier's lien is limited to charges stated in the bill or the applicable tariffs or, if no charges are stated, a reasonable charge.
407.307(2) (2)A lien for charges and expenses under sub. (1) on goods that the carrier was required by law to receive for transportation is effective against the consignor or any person entitled to the goods unless the carrier had notice that the consignor lacked authority to subject the goods to those charges and expenses. Any other lien under sub. (1) is effective against the consignor and any person that permitted the bailor to have control or possession of the goods unless the carrier had notice that the bailor lacked authority.
407.307(3) (3)A carrier loses its lien on any goods that it voluntarily delivers or unjustifiably refuses to deliver.
407.307 History History: 2009 a. 322.
407.308 407.308 Enforcement of carrier's lien.
407.308(1)(1)A carrier's lien on goods may be enforced by public or private sale of the goods, in bulk or in packages, at any time or place and on any terms that are commercially reasonable, after notifying all persons known to claim an interest in the goods. The notification must include a statement of the amount due, the nature of the proposed sale, and the time and place of any public sale. The fact that a better price could have been obtained by a sale at a different time or in a different method from that selected by the carrier is not of itself sufficient to establish that the sale was not made in a commercially reasonable manner. The carrier has sold goods in a commercially reasonable manner if the carrier sells the goods in the usual manner in any recognized market therefor, sells at the price current in that market at the time of the sale, or has otherwise sold in conformity with commercially reasonable practices among dealers in the type of goods sold. A sale of more goods than apparently necessary to be offered to ensure satisfaction of the obligation is not commercially reasonable, except in cases covered by the preceding sentence.
407.308(2) (2)Before any sale pursuant to this section, any person claiming a right in the goods may pay the amount necessary to satisfy the lien and the reasonable expenses incurred in complying with this section. In that event, the goods may not be sold but must be retained by the carrier, subject to the terms of the bill of lading and this chapter.
407.308(3) (3)A carrier may buy at any public sale pursuant to this section.
407.308(4) (4)A purchaser in good faith of goods sold to enforce a carrier's lien takes the goods free of any rights of persons against which the lien was valid, despite the carrier's noncompliance with this section.
407.308(5) (5)A carrier may satisfy its lien from the proceeds of any sale pursuant to this section but shall hold the balance, if any, for delivery on demand to any person to which the carrier would have been bound to deliver the goods.
407.308(6) (6)The rights provided by this section are in addition to all other rights allowed by law to a creditor against a debtor.
407.308(7) (7)A carrier's lien may be enforced pursuant to either sub. (1) or the procedure set forth in s. 407.210 (2).
407.308(8) (8)A carrier is liable for damages caused by failure to comply with the requirements for sale under this section and, in case of willful violation, is liable for conversion.
407.308 History History: 2009 a. 322.
407.309 407.309 Duty of care; contractual limitation of carrier's liability.
407.309(1)(1)A carrier that issues a bill of lading, whether negotiable or nonnegotiable, shall exercise the degree of care in relation to the goods which a reasonably careful person would exercise under similar circumstances. This subsection does not affect any statute, regulation, or rule of law that imposes liability upon a common carrier for damages not caused by its negligence.
407.309(2) (2)Damages may be limited by a term in the bill of lading or in a transportation agreement that the carrier's liability may not exceed a value stated in the bill or transportation agreement if the carrier's rates are dependent upon value and the consignor is afforded an opportunity to declare a higher value and the consignor is advised of the opportunity. However, such a limitation is not effective with respect to the carrier's liability for conversion to its own use.
407.309(3) (3)Reasonable provisions as to the time and manner of presenting claims and commencing actions based on the shipment may be included in a bill of lading or a transportation agreement.
407.309 History History: 2009 a. 322.
subch. IV of ch. 407 SUBCHAPTER IV
WAREHOUSE RECEIPTS AND BILLS OF LADING:
GENERAL OBLIGATIONS
407.401 407.401 Irregularities in issue of receipt or bill or conduct of issuer. The obligations imposed by this chapter on an issuer apply to a document of title even if any of the following are satisfied:
407.401(1) (1)The document does not comply with the requirements of this chapter or of any other statute, rule, or regulation regarding its issue, form, or content.
407.401(2) (2)The issuer violated laws regulating the conduct of its business.
407.401(3) (3)The goods covered by the document were owned by the bailee when the document was issued.
407.401(4) (4)The person issuing the document is not a warehouse but the document purports to be a warehouse receipt.
407.401 History History: 2009 a. 322.
407.402 407.402 Duplicate document of title; overissue. A duplicate or any other document of title purporting to cover goods already represented by an outstanding document of the same issuer does not confer any right in the goods, except as provided in the case of tangible bills of lading in a set of parts, overissue of documents for fungible goods, substitutes for lost, stolen, or destroyed documents, or substitute documents issued pursuant to s. 407.105. The issuer is liable for damages caused by its overissue or failure to identify a duplicate document by a conspicuous notation.
407.402 History History: 2009 a. 322.
407.403 407.403 Obligation of warehouse or carrier to deliver; excuse.
407.403(1)(1)A bailee shall deliver the goods to a person entitled under a document of title if the person complies with subs. (2) and (3), unless and to the extent that the bailee establishes any of the following:
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2017-18 Wisconsin Statutes updated through 2019 Wis. Act 186 and through all Supreme Court and Controlled Substances Board Orders filed before and in effect on July 3, 2020. Published and certified under s. 35.18. Changes effective after July 3, 2020, are designated by NOTES. (Published 7-3-20)