48.13(1) (1)The child is without a parent or guardian.
48.13(2) (2)The child has been abandoned.
48.13(2m) (2m)The child's parent has relinquished custody of the child under s. 48.195 (1).
48.13(3) (3)The child has been the victim of abuse, as defined in s. 48.02 (1) (a) or (b) to (g), including injury that is self-inflicted or inflicted by another.
48.13(3m) (3m)The child is at substantial risk of becoming the victim of abuse, as defined in s. 48.02 (1) (a) or (b) to (g), including injury that is self-inflicted or inflicted by another, based on reliable and credible information that another child in the home has been the victim of such abuse.
48.13(4) (4)The child's parent or guardian signs the petition requesting jurisdiction under this subsection and is unable or needs assistance to care for or provide necessary special treatment or care for the child.
48.13(4m) (4m)The child's guardian is unable or needs assistance to care for or provide necessary special treatment or care for the child, but is unwilling or unable to sign the petition requesting jurisdiction under this subsection.
48.13(5) (5)The child has been placed for care or adoption in violation of law.
48.13(8) (8)The child is receiving inadequate care during the period of time a parent is missing, incarcerated, hospitalized or institutionalized.
48.13(9) (9)The child is at least age 12, signs the petition requesting jurisdiction under this subsection and is in need of special treatment or care which the parent, guardian or legal custodian is unwilling, neglecting, unable or needs assistance to provide.
48.13(10) (10)The child's parent, guardian or legal custodian neglects, refuses or is unable for reasons other than poverty to provide necessary care, food, clothing, medical or dental care or shelter so as to seriously endanger the physical health of the child.
48.13(10m) (10m)The child's parent, guardian or legal custodian is at substantial risk of neglecting, refusing or being unable for reasons other than poverty to provide necessary care, food, clothing, medical or dental care or shelter so as to endanger seriously the physical health of the child, based on reliable and credible information that the child's parent, guardian or legal custodian has neglected, refused or been unable for reasons other than poverty to provide necessary care, food, clothing, medical or dental care or shelter so as to endanger seriously the physical health of another child in the home.
48.13(11) (11)The child is suffering emotional damage for which the parent, guardian or legal custodian has neglected, refused or been unable and is neglecting, refusing or unable, for reasons other than poverty, to obtain necessary treatment or to take necessary steps to ameliorate the symptoms.
48.13(11m) (11m)The child is suffering from an alcohol and other drug abuse impairment, exhibited to a severe degree, for which the parent, guardian or legal custodian is neglecting, refusing or unable to provide treatment.
48.13(13) (13)The child has not been immunized as required by s. 252.04 and not exempted under s. 252.04 (3).
48.13(14) (14)The child's parent is residing in a qualifying residential family-based treatment facility or will be residing at such a facility at the time of a child's placement with the parent in the facility, signs the petition requesting jurisdiction under this subsection, and, with the department's consent, requests that the child reside with him or her at the qualifying residential family-based treatment facility.
48.13 Note NOTE: 1993 Wis. Act 395, which created subs. (3m) and (10m), contains extensive explanatory notes.
48.13 Annotation CHIPS proceedings are controlled by the Code of Civil Procedure unless ch. 48 requires a different procedure; summary judgment under s. 802.08 is available in CHIPS cases. In Interest of F.Q. 162 Wis. 2d 607, 470 N.W.2d 1 (Ct. App. 1991).
48.13 Annotation A jury verdict that children are in need of protection or services requires a separate verdict question for each of the specific jurisdictional grounds alleged. Interest of Lauran F. 194 Wis. 2d 283, 533 N.W.2d 812 (1995).
48.13 Annotation A viable fetus is not a “person" within the definition of a child under s. 48.02 (2). A court does not have jurisdiction over a fetus under this section. State ex rel. Angela M.W. v. Kruzicki, 209 Wis. 2d 112, 561 N.W.2d 729 (1997), 95-2480.
48.13 Annotation A child's need for protection or services should be determined as of the date the petition is filed. Children can be adjudicated in need of protection or services when divorced parents have joint custody, one parent committed acts proscribed by sub. (10), and at the time of the hearing the other can provide the necessary care for the children. State v. Gregory L.S. 2002 WI App 101, 253 Wis. 2d 563, 643 N.W.2d 890, 01-2325.
48.133 48.133 Jurisdiction over unborn children in need of protection or services and the expectant mothers of those unborn children. The court has exclusive original jurisdiction over an unborn child alleged to be in need of protection or services which can be ordered by the court whose expectant mother habitually lacks self-control in the use of alcohol beverages, controlled substances or controlled substance analogs, exhibited to a severe degree, to the extent that there is a substantial risk that the physical health of the unborn child, and of the child when born, will be seriously affected or endangered unless the expectant mother receives prompt and adequate treatment for that habitual lack of self-control. The court also has exclusive original jurisdiction over the expectant mother of an unborn child described in this section.
48.133 History History: 1997 a. 292.
48.135 48.135 Referral of children and expectant mothers of unborn children to proceedings under chapter 51 or 55.
48.135(1)(1)If a child alleged to be in need of protection or services or a child expectant mother of an unborn child alleged to be in need of protection or services is before the court and it appears that the child or child expectant mother is developmentally disabled, mentally ill or drug dependent or suffers from alcoholism, the court may proceed under ch. 51 or 55. If an adult expectant mother of an unborn child alleged to be in need of protection or services is before the court and it appears that the adult expectant mother is drug dependent or suffers from alcoholism, the court may proceed under ch. 51.
48.135(2) (2)Except as provided in ss. 48.19 to 48.21 and s. 48.345 (14), any voluntary or involuntary admissions, placements or commitments of a child made in or to an inpatient facility, as defined in s. 51.01 (10), shall be governed by ch. 51 or 55. Except as provided in ss. 48.193 to 48.213 and s. 48.347 (6), any voluntary or involuntary admissions, placements or commitments of an adult expectant mother of an unborn child made in or to an inpatient facility, as defined in s. 51.01 (10), shall be governed by ch. 51.
48.14 48.14 Jurisdiction over other matters relating to children. Except as provided in s. 48.028 (3), the court has exclusive jurisdiction over:
48.14(1) (1)The termination of parental rights to a minor in accordance with subch. VIII.
48.14(2) (2)The appointment and removal of a guardian of the person in the following cases:
48.14(2)(a) (a) For a minor, where parental rights have been terminated under subch. VIII; or
48.14(2)(b) (b) The appointment and removal of a guardian of the person for a child under ss. 48.427, 48.43, 48.831, 48.832, 48.839 (4) (a), 48.977, and 48.978 and ch. 54 and for a child found to be in need of protection or services under s. 48.13 because the child is without parent or guardian.
48.14(3) (3)The adoption of children.
48.14(5) (5)Proceedings under chs. 51 and 55 which apply to minors and proceedings under ch. 51 which apply to the adult expectant mothers of unborn children, if those adult expectant mothers appear to be drug dependent or to suffer from alcoholism.
48.14(6) (6)Consent to marry under s. 765.02.
48.14(7) (7)Appeals under s. 115.80 (7).
48.14(8) (8)Runaway children, but only as provided under s. 48.227 for the limited purpose described in that section.
48.14(9) (9)Proceedings under s. 146.34 (5).
48.14(10) (10)Proceedings under s. 813.122 or 813.125 in which the respondent is a child.
48.14(11) (11)Granting visitation privileges under s. 54.56.
48.14(12) (12)Proceedings under s. 48.028 (8) for the return of custody of an Indian child to his or her former parent, as defined in s. 48.028 (2) (c), or former Indian custodian, as defined in s. 48.028 (2) (b), following a vacation or setting aside of an order granting adoption of the Indian child or following an order voluntarily terminating parental rights to an Indian child of all adoptive parents of the Indian child.
48.14 Annotation If two actions between the same parties, on the same subject, to test the same rights are brought in different courts with concurrent jurisdiction, it is error for the second court to assume jurisdiction. Interest of Tiffany W. & Myokra W. 192 Wis. 2d 407, 532 N.W.2d 135 (Ct. App. 1995).
48.15 48.15 Jurisdiction of other courts to determine legal custody. Except as provided in s. 48.028 (3), nothing in this chapter deprives another court of the right to determine the legal custody of a child by habeas corpus or to determine the legal custody or guardianship of a child if the legal custody or guardianship is incidental to the determination of an action pending in that court. Except as provided in s. 48.028 (3), the jurisdiction of the court assigned to exercise jurisdiction under this chapter and ch. 938 is paramount in all cases involving children alleged to come within the provisions of ss. 48.13 and 48.14 and unborn children and their expectant mothers alleged to come within the provisions of ss. 48.133 and 48.14 (5).
48.15 Note Judicial Council Note, 1981: Reference to “writs" of habeas corpus has been removed because that remedy is now available in an ordinary action. See s. 781.01, stats., and the note thereto. [Bill 613-A]
48.15 Annotation This section provides that “the jurisdiction of the court assigned to exercise jurisdiction under this chapter is paramount in all cases involving children alleged to come within the provisions of ss. 48.13 and 48.14." Under this section and State ex rel. Rickli v. County Court of Dane County, 21 Wis. 2d 89, the circuit court properly stayed proceedings on a grandmother's ch. 54 guardianship petitions until TPR proceedings were concluded. However, the court retained jurisdiction to do anything that did not conflict with its orders and findings in the TPR cases and once the TPR proceedings were concluded the court was free to consider the petitions. Under the facts of these cases, though, granting the ch. 54 petitions would have conflicted with the TPR orders. M. L.-F. v. Oneida County Department of Social Services, 2016 WI App 25, 367 Wis. 2d 697, 877 N.W.2d 401, 15-0553.
48.16 48.16 Jurisdiction over petitions for waiver of parental consent to a minor's abortion. Any circuit court within this state has jurisdiction over a proceeding under s. 48.375 (7) for waiver of the parental consent requirement under s. 48.375 (4).
48.16 History History: 1991 a. 263.
48.185 48.185 Venue.
48.185(1)(1)Proceedings generally. Subject to subs. (2) to (5), venue for any proceeding under s. 48.13, 48.133, 48.135, or 48.14 (1) to (9) may be in any of the following:
48.185(1)(a) (a) The county where the child or the expectant mother of the unborn child resides.
48.185(1)(b) (b) The county where the child or expectant mother is present.
48.185(2) (2)Guardianship and termination of parental rights proceedings. In an action under s. 48.41, venue shall be in the county where the birth parent or child resides at the time that the petition is filed. Subject to sub. (5), venue for any proceeding under s. 48.977 or any proceeding under subch. VIII when the child has been placed outside the home pursuant to a dispositional order under s. 48.345 or 48.347, shall be in the county where the dispositional order was issued, unless the child's county of residence has changed or the parent of the child has resided in a different county of this state for 6 months. In either case, the court may, upon a motion and for good cause shown, transfer the case, along with all appropriate records, to the county of residence of the child or parent.
48.185(3) (3)Transition-to-independent-living proceedings. Venue for a proceeding under s. 48.366 (3) (am) shall be in the county where the most recent order specified in s. 48.366 (1) (a) or (b) was issued.
48.185(4) (4)Child or unborn child subject to a dispositional order. Venue for any proceeding under s. 48.357, 48.363, or 48.365 shall be in the county where the dispositional order was issued, unless prior to the proceeding the court of that county determined that the proper venue for the proceeding lies in another county and transferred the case, along with all appropriate records, to that other county.
48.185(5) (5)Changes in placement; successor guardians; posttermination of parental rights. Venue for a proceeding under s. 48.437 shall be in the county where the termination of parental rights order was issued.
48.185(6) (6)Restraining order and injunction proceedings. Venue for a proceeding under s. 48.14 (10) is as provided in s. 801.50 (5s).
48.185 History History: 1977 c. 354; Stats. 1977 s. 48.185; 1979 c. 330; 1989 a. 161; 1993 a. 98, 318, 491; 1995 a. 77, 275; 1997 a. 80, 292; 2015 a. 55, 373; 2017 a. 365.
48.185 Annotation This section does not authorize change of venue, upon motion of party or upon stipulation of parties, after adjudication but before the first dispositional hearing. 75 Atty. Gen. 100.
subch. IV of ch. 48 SUBCHAPTER IV
HOLDING A CHILD OR AN EXPECTANT MOTHER IN CUSTODY
48.19 48.19 Taking a child into custody.
48.19(1)(1)A child may be taken into custody under any of the following:
48.19(1)(a) (a) A warrant.
48.19(1)(b) (b) A capias issued by a judge under s. 48.28.
48.19(1)(c) (c) An order of the judge if made upon a showing satisfactory to the judge that the welfare of the child demands that the child be immediately removed from his or her present custody. The order shall specify that the child be held in custody under s. 48.207 (1).
48.19(1)(cm) (cm) An order of the judge if made upon a showing satisfactory to the judge that the child is an expectant mother, that due to the child expectant mother's habitual lack of self-control in the use of alcohol beverages, controlled substances or controlled substance analogs, exhibited to a severe degree, there is a substantial risk that the physical health of the unborn child, and of the child when born, will be seriously affected or endangered unless the child expectant mother is taken into custody and that the child expectant mother is refusing or has refused to accept any alcohol or other drug abuse services offered to her or is not making or has not made a good faith effort to participate in any alcohol or other drug abuse services offered to her. The order shall specify that the child expectant mother be held in custody under s. 48.207 (1).
48.19(1)(d) (d) Circumstances in which a law enforcement officer believes on reasonable grounds that any of the following conditions exists:
48.19(1)(d)1. 1. A capias or a warrant for the child's apprehension has been issued in this state, or that the child is a fugitive from justice.
48.19(1)(d)2. 2. A capias or a warrant for the child's apprehension has been issued in another state.
48.19(1)(d)4. 4. The child has run away from his or her parents, guardian or legal or physical custodian.
48.19(1)(d)5. 5. The child is suffering from illness or injury or is in immediate danger from his or her surroundings and removal from those surroundings is necessary.
48.19(1)(d)7. 7. The child has violated the conditions of an order under s. 48.21 (4) or the conditions of an order for temporary physical custody by an intake worker.
48.19(1)(d)8. 8. The child is an expectant mother and there is a substantial risk that the physical health of the unborn child, and of the child when born, will be seriously affected or endangered due to the child expectant mother's habitual lack of self-control in the use of alcohol beverages, controlled substances or controlled substance analogs, exhibited to a severe degree, unless the child expectant mother is taken into custody.
48.19(2) (2)When a child is taken into physical custody under this section, the person taking the child into custody shall immediately attempt to notify the parent, guardian, legal custodian, and Indian custodian of the child by the most practical means. The person taking the child into custody shall continue such attempt until the parent, guardian, legal custodian, and Indian custodian of the child are notified, or the child is delivered to an intake worker under s. 48.20 (3), whichever occurs first. If the child is delivered to the intake worker before the parent, guardian, legal custodian, and Indian custodian are notified, the intake worker, or another person at his or her direction, shall continue the attempt to notify until the parent, guardian, legal custodian, and Indian custodian of the child are notified.
48.19(3) (3)Taking into custody is not an arrest except for the purpose of determining whether the taking into custody or the obtaining of any evidence is lawful.
48.19 Annotation A viable fetus is not a “person" within the definition of a child under s. 48.02 (2). A court may not order protective custody of a fetus by requiring custody of the mother. State ex rel. Angela M.W. v. Kruzicki, 209 Wis. 2d 112, 561 N.W.2d 729 (1997), 95-2480.
48.193 48.193 Taking an adult expectant mother into custody.
48.193(1)(1)An adult expectant mother of an unborn child may be taken into custody under any of the following:
48.193(1)(a) (a) A warrant.
48.193(1)(b) (b) A capias issued by a judge under s. 48.28.
48.193(1)(c) (c) An order of the judge if made upon a showing satisfactory to the judge that due to the adult expectant mother's habitual lack of self-control in the use of alcohol beverages, controlled substances or controlled substance analogs, exhibited to a severe degree, there is a substantial risk that the physical health of the unborn child, and of the child when born, will be seriously affected or endangered unless the adult expectant mother is taken into custody and that the adult expectant mother is refusing or has refused to accept any alcohol or other drug abuse services offered to her or is not making or has not made a good faith effort to participate in any alcohol or other drug abuse services offered to her. The order shall specify that the adult expectant mother be held in custody under s. 48.207 (1m).
48.193(1)(d) (d) Circumstances in which a law enforcement officer believes on reasonable grounds that any of the following conditions exists:
48.193(1)(d)1. 1. A capias or warrant for the apprehension of the adult expectant mother has been issued in this state or in another state.
48.193(1)(d)2. 2. There is a substantial risk that the physical health of the unborn child, and of the child when born, will be seriously affected or endangered due to the adult expectant mother's habitual lack of self-control in the use of alcohol beverages, controlled substances or controlled substance analogs, exhibited to a severe degree, unless the adult expectant mother is taken into custody.
48.193(1)(d)3. 3. The adult expectant mother has violated the conditions of an order under s. 48.213 (3) or the conditions of an order for temporary physical custody by an intake worker.
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2017-18 Wisconsin Statutes updated through 2019 Wis. Act 18 and through all Supreme Court and Controlled Substances Board Orders filed before and in effect on October 1, 2019. Published and certified under s. 35.18. Changes effective after October 1, 2019, are designated by NOTES. (Published 10-1-19)