66.0230(2)(a) (a) The town, and the city or village, adopt identical resolutions that describe the level of services that residents of the proposed city or village will receive, or have access to, in at least all of the following areas:
66.0230(2)(a)1. 1. Public parks services.
66.0230(2)(a)2. 2. Public health services.
66.0230(2)(a)3. 3. Animal control services.
66.0230(2)(a)4. 4. Library services.
66.0230(2)(a)5. 5. Fire and emergency rescue services.
66.0230(2)(a)6. 6. Law enforcement services.
66.0230(2)(b) (b) The town, and the city or village, adopt identical resolutions that relate to the ownership or leasing of government buildings.
66.0230(2)(c) (c) The city or village with which the town wishes to consolidate enters into a separate boundary agreement, subject to approval of the town board of the town to be consolidated, with every city, village, and town that borders the proposed consolidated city or village. Each boundary agreement shall determine the boundaries between the parties to the agreement. The boundary agreement shall state the term of the agreement and shall contain the procedures under which the agreement may be amended during its term. A boundary agreement entered into under this paragraph is a binding contract upon the parties.
66.0230(2)(d) (d) The consolidating town, and city or village, agree to adopt a comprehensive plan under s. 66.1001 for the consolidated city or village, and the comprehensive plan takes effect on the effective date of the consolidation.
66.0230(2)(e) (e) At least some part of the consolidated city or village receives sewage disposal services.
66.0230(3) (3) If less than an entire town consolidates with a city or village under sub. (1), the consolidation may not take effect unless the town enters into an agreement with a city, village, or town that has a common boundary with the remnant of the town that is not consolidated under which the town remnant becomes part of the city, village, or town with the common boundary. If a town remnant becomes part of a city or village, an agreement described under this subsection shall be included in each boundary agreement under sub. (2) (c) that is entered into by a city, village, or town that borders the remnant. An agreement entered into under this subsection is a binding contract upon the parties.
66.0230(4) (4) In this section, a municipality that borders or has a common boundary with another municipality includes municipalities that intersect at only one point.
66.0230 History History: 2003 a. 93; 2007 a. 20, 43; 2009 a. 180.
66.0231 66.0231 Notice of certain litigation affecting municipal status or boundaries. If a proceeding under ss. 61.187, 61.189, 61.74, 62.075, 66.0201 to 66.0213, 66.0215, 66.0216, 66.0217, 66.0221, 66.0223, 66.0227, 66.0301 (6), or 66.0307 or other sections relating to an incorporation, annexation, consolidation, dissolution or detachment of territory of a city or village is contested by instigation of legal proceedings, the clerk of the city or village involved in the proceedings shall file with the secretary of state 4 copies of a notice of the commencement of the action. The clerk shall file with the secretary of state 4 copies of any judgments rendered or appeals taken in such cases. The notices or copies of judgments that are required under this section may also be filed by an officer or attorney of any party of interest. The secretary of state shall forward to the department of transportation 2 copies and to the department of revenue and the department of administration one copy each of any notice of action or judgment filed with the secretary of state under this section.
66.0231 History History: 1977 c. 29 s. 1654 (8) (c); 1977 c. 273; 1979 c. 355; 1983 a. 532 s. 36; 1991 a. 269; 1995 a. 35; 1999 a. 150 s. 70; Stats. 1999 s. 66.0231; 2005 a. 25; 2007 a. 43.
66.0233 66.0233 Town participation in actions to test alterations of town boundaries. In a proceeding in which territory may be attached to or detached from a town, the town is an interested party, and the town board may institute, maintain or defend an action brought to test the validity of the proceedings, and may intervene or be impleaded in the action.
66.0233 History History: 1999 a. 150 s. 73; Stats. 1999 s. 66.0233.
66.0235 66.0235 Adjustment of assets and liabilities on division of territory.
66.0235(1)(1) Definition. In this section, " local governmental unit" means town sanitary districts, school districts, technical college districts, towns, villages and cities.
66.0235(2) (2)Basis.
66.0235(2)(a)(a) Except as otherwise provided in this section or in s. 60.79 (2) (c) when territory is transferred, in any manner provided by law, from one local governmental unit to another, there shall be assigned to the latter local governmental unit such proportion of the assets and liabilities of the first local governmental unit as the assessed valuation of all taxable property in the territory transferred bears to the assessed valuation of all the taxable property of the entire local governmental unit from which the territory is taken according to the last assessment roll of the local governmental unit. The clerk of a local governmental unit to which territory is transferred, within 30 days of the effective date of the transfer, shall certify to the clerk of the local governmental unit from which territory was transferred and to the clerk of the school district in which the territory is located a metes and bounds description of the land area involved. Upon receipt of the description the clerk of the local governmental unit from which the territory was transferred shall certify to the department of revenue and to the clerk of the school district in which the territory is located the latest assessed value of the real and personal property located within the transferred territory, and shall make any further reports as needed by the department of revenue in the performance of duties required by law.
66.0235(2)(b) (b) When the transfer of territory from one local governmental unit to another results from the incorporation of a new city or village, the proportion of the assets and liabilities assigned to the new city or village shall be based on the average assessed valuation for the preceding 5 years of the property transferred in proportion to the average assessed valuation for the preceding 5 years of all the taxable property of the entire local governmental unit from which the territory is taken, according to the assessment rolls of the local governmental unit for those years. The certification by the clerk of the local governmental unit from which territory was transferred because of the incorporation shall include the assessed value of the real and personal property within the territory transferred for each of the last 5 years. The preceding 5 years shall include the assessment rolls for the 5 calendar years prior to the incorporation.
66.0235(2c) (2c)School districts.
66.0235(2c)(a)(a) Standard procedure.
66.0235(2c)(a)1.1. When territory is transferred in any manner provided by law from one school district to another, there shall be assigned to each school district involved such proportion of the assets and liabilities of the school districts involved as the equalized valuation of all taxable property in the territory transferred bears to the equalized valuation of all taxable property of the school district from which the territory is taken. The equalized valuation shall be certified by the department of revenue upon application by the clerk of the school district to which the territory is transferred.
66.0235(2c)(a)2. 2. The clerk of any school district to which territory is transferred, within 30 days of the effective date of the transfer, shall certify to the clerk of the local governmental unit from which the territory was transferred a metes and bounds description of the land area involved. Upon receipt of the description the clerk of the local governmental unit from which the territory was transferred shall certify to the department of revenue the latest assessed value of the real and personal property located within the transferred territory, file one copy of the certification with the school district clerk and one copy with the department of public instruction and make any further reports as needed by the department of revenue in the performance of duties required by law.
66.0235(2c)(b) (b) Alternative procedure. Two or more school districts may, by identical resolutions adopted by a three-fourths vote of the members of each school board concerned, establish an alternative method to govern any adjustment of their assets and liabilities. The authority of this paragraph applies wherever the boards find that the adoption of the resolution is necessary to provide a more equitable method than is provided in par. (a). The resolutions shall be adopted no later than 120 days after the effective date of the transfer of territory and may be adopted prior to the transfer. The resolutions adopted shall be recorded in the office of the register of deeds.
66.0235(2m) (2m)Attachment and detachment within 5 years. If territory is attached to or consolidated with a school district, and the territory or any part of the territory is detached from the district within 5 years after the attachment or consolidation, the school district to which it is transferred is entitled, in the apportionment of assets and liabilities, only to the assets or liabilities or proportionate part apportioned to the school district as the result of the original attachment or consolidation.
66.0235(3) (3)Real estate.
66.0235(3)(a)(a) The title to real estate may not be transferred under this section except by agreement, but the value of real estate shall be included in determining the assets of the local governmental unit owning the real estate and in making the adjustment of assets and liabilities.
66.0235(3)(b) (b) The right to possession and control of school buildings and sites passes to the school district in which they are situated immediately upon the attachment or detachment of any school district territory becoming effective, except that in 1st class city school districts the right to possession and control of school buildings and sites passes on July 1 following the adoption of the ordinance authorized by s. 66.0217 (8). The asset value of school buildings and sites shall be the value of the use of the buildings and sites, which shall be determined at the time of adjustment of assets and liabilities.
66.0235(3)(c) (c) When as a result of an annexation a school district is left without a school building, any moneys are received by the school district as a result of the division of assets and liabilities required by this section, which are derived from values that were capital assets, the moneys and interest on the moneys shall be held in trust by the school district and dispensed only for procuring new capital assets or remitted to an operating district as the remainder of the suspended district becomes a part of the operating district, and may not be used to meet current operating expenditures. The boards involved shall, as part of their duties in division of assets and liabilities in school districts, make a written report of the allocation of assets and liabilities to the state superintendent of public instruction and any local superintendent of schools whose territory is involved in the division of assets.
66.0235(4) (4)Public utilities. A public utility plant, including any dam, power house, power transmission line and other structures and property operated and used in connection with the plant, belongs to the local governmental unit in which the major portion of the patrons of the utility reside. The value of the utility, unless fixed by agreement of all parties interested shall be determined and fixed by the public service commission upon notice to the local governmental units interested, in the manner provided by law. The commission shall certify the amount of the compensation to the clerks of each local governmental unit interested and that amount shall be used by the apportionment board in adjusting assets and liabilities.
66.0235(5) (5)Apportionment board. The boards or councils of the local governmental units, or committees selected for that purpose, acting together, constitute an apportionment board. When a local governmental unit is dissolved because all of its territory is transferred the board or council of the local governmental unit existing at the time of dissolution shall, for the purpose of this section, continue to exist as the governing body of the local governmental unit until there has been an apportionment of assets by agreement of the interested local governmental units or by an order of the circuit court. After an agreement for apportionment of assets has been entered into between the interested local governmental units, or an order of the circuit court becomes final, a copy of the apportionment agreement, or of the order, certified to by the clerks of the interested local governmental units, shall be filed with the department of revenue, the department of natural resources, the department of transportation, the state superintendent of public instruction, the department of administration, and with any other department or agency of the state from which the town may be entitled by law to receive funds or certifications or orders relating to the distribution or disbursement of funds, with the county treasurer, with the treasurer of any local governmental unit, or with any other entity from which payment would have become due if the dissolved local governmental unit had continued in existence. Subject to ss. 79.006 and 86.303 (4), payments of forest crop taxes under s. 77.05, of transportation aids under s. 20.395, of state aids for school purposes under ch. 121, payments for managed forest land under subch. VI of ch. 77 and all payments due from a department or agency of the state, from a county, from a local governmental unit, or from any other entity from which payments would have become due if the dissolved local governmental unit had continued in existence, shall be paid to the interested local governmental unit as provided by the agreement for apportionment of assets or by any order of apportionment by the circuit court and the payments have the same force and effect as if made to the dissolved local governmental unit.
66.0235(6) (6)Meeting. The board or council of the local governmental unit to which the territory is transferred shall fix a time and place for meeting and give a written notice of the meeting to the clerk of the local governmental unit from which the territory is taken at least 5 days prior to the date of the meeting. The apportionment may be made only by a majority of the members from each local governmental unit who attend, and in case of committees, the action shall be affirmed by the board or council represented by the committee.
66.0235(7) (7)Adjustment, how made.
66.0235(7)(a)(a) The apportionment board shall determine, except for public utilities, assets and liabilities from the best information obtainable and shall assign to the local governmental unit to which the territory is transferred its proper proportion of assets and liabilities by assigning the excess of liabilities over assets, or by assigning any particular asset or liability to either local governmental unit, or in another manner that meets the requirements of the particular case.
66.0235(7)(b) (b) If a proportionate share of any indebtedness existing by reason of municipal bonds or other obligations outstanding is assigned to a local governmental unit, that local governmental unit shall levy and collect upon all its taxable property, in one sum or in annual installments, the amount necessary to pay the principal and interest when due, and shall pay the amount collected to the treasurer of the local governmental unit which issued the bonds or incurred the obligations. The treasurer shall apply the moneys received strictly to the payment of the principal and interest.
66.0235(7)(c) (c) If the asset apportioned consists of an aid or tax to be distributed in the future according to population, the apportionment board shall certify to the officer, agency or department responsible for making the distribution each local governmental unit's proportionate share of the asset as determined in accordance with sub. (2). The officer, agency or department shall distribute the aid or tax directly to the several local governmental units according to the certification until the next federal census.
66.0235(8) (8)Appeal to court. If the apportionment board is unable to agree, the circuit court of the county in which either local governmental unit is situated may, upon the petition of either local governmental unit, make the adjustment of assets and liabilities under this section, including review of any alternative method provided in sub. (2c) (b) and the correctness of the findings made under sub. (2c) (b).
66.0235(9) (9)Transcript of records. If territory is detached from a local governmental unit, the proper officer of the local governmental unit from which the territory was detached shall furnish, upon demand by the proper officer of the local governmental unit created from the detached territory or to which it is annexed, an authenticated transcript of all public records in that officer's office pertaining to the detached territory. The local governmental unit receiving the transcript shall pay for the transcript.
66.0235(10) (10)State trust fund loans. When territory transferred in any manner provided by law from one local governmental unit to another is liable for state trust fund loans secured under subch. II of ch. 24, the clerk of the local governmental unit to which territory is transferred shall within 30 days of the effective date of the transfer certify a metes and bounds description of the transferred area to the clerk of the local governmental unit from which the land was transferred. The clerk of the local governmental unit from which territory was transferred shall then certify to the board of commissioners of public lands the effective date of the transfer of territory, the last preceding assessed valuation of the territory liable for state trust fund loans before transfer of a part of the territory and the assessed valuation of the territory transferred. The board shall in making its annual certifications of the amounts due on account of state trust fund loans distribute annual charges for interest and principal on outstanding loans covered by this subsection in the proportion that the assessed valuation of the territory transferred bears to the assessed valuation of the area liable for state trust fund loans as constituted immediately before the transfer of territory. A transfer of territory effective subsequent to January 1 of any year may not be considered until the succeeding year.
66.0235(10a) (10a)Corrections. The provisions of sub. (10) are applicable to school districts. Any errors, omissions or other defects in the tax certifications and levies in connection with the repayment of state trust fund loans by school districts for the year 1950 and all subsequent years may be corrected by the school district clerk in the tax levy certifications for following years.
66.0235(11) (11)Designating districts.
66.0235(11)(a)(a) Whenever a transfer of territory from one school district to another results in a change in the name of a school district which is liable for one or more state trust fund loans secured under subch. II of ch. 24, the clerk of the school district to which the territory was transferred shall, within 30 days of the effective date of such transfer, certify to the board of commissioners of public lands and the county clerk:
66.0235(11)(a)1. 1. The name of the school district from which territory was transferred;
66.0235(11)(a)2. 2. The effective date of such transfer;
66.0235(11)(a)3. 3. The name of the school district to which the transfer was made immediately prior to the effective date of the transfer;
66.0235(11)(a)4. 4. The name of the school district to which the transfer was made immediately after the effective date of the transfer.
66.0235(11)(b) (b) In making the annual certifications of the amounts due on account of state trust fund loans the board of commissioners of public lands shall use the new name of the school district. A transfer of territory effective subsequent to January 1 of any year may not be considered by it until the succeeding year.
66.0235(12) (12)Time of transfer. When the governmental classification of a school district is changed, all of the assets and liabilities and the title to all school property shall vest in the new district by operation of law upon the effective date of the change.
66.0235(13) (13)Taxes and assessment.
66.0235(13)(a)(a) General property taxes.
66.0235(13)(a)1.1. Subject to subd. 2., if any territory is annexed, detached or incorporated in any year, general property taxes levied against the territory shall be collected by the treasurer of the local governmental unit in which the territory was located on January 1 of such year, and all moneys collected from the tax levied for local municipal purposes shall be allocated to each of the local governmental units on the basis of the portion of the calendar year the territory was located in each of the local governmental units, and paid accordingly.
66.0235(13)(a)2. 2. If a city or village is incorporated after January 1 and before April 1, the procedures described in subd. 1. shall be applied as if the city or village was incorporated on January 1 of the year in which it was incorporated and the territory shall be treated for purposes of ch. 70 as if the incorporation had occurred on January 1.
66.0235(13)(aa) (aa) Apportionment when town is nonexistent. If the town in which territory was located on January 1 is nonexistent when the city or village determines its budget, any taxes certified to the town or required by law to be levied against the territory shall be included in the budget of the city or village and levied against the territory, together with the city or village tax for local municipal purposes.
66.0235(13)(b) (b) Special taxes and assessments. If territory is transferred from one local governmental unit to another by annexation, detachment, consolidation or incorporation, or returns to its former status by reason of court determination, any special tax or assessment outstanding against property in the territory shall be collected by the treasurer of the local governmental unit in which the property is located, according to the terms of the ordinance or resolution levying the tax or assessment. The special tax or assessment, when collected, shall be paid to the treasurer of the local governmental unit which levied the special tax or assessment, or if the local governmental unit is nonexistent, the collecting treasurer shall apply the collected funds to any obligation for which purpose the tax or assessment was levied and which remains outstanding. If no obligation is outstanding, the collected funds shall be paid into the school fund of the school district in which the territory is located.
66.0235(13)(bb) (bb) Apportionment when court returns territory to former status. If territory which has been annexed, consolidated, detached or incorporated returns to its former status by reason of a final court determination, there shall be an apportionment of general property taxes and current aids and shared revenues between the local governmental units, and no other apportionment of assets and liabilities. The basis of the apportionment shall be determined by the apportionment board subject to appeal to the circuit court. The apportionment shall to the extent practicable equitably adjust the taxes, aids and revenues between the local governmental units involved on the basis of the portion of the calendar year the territory was located in the respective local governmental units.
66.0235(13)(c) (c) Certification by clerk. The clerk of the local governmental unit which assessed the special and general tax and special assessment shall certify to the clerk of the local governmental unit to which the territory was attached or returned, a list of all the property located in the attached or returned territory to which is charged any uncollected taxes and assessments. The certification shall be made within 30 days after the effective date of the transfer of the property, but failure to certify does not affect the validity of the claim.
66.0235 Annotation The method of division of assets and liabilities set forth is exclusive. Sheboygan v. Sheboygan Sanitary District #2, 145 Wis. 2d 424, 427 N.W.2d 390 (Ct. App. 1988).
66.0235 Annotation Sewerage systems are not public utilities valued by the public service commission under sub. (4). Town of Beloit v. Public Service Commission, 180 Wis. 2d 610, 510 N.W.2d 140 (Ct. App. 1993).
subch. III of ch. 66 SUBCHAPTER III
INTERGOVERNMENTAL COOPERATION
66.0301 66.0301 Intergovernmental cooperation.
66.0301(1) (1)
66.0301(1)(a)(a) Except as provided in pars. (b) and (c), in this section "municipality" means the state or any department or agency thereof, or any city, village, town, county, school district, public library system, public inland lake protection and rehabilitation district, sanitary district, farm drainage district, metropolitan sewerage district, sewer utility district, solid waste management system created under s. 59.70 (2), local exposition district created under subch. II of ch. 229, local professional baseball park district created under subch. III of ch. 229, local professional football stadium district created under subch. IV of ch. 229, local cultural arts district created under subch. V of ch. 229, long-term care district under s. 46.2895, water utility district, mosquito control district, municipal electric company, county or city transit commission, commission created by contract under this section, taxation district, regional planning commission, housing authority created under s. 66.1201, redevelopment authority created under s. 66.1333, community development authority created under s. 66.1335, or city-county health department.
66.0301(1)(b) (b) If the purpose of the intergovernmental cooperation is the establishment of a joint transit commission, "municipality" means any city, village, town or county.
66.0301(1)(c) (c) For purposes of sub. (6), "municipality" means any city, village, or town.
66.0301(2) (2) Subject to s. 59.794 (2), and in addition to the provisions of any other statutes specifically authorizing cooperation between municipalities, unless those statutes specifically exclude action under this section, any municipality may contract with other municipalities and with federally recognized Indian tribes and bands in this state, for the receipt or furnishing of services or the joint exercise of any power or duty required or authorized by law. If municipal or tribal parties to a contract have varying powers or duties under the law, each may act under the contract to the extent of its lawful powers and duties. A contract under this subsection may bind the contracting parties for the length of time specified in the contract. This section shall be interpreted liberally in favor of cooperative action between municipalities and between municipalities and Indian tribes and bands in this state.
66.0301(3) (3) Any contract under sub. (2) may provide a plan for administration of the function or project, which may include but is not limited to provisions as to proration of the expenses involved, deposit and disbursement of funds appropriated, submission and approval of budgets, creation of a commission, selection and removal of commissioners, and formation and letting of contracts.
66.0301(4) (4) A commission created by contract under sub. (2) may finance the acquisition, development, remodeling, construction and equipment of land, buildings and facilities for regional projects under s. 66.0621. Participating municipalities acting jointly or separately may finance the projects, or an agreed share of the cost of the projects, under ch. 67.
66.0301(5) (5) No commission created by contract under sub. (2) may, directly or indirectly, do any of the following:
66.0301(5)(a) (a) Acquire, construct or lease facilities used or useful in the business of a public utility engaged in production, transmission, delivery or furnishing of heat, light, power, natural gas or communications service, by any method except those set forth under this chapter or ch. 196, 197 or 198.
66.0301(5)(b) (b) Establish, lay out, construct, improve, discontinue, relocate, widen or maintain any road or highway outside the corporate limits of a village or city or acquire lands for those purposes except upon approval of the department of transportation and the county board of the county and the town board of the town in which the road is to be located.
66.0301(6) (6)
66.0301(6)(a)(a) Any 2 municipalities whose boundaries are immediately adjacent at any point may enter into a written agreement determining all or a portion of the common boundary line between the municipalities. An agreement under this subsection may include only the provisions authorized under this section and s. 66.0305, and one or more of the following:
66.0301(6)(a)1. 1. That specified boundary lines apply on the effective date of the agreement.
66.0301(6)(a)2. 2. That specified boundary line changes shall occur during the term of the agreement and the approximate dates by which the changes shall occur.
66.0301(6)(a)3. 3. That specified boundary line changes may occur during the term of the agreement and the approximate dates by which the changes may occur.
66.0301(6)(a)4. 4. That a required boundary line change under subd. 2. or an optional boundary line change under subd. 3. is subject to the occurrence of conditions set forth in the agreement.
66.0301(6)(a)5. 5. That specified boundary lines may not be changed during the term of the agreement.
66.0301(6)(b) (b) The maximum term of an agreement under this subsection is 10 years. When an agreement expires, all provisions of the agreement expire, except that any boundary determined under the agreement remains in effect until subsequently changed.
66.0301(6)(c)1.1. Before an agreement under this subsection may take effect, and subject to par. (e), it must be approved by the governing body of each municipality by the adoption of a resolution. Before each municipality may adopt a resolution, each shall hold a public hearing on the agreement or both municipalities shall hold a joint public hearing on the agreement. Before the public hearing may be held, each municipality shall give notice of the pending agreement and public hearing by publishing a class 1 notice, under ch. 985, and by giving notice to each property owner whose property is currently located in that municipality and in, or immediately adjacent to, the territory whose jurisdiction will change. Notice shall be given at least 20 days before the public hearing and notice to property owners shall be made by certified mail.
66.0301(6)(c)2. 2. An agreement under this subsection is subject to a referendum of the electors residing within the territory whose jurisdiction is subject to change as a result of the agreement. After each municipality approves the agreement by adoption of a resolution, each municipality shall publish the agreement in the territory whose jurisdiction is subject to change as a result of the agreement as a class 1 notice, under ch. 985. A referendum shall be held if, within 30 days after the publication of the agreement, a petition for a referendum conforming to the requirements of s. 8.40, signed by at least 20 percent of the electors residing within the territory whose jurisdiction is subject to change as a result of the agreement is filed, in accordance with s. 8.37, with the clerk of each municipality that is a party to the agreement. The referendum shall be conducted jointly by the municipalities and shall otherwise be conducted as are annexation referenda. If the agreement is approved in the referendum, it may take effect. If the agreement is not approved in the referendum, it may not take effect.
66.0301(6)(d) (d) An agreement under this subsection may provide that, during the term of the agreement, no other procedure for altering a municipality's boundaries may be used to alter a boundary that is affected by the agreement, except an annexation conducted under s. 281.43 (1m), regardless of whether the boundary is proposed to be maintained or changed or is allowed to be changed under the agreement. After the agreement has expired, the boundary may be altered.
66.0301(6)(e) (e) A boundary change included in an agreement under this subsection shall be accomplished by the enactment of an ordinance by the governing body designated to do so in the agreement. The filing and recording requirements under s. 66.0217 (9) (a), as they apply to cities and villages under s. 66.0217 (9) (a), apply to municipalities under this subsection. The requirements for the secretary of state under s. 66.0217 (9) (b), as they apply under that section, apply to the secretary of state when he or she receives an ordinance that is filed under this subsection.
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2011-12 Wisconsin Statutes updated through 2013 Wis. Act 380 and all Supreme Court Orders entered before Sept. 3, 2014. Published and certified under s. 35.18. Changes effective after Sept. 3, 2014 are designated by NOTES. (Published 9-3-14)