CHAPTER 840
REAL PROPERTY ACTIONS; GENERAL PROVISIONS
840.01   Definition of interest in real property.
840.02   Chapters applicable.
840.03   Real property remedies.
840.035   Provisional remedies.
840.04   Possession.
840.05   Joinder.
840.06   Joinder of additional interest-holders.
840.07   Default judgments.
840.10   Lis pendens; who may file; effect when void; discharge.
840.11   Highways; parks; record of order.
840.12   Survey may be ordered.
840.16   Land sold, where; limitation on sheriff; effect of deed.
840.17   Judicial sale; report if sheriff incapacitated.
840.18   Deeds by sheriffs' successors.
840.01 840.01 Definition of interest in real property. As used in chs. 840 to 846:
840.01(1) (1) Except as provided in sub. (2), “interest in real property" includes estates in, powers of appointment under ch. 702 over, present and future rights to, title to, and interests in real property, including, without limitation by enumeration, security interests and liens on land, easements, profits, rights of appointees under powers of appointment, rights under covenants running with the land, powers of termination, and homestead rights. The interest may be an interest that was formerly designated legal or equitable. The interest may be surface, subsurface, suprasurface, riparian, or littoral.
840.01(2) (2) “Interest in real property" does not include interests held only as a member of the public nor does it include licenses.
840.01 History History: 1973 c. 189; Sup. Ct. Order, 67 Wis. 2d 585, 767 (1975), 782; Stats. 1975 s. 840.01; 1983 a. 186; 1999 a. 85; 2013 a. 92.
840.01 Annotation In an action for unreasonable interference with an easement, it was reasonable for the court to order the defendant landowner to place a fence post at least 2 feet away from a right-of-way as interference to easements can be caused even if objects do not physically touch the right-of-way. Hunter v. McDonald, 78 Wis. 2d 338, 254 N.W.2d 282 (1978).
840.01 Annotation A municipality's regulatory power to condemn, assess, tax, and zone property within its boundaries is not an “interest in real property" under this section. Village of Hobart v. Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin, 2007 WI App 180, 303 Wis. 2d 761, 736 N.W.2d 896, 06-2639.
840.02 840.02 Chapters applicable. Except as otherwise provided in chs. 840 to 846, the general rules of practice and procedure in chs. 750 to 758 and 801 to 847 shall apply to actions and proceedings under chs. 840 to 846.
840.02 History History: 1973 c. 189; Sup. Ct. Order, 67 Wis. 2d 585, 767, 782 (1975); Stats. 1975 s. 840.02; 1979 c. 89; 1981 c. 314.
840.03 840.03 Real property remedies.
840.03(1) (1) Any person having an interest in real property may bring an action relating to that interest, in which the person may demand the following remedies singly, or in any combination, or in combination with other remedies not listed, unless the use of a remedy is denied in a specified situation:
840.03(1)(a) (a) Declaration of interest.
840.03(1)(b) (b) Extinguishment or foreclosure of interest of another.
840.03(1)(c) (c) Partition of interest.
840.03(1)(d) (d) Enforcement of interest.
840.03(1)(e) (e) Judicial rescission of contract.
840.03(1)(f) (f) Specific performance of contract or covenant.
840.03(1)(g) (g) Judicial sale of property and allocation of proceeds.
840.03(1)(h) (h) Restitution.
840.03(1)(i) (i) Judicial conveyance of interest.
840.03(1)(j) (j) Possession.
840.03(1)(k) (k) Immediate physical possession.
840.03(1)(L) (L) Restraint of another's use of, or activities on, or encroachment upon land in which plaintiff has an interest.
840.03(1)(m) (m) Restraint of another's use of, activities on, or disposition of land in which plaintiff has no interest; but the use, activity or disposition affect plaintiff's interest.
840.03(1)(n) (n) Restraint of interference with rights in, on or to land.
840.03(1)(o) (o) Damages.
840.03(2) (2) The indication of the form and kind of judgment in a chapter dealing with a particular remedy shall not limit the availability of any other remedies appropriate to a particular situation.
840.03 History History: 1973 c. 189; Sup. Ct. Order, 67 Wis. 2d 585, 767 (1975); Stats. 1975 s. 840.03; 1993 a. 486.
840.03 Annotation The Wisconsin legislature intended to create a cause of action under this section. SJ Properties Suites v. Specialty Finance Group, LLC, 864 F. Supp. 2d 776 (2012).
840.035 840.035 Provisional remedies. Provisional remedies may be granted as appropriate.
840.035 History History: 1973 c. 189; Sup. Ct. Order, 67 Wis. 2d 585, 767 (1975); Stats. 1975 s. 840.035.
840.04 840.04 Possession. No remedy shall be denied on the ground that the plaintiff is not in possession unless a statute specifically requires possession.
840.04 History History: 1973 c. 189; Sup. Ct. Order, 67 Wis. 2d 585, 767 (1975); Stats. 1975 s. 840.04.
840.05 840.05 Joinder. Any action proper under s. 840.03 may be brought in rem or in personam according to appropriate statutes for obtaining jurisdiction. Actions in rem and in personam may be joined.
840.05 History History: 1973 c. 189; Sup. Ct. Order, 67 Wis. 2d 585, 767, 782 (1975); Stats. 1975 s. 840.05.
840.06 840.06 Joinder of additional interest-holders. If the court orders that the owner of an interest is a necessary party to an action, the action may not be dismissed, but the plaintiff shall be given leave to join the missing person as plaintiff or defendant.
840.06 History History: 1973 c. 189; Sup. Ct. Order, 67 Wis. 2d 585, 767 (1975); Stats. 1975 s. 840.06.
840.07 840.07 Default judgments. No default judgment may be granted unless evidence supporting the court's findings and conclusions is in the record.
840.07 History History: 1973 c. 189; Sup. Ct. Order, 67 Wis. 2d 585, 767 (1975); Stats. 1975 s. 840.07.
840.07 Annotation This section does not require a hearing to produce the necessary evidence to support the court's findings and conclusions. Geneva National Community Association, Inc. v. Friedman, 228 Wis. 2d 572, 598 N.W.2d 600 (Ct. App. 1999), 98-1010.
840.10 840.10 Lis pendens; who may file; effect when void; discharge.
840.10(1)(1)
840.10(1)(a)(a) In an action where relief is demanded affecting described real property which relief might confirm or change interests in the real property, after the filing of the complaint the plaintiff shall present for filing or recording in the office of the register of deeds of each county where any part thereof is situated, a lis pendens containing the names of the parties, the object of the action and a description of the land in that county affected thereby. In any action if the defendant asks relief on a counterclaim or cross-complaint, which contains a legal description of the real estate and seeks such relief, after the filing of the counterclaim or cross-complaint the defendant shall present for filing or recording a lis pendens. From the time of filing or recording every purchaser or encumbrancer whose conveyance or encumbrance is not recorded or filed shall be deemed a subsequent purchaser or encumbrancer and shall be bound by the proceedings in the action to the same extent and in the same manner as if the purchaser or encumbrancer were a party thereto. In any such action in which a lis pendens has been filed or recorded, if the party who presents for filing or recording the lis pendens fails for one year after the filing or recording thereof to serve and file proof of service of the summons or the counterclaim or cross-complaint on one or more of the adverse parties, the lis pendens shall be void, and upon motion and proof the court may order it discharged. Judgment shall not be entered in favor of the party required to present for filing or recording a lis pendens until 20 days after the lis pendens has been filed or recorded.
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2015-16 Wisconsin Statutes updated through 2017 Wis. Act 35 and all Supreme Court and Controlled Substances Board Orders effective on or before July 20, 2017. Published and certified under s. 35.18. Changes effective after July 20, 2017 are designated by NOTES. (Published 7-20-17)