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938.028(2) (2)Definitions. In this section:
938.028(2)(a) (a) "Extended family member" means a person who is defined as a member of an Indian juvenile's extended family by the law or custom of the Indian juvenile's tribe or, in the absence of such a law or custom, a person who has attained the age of 18 years and who is the Indian juvenile's grandparent, aunt, uncle, brother, sister, brother-in-law, sister-in-law, niece, nephew, first cousin, 2nd cousin, or stepparent.
938.028(2)(b) (b) "Indian juvenile custody proceeding" means a proceeding under s. 938.13 (4), (6), (6m), or (7) that is governed by the federal Indian Child Welfare Act, 25 USC 1901 to 1963, in which an out-of-home care placement may occur.
938.028(2)(c) (c) "Out-of-home care placement" means the removal of an Indian juvenile from the home of his or her parent or Indian custodian for temporary placement in a foster home, group home, residential care center for children and youth, or shelter care facility, in the home of a relative other than a parent, or in the home of a guardian, from which placement the parent or Indian custodian cannot have the juvenile returned upon demand. "Out-of-home care placement" does not include holding an Indian juvenile in custody under ss. 938.19 to 938.21.
938.028(2)(d) (d) "Qualified expert witness" means a person who is any of the following:
938.028(2)(d)1. 1. A member of the Indian juvenile's tribe recognized by the Indian juvenile's tribal community as knowledgeable regarding the tribe's customs relating to family organization or child-rearing practices.
938.028(2)(d)2. 2. A member of another tribe who is knowledgeable regarding the customs of the Indian juvenile's tribe relating to family organization or child-rearing practices.
938.028(2)(d)3. 3. A professional person having substantial education and experience in the person's professional specialty and having substantial knowledge of the customs, traditions, and values of the Indian juvenile's tribe relating to family organization and child-rearing practices.
938.028(2)(d)4. 4. A layperson having substantial experience in the delivery of juvenile and family services to Indians and substantial knowledge of the prevailing social and cultural standards and child-rearing practices of the Indian juvenile's tribe.
938.028(2)(e) (e) "Reservation" means Indian country, as defined in 18 USC 1151, or any land not covered under that section to which title is either held by the United States in trust for the benefit of an Indian tribe or individual or held by an Indian tribe or individual, subject to a restriction by the United States against alienation.
938.028(3) (3)Jurisdiction over Indian juvenile custody proceedings.
938.028(3)(a)(a) Applicability. This section and the federal Indian Child Welfare Act, 25 USC 1901 to 1963, apply to any Indian juvenile custody proceeding regardless of whether the Indian juvenile is in the legal custody or physical custody of an Indian parent, Indian custodian, extended family member, or other person at the commencement of the proceeding and whether the Indian juvenile resides or is domiciled on or off of a reservation. A court assigned to exercise jurisdiction under this chapter may not determine whether this section and the federal Indian Child Welfare Act, 25 USC 1901 to 1963, apply to an Indian juvenile custody proceeding based on whether the Indian juvenile is part of an existing Indian family.
938.028(3)(b) (b) Exclusive tribal jurisdiction.
938.028(3)(b)1.1. An Indian tribe shall have exclusive jurisdiction over any Indian juvenile custody proceeding involving an Indian juvenile who resides or is domiciled within the reservation of the tribe, except when that jurisdiction is otherwise vested in the state by federal law and except as provided in subd. 2. If an Indian juvenile is a ward of a tribal court, the Indian tribe shall retain exclusive jurisdiction regardless of the residence or domicile of the juvenile.
938.028(3)(b)2. 2. Subdivision 1. does not prevent an Indian juvenile who resides or is domiciled within a reservation, but who is temporarily located off the reservation, from being taken into and held in custody under ss. 938.19 to 938.21 in order to prevent imminent physical harm or damage to the Indian juvenile. The person taking the Indian juvenile into custody or the intake worker shall immediately release the Indian juvenile from custody upon determining that holding the Indian juvenile in custody is no longer necessary to prevent imminent physical damage or harm to the Indian juvenile and shall expeditiously restore the Indian juvenile to his or her parent or Indian custodian, release the Indian juvenile to an appropriate official of the Indian juvenile's tribe, or initiate an Indian juvenile custody proceeding, as may be appropriate.
938.028(3)(c) (c) Transfer of proceedings to tribe. In any Indian juvenile custody proceeding under this chapter involving an out-of-home placement of an Indian juvenile who is not residing or domiciled within the reservation of the Indian juvenile's tribe, the court assigned to exercise jurisdiction under this chapter shall, upon the petition of the Indian juvenile's parent, Indian custodian, or tribe, transfer the proceeding to the jurisdiction of the tribe unless any of the following applies:
938.028(3)(c)1. 1. A parent of the Indian juvenile objects to the transfer.
938.028(3)(c)2. 2. The Indian juvenile's tribe does not have a tribal court, or the tribal court of the Indian juvenile's tribe declines jurisdiction.
938.028(3)(c)3. 3. The court determines that good cause exists to deny the transfer. In determining whether good cause exists to deny the transfer, the court may not consider any perceived inadequacy of the tribal social services department or the tribal court of the Indian juvenile's tribe. The court may determine that good cause exists to deny the transfer only if the person opposing the transfer shows by clear and convincing evidence that any of the following applies:
938.028(3)(c)3.a. a. The Indian juvenile is 12 years of age or over and objects to the transfer.
938.028(3)(c)3.b. b. The evidence or testimony necessary to decide the case cannot be presented in tribal court without undue hardship to the parties or the witnesses and that the tribal court is unable to mitigate the hardship by making arrangements to receive the evidence or testimony by use of telephone or live audiovisual means, by hearing the evidence or testimony at a location that is convenient to the parties and witnesses, or by use of other means permissible under the tribal court's rules of evidence.
938.028(3)(c)3.c. c. The Indian juvenile's tribe received notice of the proceeding under sub. (4) (a), the tribe has not indicated to the court in writing that the tribe is monitoring the proceeding and may request a transfer at a later date, the petition for transfer is filed by the tribe, and the petition for transfer is filed more than 6 months after the tribe received notice of the proceeding.
938.028(3)(d) (d) Declination of jurisdiction. If the court assigned to exercise jurisdiction under this chapter determines that the petitioner in an Indian juvenile custody proceeding has improperly removed the Indian juvenile from the custody of his or her parent or Indian custodian or has improperly retained custody of the Indian juvenile after a visit or other temporary relinquishment of custody, the court shall decline jurisdiction over the petition and immediately return the Indian juvenile to the custody of the parent or Indian custodian, unless the court determines that returning the Indian juvenile to his or her parent or Indian custodian would subject the Indian juvenile to substantial and immediate danger or the threat of that danger.
938.028(3)(e) (e) Intervention. An Indian juvenile's Indian custodian or tribe may intervene at any point in an Indian juvenile custody proceeding under this chapter.
938.028(3)(f) (f) Full faith and credit. The state shall give full faith and credit to the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of any Indian tribe that are applicable to an Indian juvenile custody proceeding to the same extent that the state gives full faith and credit to the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of any other governmental entity.
938.028(4) (4)Court proceedings.
938.028(4)(a)(a) Notice. In any involuntary proceeding under s. 938.13 (4), (6), (6m), or (7) involving the out-of-home care placement of a juvenile whom the court knows or has reason to know is an Indian juvenile, the party seeking the out-of-home care placement shall, for the first hearing of the proceeding, notify the Indian juvenile's parent, Indian custodian, and tribe, by registered mail, return receipt requested, of the pending proceeding and of their right to intervene in the proceeding and shall file the return receipt with the court. Notice of subsequent hearings in a proceeding shall be in writing and may be given by mail, personal delivery, or facsimile transmission, but not by electronic mail. If the identity or location of the Indian juvenile's parent, Indian custodian, or tribe cannot be determined, that notice shall be given to the U.S. secretary of the interior in like manner. The first hearing in the proceeding may not be held until at least 10 days after receipt of the notice by the parent, Indian custodian, and tribe or until at least 15 days after receipt of the notice by the U.S. secretary of the interior. On request of the parent, Indian custodian, or tribe, the court shall grant a continuance of up to 20 additional days to enable the requester to prepare for that hearing.
938.028(4)(b) (b) Appointment of counsel. Whenever an Indian juvenile is the subject of a proceeding under s. 938.13 (4), (6), (6m), or (7) involving the removal of the Indian juvenile from the home of his or her parent or Indian custodian or the placement of the Indian juvenile in an out-of-home care placement, the Indian juvenile's parent or Indian custodian shall have the right to be represented by court-appointed counsel as provided in s. 938.23 (2g). The court may also, in its discretion, appoint counsel for the Indian juvenile under s. 938.23 (1m) or (3) if the court finds that the appointment is in the best interests of the Indian juvenile.
938.028(4)(c) (c) Examination of reports and other documents. Each party to a proceeding under s. 938.13 (4), (6), (6m), or (7) involving the out-of-home care placement of an Indian juvenile shall have the right to examine all reports or other documents filed with the court upon which any decision with respect to the out-of-home care placement may be based.
938.028(4)(d) (d) Out-of-home care placement; serious damage and active efforts. The court may not order an Indian juvenile who is in need of protection or services under s. 938.13 (4), (6), (6m), or (7) to be removed from the home of the Indian juvenile's parent or Indian custodian and placed in an out-of-home care placement unless all of the following occur:
938.028(4)(d)1. 1. The court finds by clear and convincing evidence, including the testimony of one or more qualified expert witnesses chosen in the order of preference listed in par. (e), that continued custody of the Indian juvenile by the parent or Indian custodian is likely to result in serious emotional or physical damage to the juvenile.
938.028(4)(d)2. 2. The court finds by clear and convincing evidence that active efforts, as described in par. (f) 1., have been made to provide remedial services and rehabilitation programs designed to prevent the breakup of the Indian juvenile's family and that those efforts have proved unsuccessful. The court shall make that finding notwithstanding that a circumstance specified in s. 938.355 (2d) (b) 1. to 4. applies.
938.028(4)(e) (e) Qualified expert witness; order of preference.
938.028(4)(e)1.1. Any party to a proceeding under s. 938.13 (4), (6), (6m), or (7) involving the out-of-home placement of an Indian juvenile may call a qualified expert witness. Subject to subd. 2., a qualified expert witness shall be chosen in the following order of preference:
938.028(4)(e)1.a. a. A member of the Indian juvenile's tribe described in sub. (2) (d) 1.
938.028(4)(e)1.b. b. A member of another tribe described in sub. (2) (d) 2.
938.028(4)(e)1.c. c. A professional person described in sub. (2) (d) 3.
938.028(4)(e)1.d. d. A layperson described in sub. (2) (d) 4.
938.028(4)(e)2. 2. A qualified expert witness from a lower order of preference may be chosen only if the party calling the qualified expert witness shows that it has made a diligent effort to secure the attendance of a qualified expert witness from a higher order of preference. A qualified expert witness from a lower order of preference may not be chosen solely because a qualified expert witness from a higher order of preference is able to participate in the Indian juvenile custody proceeding only by telephone or live audiovisual means as prescribed in s. 807.13 (2). The fact that a qualified expert witness called by one party is from a lower order of preference under subd. 1. than a qualified expert witness called by another party may not be the sole consideration in weighing the testimony and opinions of the qualified expert witnesses. In weighing the testimony of all witnesses, the court shall consider as paramount the best interests of the Indian juvenile as provided in s. 938.01 (3). The court shall determine the qualifications of a qualified expert witness as provided in ch. 907.
938.028(4)(f) (f) Active efforts standard.
938.028(4)(f)1.1. The court may not order an Indian juvenile to be removed from the home of the Indian juvenile's parent or Indian custodian and placed in an out-of-home care placement unless the evidence of active efforts under par. (d) 2. shows that there has been an ongoing, vigorous, and concerted level of case work and that the active efforts were made in a manner that takes into account the prevailing social and cultural values, conditions, and way of life of the Indian juvenile's tribe and that utilizes the available resources of the Indian juvenile's tribe, tribal and other Indian child welfare agencies, extended family members of the Indian juvenile, other individual Indian caregivers, and other culturally appropriate service providers. The court's consideration of whether active efforts were made under par. (d) 2. shall include whether all of the following activities were conducted:
938.028(4)(f)1.a. a. Representatives designated by the Indian juvenile's tribe with substantial knowledge of the prevailing social and cultural standards and child-rearing practices within the tribal community were requested to evaluate the circumstances of the Indian juvenile's family and to assist in developing a case plan that uses the resources of the tribe and of the Indian community, including traditional and customary support, actions, and services, to address those circumstances.
938.028(4)(f)1.am. am. A comprehensive assessment of the situation of the Indian juvenile's family was completed, including a determination of the likelihood of protecting the Indian juvenile's health, safety, and welfare effectively in the Indian juvenile's home.
938.028(4)(f)1.b. b. Representatives of the Indian juvenile's tribe were identified, notified, and invited to participate in all aspects of the Indian juvenile custody proceeding at the earliest possible point in the proceeding and their advice was actively solicited throughout the proceeding.
938.028(4)(f)1.c. c. Extended family members of the Indian juvenile, including extended family members who were identified by the Indian juvenile's tribe or parents, were notified and consulted with to identify and provide family structure and support for the Indian juvenile, to assure cultural connections, and to serve as placement resources for the Indian juvenile.
938.028(4)(f)1.d. d. Arrangements were made to provide natural and unsupervised family interaction in the most natural setting that can ensure the Indian juvenile's safety, as appropriate to the goals of the Indian juvenile's permanency plan, including arrangements for transportation and other assistance to enable family members to participate in that interaction.
938.028(4)(f)1.e. e. All available family preservation strategies were offered or employed and the involvement of the Indian juvenile's tribe was requested to identify those strategies and to ensure that those strategies are culturally appropriate to the Indian juvenile's tribe.
938.028(4)(f)1.f. f. Community resources offering housing, financial, and transportation assistance and in-home support services, in-home intensive treatment services, community support services, and specialized services for members of the Indian juvenile's family with special needs were identified, information about those resources was provided to the Indian juvenile's family, and the Indian juvenile's family was actively assisted or offered active assistance in accessing those resources.
938.028(4)(f)1.g. g. Monitoring of client progress and client participation in services was provided.
938.028(4)(f)1.h. h. A consideration of alternative ways of addressing the needs of the Indian juvenile's family was provided, if services did not exist or if existing services were not available to the family.
938.028(4)(f)2. 2. If any of the activities specified in subd. 1. a. to h. were not conducted, the person seeking the out-of-home care placement shall submit documentation to the court explaining why the activity was not conducted.
938.028(5) (5)Invalidation of action. Any Indian juvenile in need of protection or services under s. 938.13 (4), (6), (6m), or (7) who is the subject of an out-of-home care placement, any parent or Indian custodian from whose custody that Indian juvenile was removed, or the Indian juvenile's tribe may move the court to invalidate that out-of-home care placement on the grounds that the out-of-home care placement was made in violation of 25 USC 1911 or 1912. If the court finds that those grounds exist, the court shall invalidate the out-of-home care placement.
938.028(6) (6)Placement of Indian juvenile.
938.028(6)(a)(a) Out-of-home care placement; preferences. Any Indian juvenile in need of protection or services under s. 938.13 (4), (6), (6m), or (7) who is placed in an out-of-home care placement shall be placed in the least restrictive setting that most approximates a family, that meets the Indian juvenile's special needs, if any, and that is within reasonable proximity to the Indian juvenile's home, taking into account those special needs. Subject to pars. (b) to (d), in placing such an Indian juvenile in an out-of-home care placement, preference shall be given, in the absence of good cause, as described in par. (d), to the contrary, to a placement in one of the following, in the order of preference listed:
938.028(6)(a)1. 1. The home of an extended family member of the Indian juvenile.
938.028(6)(a)2. 2. A foster home licensed, approved, or specified by the Indian juvenile's tribe.
938.028(6)(a)3. 3. An Indian foster home licensed or approved by the department, a county department, or a child welfare agency.
938.028(6)(a)4. 4. A group home or residential care center for children and youth approved by an Indian tribe or operated by an Indian organization that has a program suitable to meet the needs of the Indian juvenile.
938.028(6)(am) (am) Temporary physical custody; preferences. Any Indian juvenile in need of protection or services under s. 938.13 (4), (6), (6m), or (7) who is being held in temporary physical custody under s. 938.205 (1) shall be placed in compliance with par. (a) or, if applicable, par. (b), unless the person responsible for determining the placement finds good cause, as described in par. (d), for departing from the order of placement preference under par. (a) or finds that emergency conditions necessitate departing from that order. When the reason for departing from that order is resolved, the Indian juvenile shall be placed in compliance with the order of placement preference under par. (a) or, if applicable, par. (b).
938.028(6)(b) (b) Tribal or personal preferences. In placing an Indian juvenile under par. (a) or (am), if the Indian juvenile's tribe has established, by resolution, an order of preference that is different from the order specified in par. (a), the order of preference established by that tribe shall be followed, in the absence of good cause, as described in par. (d), to the contrary, so long as the placement is the least restrictive setting appropriate for the Indian juvenile's needs as specified in par. (a). When appropriate, the preference of the Indian juvenile or parent shall be considered, and, when a parent who has consented to the placement evidences a desire for anonymity, that desire shall be given weight, in determining the placement.
938.028(6)(c) (c) Social and cultural standards. The standards to be applied in meeting the placement preference requirements of this subsection shall be the prevailing social and cultural standards of the Indian community in which the Indian juvenile's parents or extended family members reside or with which the Indian juvenile's parents or extended family members maintain social and cultural ties.
938.028(6)(d) (d) Good cause.
938.028(6)(d)1.1. Whether there is good cause to depart from the order of placement preference under par. (a) or (b) shall be determined based on any one or more of the following considerations:
938.028(6)(d)1.a. a. When appropriate, the request of the Indian juvenile's parent or, if the Indian juvenile is of sufficient age and developmental level to make an informed decision, the Indian juvenile, unless the request is made for the purpose of avoiding the application of this section and the federal Indian Child Welfare Act, 25 USC 1901 to 1963.
938.028(6)(d)1.b. b. Any extraordinary physical, mental, or emotional health needs of the Indian juvenile requiring highly specialized treatment services as established by the testimony of an expert witness, including a qualified expert witness. The length of time that an Indian juvenile has been in a placement does not, in itself, constitute an extraordinary emotional health need.
938.028(6)(d)1.c. c. The unavailability of a suitable placement for the Indian juvenile after diligent efforts have been made to place the Indian juvenile in the order of preference under par. (a) or (b).
938.028(6)(d)2. 2. The burden of establishing good cause to depart from the order of placement preference under par. (a) or (b) shall be on the party requesting that departure.
938.028(6)(e) (e) Report of placement. A county department or a child welfare agency shall maintain a record of each out-of-home care placement made of an Indian juvenile who is in need of protection or services under s. 938.13 (4), (6), (6m), or (7), evidencing the efforts made to comply with the placement preference requirements specified in this subsection, and shall make that record available at any time on the request of the U.S. secretary of the interior or the Indian juvenile's tribe.
938.028(7) (7)Removal from out-of-home care placement. If an Indian juvenile who is in need of protection or services under s. 938.13 (4), (6), (6m), or (7) is removed from an out-of-home care placement for the purpose of placing the Indian juvenile in another out-of-home care placement, a preadoptive placement, as defined in s. 48.028 (2) (f), or an adoptive placement, as defined in s. 48.028 (2) (a), the placement shall be made in accordance with this section and s. 48.028. Removal of such an Indian juvenile from an out-of-home care placement for the purpose of returning the Indian juvenile to the home of the parent or Indian custodian from whose custody the Indian juvenile was originally removed is not subject to this section.
938.028(8) (8)Higher state or federal standard applicable. The federal Indian Child Welfare Act, 25 USC 1901 to 1963, supersedes this chapter in any Indian juvenile custody proceeding governed by that act, except that in any case in which this chapter provides a higher standard of protection for the rights of an Indian juvenile's parent or Indian custodian than the rights provided under that act, the court shall apply the standard under this chapter.
938.028 History History: 1995 a. 352; 2005 a. 344; 2009 a. 94.
subch. II of ch. 938 SUBCHAPTER II
ORGANIZATION OF COURT
938.03 938.03 Time and place of court; absence or disability of judge.
938.03(1)(1) Time and place of court. The court shall set apart a time and place to hold court on juvenile matters.
938.03(2) (2)Absence or disability of judge. In the case of the absence or disability of the judge of a court assigned to exercise jurisdiction under this chapter and ch. 48, another judge shall be assigned under s. 751.03 to act temporarily in the judge's place. If the judge assigned temporarily is from a circuit other than the one for which elected, the judge shall receive expenses under s. 753.073.
938.03 History History: 1995 a. 77; 2005 a. 344.
938.06 938.06 Services for court.
938.06(1)(1) Counties with a population of 750,000 or more.
938.06(1)(a)1.1. In counties with a population of 750,000 or more, the county board of supervisors shall provide the court with the services necessary for investigating and supervising cases under this chapter by operating a children's court center under the supervision of a director who is appointed as provided in s. 46.21 (1m) (a). Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the director is the chief administrative officer of the center and of the intake and probation sections and juvenile detention facilities of the center. The director is responsible for managing the personnel of, and administering the services of, the sections and the juvenile detention facilities, and for supervising operation of the physical plant and maintenance and improvement of the buildings and grounds of the center.
938.06(1)(a)1m. 1m. The center under subd. 1. shall include investigative services, provided by the county department, for juveniles alleged to be in need of protection or services and the services of an assistant district attorney or assistant corporation counsel, or both, who shall be assigned to the center to provide investigative and legal work in cases under this chapter and ch. 48.
938.06(1)(a)2. 2. The chief judge of the judicial administrative district shall establish written judicial policies governing intake and court services for juvenile matters under this chapter and the director of the center shall execute the policies. The chief judge shall direct and supervise the work of all personnel of the court, except the work of the district attorney or corporation counsel assigned to the court, and may delegate his or her supervisory functions.
938.06(1)(a)3. 3. The county board of supervisors shall establish policies and rules for the management and administration of the nonjudicial operations of the children's court center. The director of the center shall report to, and is responsible to, the director of the county department relating to the center director's duty to execute the policies and rules governing the center, including activities of probation officers whenever they are not performing services for the court. The director of the center is responsible for preparing and submitting to the county board of supervisors of the annual budget for the center except for the judicial functions or responsibilities which are delegated by law to the court and clerk of circuit court. The county board of supervisors, in organizing the office of director, shall provide for the devolution of the director's authority in the case of temporary absence, illness, disability to act, or a vacancy in position and shall establish the general qualifications for the position. The county board of supervisors has the authority to investigate, arbitrate, and resolve any conflict in the administration of the center between judicial and nonjudicial operational policy and rules. The county board of supervisors does not have authority over, and may not assert jurisdiction over, the disposition of any case or juvenile after a written order is made under s. 938.21 or if a petition is filed under s. 938.25.
938.06(1)(a)4. 4. All personnel of the intake and probation sections and of the juvenile detention facilities shall be appointed under civil service by the director, except that existing court service personnel having permanent civil service status may be reassigned to any of the sections within the center specified in this subdivision.
938.06(1)(am)1.1. All intake workers providing services under this chapter who begin employment after May 15, 1980, shall have the qualifications required to perform entry level case work in a county department and shall have successfully completed 30 hours of intake training, approved or provided by the department, prior to the completion of the first 6 months of employment in the position. The department shall monitor compliance with this subdivision according to rules promulgated by the department.
938.06(1)(am)2. 2. The department shall make training programs available annually that permit intake workers providing services under this chapter to satisfy the requirements under subd. 1.
938.06(1)(b) (b) Notwithstanding par. (a), the county board of supervisors may make changes in the administration of services to the children's court center in order to qualify for the maximum amount of federal and state aid as provided in sub. (4) and ss. 46.495 and 48.569.
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2011-12 Wisconsin Statutes updated though 2013 Wis. Act 200 and all Supreme Court Orders entered before April 18, 2014. Published and certified under s. 35.18. Changes effective after April 18, 2014 are designated by NOTES. (Published 4-18-14)