The officer has a reasonable basis for believing that continued domestic abuse against the alleged victim is likely.
In order to protect victims from continuing domestic abuse, a law enforcement officer shall consider all of the following in identifying the predominant aggressor:
The history of domestic abuse between the parties, if it can be reasonably ascertained by the officer, and any information provided by witnesses regarding that history.
The extent to which each person present appears to fear any party.
Whether any party is threatening or has threatened future harm against another party or another family or household member.
Whether either party acted in self-defense or in defense of any other person under the circumstances described in s. 939.48
If the officer's reasonable grounds for belief under par. (a) 1.
are based on a report of an alleged domestic abuse incident, the officer is required to make an arrest under par. (a)
only if the report is received, within 28 days after the day the incident is alleged to have occurred, by the officer or the law enforcement agency that employs the officer.
(2m) Immediate release prohibited.
Unless s. 968.08
applies, a law enforcement officer may not release a person whose arrest was required under sub. (2)
until the person posts bail under s. 969.07
or appears before a judge under s. 970.01 (1)
Each law enforcement agency shall develop, adopt, and implement written policies regarding procedures for domestic abuse incidents. The policies shall include, but not be limited to, the following:
A statement emphasizing that in most circumstances, other than those under sub. (2)
, a law enforcement officer should arrest and take a person into custody if the officer has reasonable grounds to believe that the person is committing or has committed domestic abuse and that the person's actions constitute the commission of a crime.
A statement emphasizing that a law enforcement officer's decision as to whether or not to arrest under this section may not be based on the consent of the victim to any subsequent prosecution or on the relationship of the parties.
A statement emphasizing that a law enforcement officer's decision not to arrest under this section may not be based solely upon the absence of visible indications of injury or impairment.
A statement discouraging, but not prohibiting, the arrest of more than one party.
A statement emphasizing that a law enforcement officer, in determining whether to arrest a party, should consider whether he or she acted in self-defense or in defense of another person.
A procedure for the written report and referral required under sub. (4)
A procedure for notifying the alleged victim of the incident of the provisions in sub. (5)
, the procedure for releasing the arrested person and the likelihood and probable time of the arrested person's release.
A procedure that requires a law enforcement officer, if the law enforcement officer has reasonable grounds to believe that a person is committing or has committed domestic abuse, to inform the victim of the availability of shelters and services in his or her community, including using lists available under ss. 49.165 (4) (b)
and 165.93 (4) (b)
; to give notice of legal rights and remedies available to him or her; and to provide him or her with a statement that reads substantially as follows: “If you are the victim of domestic abuse, you may contact a domestic violence victim service provider to plan for your safety and take steps to protect yourself, including filing a petition under s. 813.12
of the Wisconsin statutes for a domestic abuse injunction or under s. 813.125
of the Wisconsin statutes for a harassment injunction."
The policies under par. (a)
may provide that the law enforcement agency will share information with organizations that are eligible to receive grants under s. 49.165 (2)
or 165.93 (2)
In the development of these policies, each law enforcement agency is encouraged to consult with community organizations and other law enforcement agencies with expertise in the recognition and handling of domestic abuse incidents.
This subsection does not limit the authority of a law enforcement agency to establish policies that require arrests under more circumstances than those set forth in sub. (2)
, but the policies may not conflict with the presumption under sub. (2) (am)
(4) Report required where no arrest.
If a law enforcement officer does not make an arrest under this section when the officer has reasonable grounds to believe that a person is committing or has committed domestic abuse and that person's acts constitute the commission of a crime, the officer shall prepare a written report stating why the person was not arrested. The report shall be sent to the district attorney's office, in the county where the acts took place, immediately after investigation of the incident has been completed. The district attorney shall review the report to determine whether the person involved in the incident should be charged with the commission of a crime.
Unless there is a waiver under par. (c)
, during the 72 hours immediately following an arrest for a domestic abuse incident, the arrested person shall avoid the residence of the alleged victim of the domestic abuse incident and, if applicable, any premises temporarily occupied by the alleged victim, and avoid contacting or causing any person, other than law enforcement officers and attorneys for the arrested person and alleged victim, to contact the alleged victim.
An arrested person who intentionally violates this paragraph may be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned for not more than 9 months or both.
Unless there is a waiver under par. (c)
, a law enforcement officer or other person who releases a person arrested for a domestic abuse incident from custody less than 72 hours after the arrest shall inform the arrested person orally and in writing of the requirements under par. (a)
, the consequences of violating the requirements and the provisions of s. 939.621
. The arrested person shall sign an acknowledgment on the written notice that he or she has received notice of, and understands the requirements, the consequences of violating the requirements and the provisions of s. 939.621
. If the arrested person refuses to sign the notice, he or she may not be released from custody.
If there is a waiver under par. (c)
and the person is released under subd. 1.
, the law enforcement officer or other person who releases the arrested person shall inform the arrested person orally and in writing of the waiver and the provisions of s. 939.621
Failure to comply with the notice requirement under subd. 1.
regarding a person who is lawfully released from custody bars a prosecution under par. (a)
, but does not affect the application of s. 939.621
in any criminal prosecution.
At any time during the 72-hour period specified in par. (a)
, the alleged victim may sign a written waiver of the requirements in par. (a)
. The law enforcement agency shall have a waiver form available.
The law enforcement agency responsible for the arrest of a person for a domestic abuse incident shall notify the alleged victim of the requirements under par. (a)
and the possibility of, procedure for and effect of a waiver under par. (c)
Notwithstanding s. 968.07 (1)
, a law enforcement officer shall arrest and take a person into custody if the officer has reasonable grounds to believe that the person has violated par. (a)
(6) Conditional release.
A person arrested and taken into custody for a domestic abuse incident is eligible for conditional release. Unless there is a waiver under sub. (5) (c)
, as part of the conditions of any such release that occurs during the 72 hours immediately following such an arrest, the person shall be required to comply with the requirements under sub. (5) (a)
and to sign the acknowledgment under sub. (5) (b)
. The arrested person's release shall be conditioned upon his or her signed agreement to refrain from any threats or acts of domestic abuse against the alleged victim or other person.
(6m) Officer immunity.
A law enforcement officer is immune from civil and criminal liability arising out of a decision by the officer to arrest or not arrest an alleged offender, if the decision is made in a good faith effort to comply with this section.
(7) Prosecution policies.
Each district attorney's office shall develop, adopt and implement written policies encouraging the prosecution of domestic abuse offenses. The policies shall include, but not be limited to, the following:
A policy indicating that a prosecutor's decision not to prosecute a domestic abuse incident should not be based:
Solely upon the absence of visible indications of injury or impairment;
Upon the victim's consent to any subsequent prosecution of the other person involved in the incident; or
Upon the relationship of the persons involved in the incident.
A policy indicating that when any domestic abuse incident is reported to the district attorney's office, including a report made under sub. (4)
, a charging decision by the district attorney should, absent extraordinary circumstances, be made not later than 2 weeks after the district attorney has received notice of the incident.
(8) Education and training.
Any education and training by the law enforcement agency relating to the handling of domestic abuse complaints shall stress enforcement of criminal laws in domestic abuse incidents and protection of the alleged victim. Law enforcement agencies and community organizations with expertise in the recognition and handling of domestic abuse incidents shall cooperate in all aspects of the training.
Each district attorney shall submit an annual report to the department of justice listing all of the following:
The number of arrests for domestic abuse incidents in his or her county as compiled and furnished by the law enforcement agencies within the county.
The number of responses law enforcement made that involved a domestic abuse incident that did not result in an arrest.
The number of subsequent prosecutions and convictions of the persons arrested for domestic abuse incidents.
The listing of the number of arrests, prosecutions and convictions under par. (a)
shall include categories by statutory reference to the offense involved and include totals for all categories.
NOTE: 1987 Wis. Act 346
, which created this section, states the legislative intent and purpose in section 1 of the Act.
Questions by an officer prior to an arrest to determine which spouse was the primary physical aggressor under sub. (3) (a) 1. b. were investigatory and Miranda
warnings were not required when the defendant was not deprived of freedom or questioned in a coercive environment. State v. Leprich, 160 Wis. 2d 472
, 465 N.W.2d 844
(Ct. App. 1991).
Warrantless arrest and detention for bail jumping, 946.49, is authorized if probable cause exists that the arrestee violated the contact prohibition in sub. (5) (a) 1. after being released under ch. 969. 78 Atty. Gen. 177
This section applies to roommates living in university residence halls, whether privately or state owned. If criteria requiring arrest under sub. (2) exist, a law enforcement officer must make a custodial arrest. 79 Atty. Gen. 109
A Prosecutor's View of Elder Abuse. Hanrahan. Wis. Law. Sept. 2000.
Release by law enforcement officer of arrested person.
A law enforcement officer having custody of a person arrested without a warrant may release the person arrested without requiring the person to appear before a judge if the law enforcement officer is satisfied that there are insufficient grounds for the issuance of a criminal complaint against the person arrested.
History: 1993 a. 486
Citation; nature; issuance; release of accused. 968.085(1)(1)
A citation under this section is a directive, issued by a law enforcement officer, that a person appear in court and answer criminal charges. A citation is not a criminal complaint and may not be used as a substitute for a criminal complaint.
(2) Authority to issue; effect.
Except as provided in sub. (8)
, a law enforcement officer may issue a citation to any person whom he or she has reasonable grounds to believe has committed a misdemeanor. A citation may be issued in the field or at the headquarters or precinct station of the officer instead of or subsequent to a lawful arrest. If a citation is issued, the person cited shall be released on his or her own recognizance. In determining whether to issue a citation, the law enforcement officer may consider whether:
The accused appears to represent a danger of harm to himself or herself, another person or property.
The accused can show sufficient evidence of ties to the community.
The accused has previously failed to appear or failed to respond to a citation.
Arrest or further detention appears necessary to carry out legitimate investigative action in accordance with law enforcement agency policies.
The citation shall do all of the following:
Identify the offense and section which the person is alleged to have violated, including the date, and if material, identify the property and other persons involved.
Contain the name and address of the person cited, or other identification if that cannot be ascertained.
Direct the person cited to appear for his or her initial appearance in a designated court, at a designated time and date.
A copy of the citation shall be delivered to the person cited, and the original must be filed with the district attorney.
(5) Review by district attorney.
If the district attorney declines to prosecute, he or she shall notify the law enforcement agency which issued the citation. The law enforcement agency shall attempt to notify the person cited that he or she will not be charged and is not required to appear as directed in the citation.
(6) Citation no bar to criminal summons or warrant.
The prior issuance of a citation does not bar the issuance of a summons or a warrant for the same offense.
(7) Preparation of form.
The judicial conference shall prescribe the form and content of the citation under s. 758.171
(8) Inapplicability to certain domestic abuse cases.
A law enforcement officer may not issue a citation to a person for an offense if the officer is required to arrest the person for that offense under s. 968.075 (2)
History: 1983 a. 433
; 2005 a. 104
Warrant on failure to appear. 968.09(1)
When a defendant or a witness fails to appear before the court as required, or violates a term of the defendant's or witness's bond or the defendant's or witness's probation, if any, the court may issue a bench warrant for the defendant's or witness's arrest which shall direct that the defendant or witness be brought before the court without unreasonable delay. The court shall state on the record at the time of issuance of the bench warrant the reason therefor.
Prior to the defendant's appearance in court after the defendant's arrest under sub. (1)
, ch. 969
shall not apply.
History: 1971 c. 298
; 1993 a. 486
A bench warrant may be directed to all law enforcement officers in the state without regard to whether the defendant is charged with a violation of a state statute or county ordinance. The form of the warrant should be as suggested by s. 968.04 (3) (a) 7. 62 Atty. Gen. 208.