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283.17(1) (1) Any thermal effluent limitation proposed by the department may be modified by it in accordance with s. 283.63, if the owner or operator of the point source which is the subject of the proposed limitation demonstrates to the satisfaction of the department that the proposed limitation is more stringent than necessary to assure the protection and propagation of a balanced indigenous population of shellfish, fish and wildlife in and on the body of water into which the discharge is made.
283.17(2) (2) Any point source of a discharge having a thermal component, the modification of which is commenced after October 18, 1972, and which, as modified, meets the most stringent effluent limitation established under s. 283.13 or sub. (1) and this subsection, where the limitation assures protection and propagation of a balanced indigenous population of shellfish, fish and wildlife in and on the water into which the discharge is made, shall not be subject to any more stringent effluent limitation with respect to the thermal component during either the 10-year period beginning on the date of completion of the modification or the period of depreciation or amortization of the facility for the purpose of section 167 or 169 of the internal revenue code, whichever ends first.
283.17 History History: 1987 a. 27 ss. 1846mg, 1846ms; Stats. 1987 s. 147.055; 1991 a. 39; 1995 a. 227 s. 862; Stats. 1995 s. 283.17.
283.19 283.19 Standards of performance.
283.19(1) (1) The department shall, by rule, promulgate standards of performance, for each class or category of sources referred to under s. 283.13 (1) that is required to be covered by permits issued under s. 283.31, which shall reflect the greatest degree of effluent reduction achievable through the application of the best available demonstrated control technology, processes, operating methods, or other alternatives. Where practicable, a standard of performance permitting no discharge of pollutants shall be adopted.
283.19(2) (2)
283.19(2)(a)(a) Standards of performance adopted under this section shall apply to all new sources within each class or category of sources for which a standard of performance has been adopted under this section.
283.19(2)(b) (b) The term "new source" means any source, the construction of which commenced after the adoption of the standard of performance applicable to the category of sources of which it is a member.
283.19(3) (3) The department shall revise such standards to reflect changes in control technology, processes, operating methods or other alternatives. When establishing or revising standards of performance under this section, the department shall consider the cost of achieving such effluent reductions and the nonwater quality environmental impact and energy requirements of such reductions.
283.19(4) (4) The department may distinguish among classes, types and sizes within categories of sources for the purpose of establishing or revising standards of performance under this section.
283.19(5) (5) After the effective date of any standard of performance promulgated by the department under this section, no owner or operator of any new source may operate such source in violation of any standard of performance applicable to such a source.
283.19 History History: 1973 c. 74; 1993 a. 16.; 1995 a. 227 s. 863; Stats. 1995 s. 283.19
283.21 283.21 Toxic and pretreatment effluent standards.
283.21(1)(1)Toxic effluent limitations and standards.
283.21(1)(a)(a) List. The department shall promulgate by rule a list of toxic pollutants or combinations of pollutants subject to this chapter which consists of those toxic pollutants referred to in table 1 of committee print number 95-30 of the committee on public works and transportation of the U.S. house of representatives. After promulgation of this list, the department may revise by rule the list periodically and may add to or remove from the list any pollutant. In revising this list the department shall consider the toxicity of the pollutant, its persistence, degradability, the usual or potential presence in any waters of any organisms affected by the discharge of the toxic pollutant or combination of pollutants, the importance of the affected organism and the nature and extent of the effect of the toxic pollutant on these organisms. A determination by the department under this subsection is subject to declaratory judgment proceedings under s. 227.40.
283.21(1)(b) (b) Effluent standards. The department may promulgate by rule an effluent standard, which may include a prohibition, establishing requirements for a toxic pollutant which, if an effluent limitation is applicable to a class or category of point sources, is applicable to that category or class of point sources only if this effluent standard imposes more stringent requirements than are imposed under s. 283.13 (2) (b). An effluent standard promulgated under this section shall take into account the toxicity of the pollutant, its persistence, degradability, the usual or potential presence of affected organisms in any waters, the importance of affected organisms, the nature and extent of the effect of the toxic pollutant on these organisms and the extent to which effective control is being or may be achieved under other regulatory authority.
283.21(1)(c) (c) Promulgation; review. The department shall promulgate by rule an effluent standard which may include a prohibition in accordance with par. (a) for each toxic pollutant referred to in table 1 of committee print number 95-30 of the committee on public works and transportation of the U.S. house of representatives as soon as practicable but no later than one year after the U.S. environmental protection agency promulgates an effluent standard for the pollutant. The department shall establish effluent standards for any other toxic pollutant listed under par. (a) as soon as practicable after it is listed. Each effluent standard promulgated under this paragraph shall be reviewed and, if appropriate, revised every 3 years.
283.21(1)(d) (d) Ample margin of safety. An effluent standard promulgated under this subsection shall be established at that level which the department determines provides an ample margin of safety.
283.21(1)(e) (e) Applicability to classes or categories of sources. If the department proposes or promulgates an effluent standard under this subsection, it shall designate the class or category of point sources to which the effluent standard applies. The department may include the disposal of dredged material in a class or category of point sources.
283.21(1)(f) (f) Effective date. An effluent standard promulgated under this subsection takes effect on the date specified in the order promulgating the standard, but not more than one year after the date of the order. If the department determines that compliance within one year after the date of the order is technologically infeasible for a class or category of sources, the department may establish the effective date for the effluent standard for that class or category of sources at the earliest date upon which compliance can be feasibly attained by those sources, but in no case more than 3 years after the date of the order.
283.21(1)(g) (g) Procedure for promulgation in absence of federal standards. In promulgating rules establishing a toxic effluent standard or prohibition for which the U.S. environmental protection agency has not promulgated a toxic effluent limitation, standard or prohibition, the department shall follow the additional procedures specified in s. 283.11 (4) (d).
283.21(2) (2)Pretreatment standards.
283.21(2)(a)(a) The department shall by rule promulgate pretreatment standards to regulate the introduction into publicly owned treatment works of pollutants which are not susceptible to treatment by such treatment works or which would interfere with the operation of such treatment works.
283.21(2)(b) (b) Pretreatment standards promulgated under this section shall specify a time for compliance, not to exceed 3 years after the date of promulgation, and shall be established to prevent the discharge through any publicly owned treatment work of any pollutant which interferes with, passes through, or otherwise is incompatible with the treatment works. If any toxic pollutant under sub. (1) is introduced by a source into a publicly owned treatment works, if the treatment by the works removes all or any part of that toxic pollutant, if the discharge from the works does not violate the effluent limitation or standard which would be applicable to that toxic pollutant if it were discharged by the source other than through a publicly owned treatment works and if the treatment of that toxic pollutant does not prevent sludge use or disposal by the works in accordance with section 1345 of the federal water pollution control act, as amended, 33 USC 1251 to 1376, then the pretreatment requirements for the sources actually discharging the toxic pollutant into the publicly owned treatment works may be revised by the owner or operator of the works to reflect the removal of that toxic pollutant by the works.
283.21(2)(c) (c) The department shall by rule promulgate the classes or categories of sources to which the pretreatment standards adopted under this section shall apply.
283.21(2)(d) (d) The department shall revise the pretreatment standards adopted under this section to reflect changes in control technology, processes, operating methods or other alternatives.
283.21 History History: 1973 c. 74; 1979 c. 221; 1985 a. 29; 1985 a. 182 ss. 11, 57; 1995 a. 227 s. 864; Stats. 1995 s. 283.21.
subch. IV of ch. 283 SUBCHAPTER IV
PERMITS
283.31 283.31 Water pollutant discharge elimination system; permits, terms and conditions.
283.31(1) (1) The discharge of any pollutant into any waters of the state or the disposal of sludge from a treatment work by any person is unlawful unless such discharge or disposal is done under a permit issued by the department under this section or s. 283.33. The department may by rule exempt certain classes or categories of vessels from this section. Except as provided in s. 283.33, the department may require only one permit for a publicly owned treatment or collection facility or system, regardless of the number of point sources from such facility or system.
283.31(2) (2) No permit shall be issued by the department for the discharge into the waters of the state of any of the following:
283.31(2)(a) (a) Any radiological, chemical or biological warfare agent or high-level radioactive waste.
283.31(2)(b) (b) Any discharge which the secretary of the army acting through the chief of the army corps of engineers has objected to in writing on the ground that anchorage and navigation would be substantially impaired.
283.31(2)(c) (c) Any discharge to which the U.S. environmental protection agency has objected to in writing pursuant to s. 283.41.
283.31(2)(d) (d) Any discharge from a point source which is in conflict with any existing area-wide waste treatment management plan approved by the department. No area-wide waste treatment management plan may require the abandonment of existing waste treatment facilities which meet the requirements of this chapter unless the abandonment of such facilities clearly represents the most efficient and cost-effective method of providing waste treatment for the entire planning area.
283.31(3) (3) The department may issue a permit under this section for the discharge of any pollutant, or combination of pollutants, other than those prohibited under sub. (2), upon condition that such discharges will meet all the following, whenever applicable:
283.31(3)(a) (a) Effluent limitations;
283.31(3)(b) (b) Standards of performance for new sources;
283.31(3)(c) (c) Effluent standards, effluents prohibitions and pretreatment standards;
283.31(3)(d) (d) Any more stringent limitations, including those:
283.31(3)(d)1. 1. Necessary to meet federal or state water quality standards, or schedules of compliance established by the department; or
283.31(3)(d)2. 2. Necessary to comply with any applicable federal law or regulation; or
283.31(3)(d)3. 3. Necessary to avoid exceeding total maximum daily loads established pursuant to a continuing planning process developed under s. 283.83.
283.31(3)(e) (e) Any more stringent legally applicable requirements necessary to comply with an approved areawide waste treatment management plan.
283.31(3)(f) (f) Groundwater protection standards established under ch. 160.
283.31(4) (4) The department shall prescribe conditions for permits issued under this section to assure compliance with the requirements of sub. (3). Such additional conditions shall include at least the following:
283.31(4)(a) (a) That the discharge of any pollutant more frequently than or at a level in excess of that identified and authorized by the permit shall constitute a violation of the terms and conditions of the permit;
283.31(4)(b) (b) That facility expansions, production increases, or process modifications which result in new or increased discharges of pollutants at frequencies or levels in excess of the maximum discharges described in the permit shall be reported to the department under s. 283.59 (1);
283.31(4)(c) (c) That the permittee shall permit authorized representatives of the department upon the presentation of their credentials to enter upon any premises in which an effluent source is located or in which any records are required to be kept for the purpose of administering s. 283.55;
283.31(4)(d) (d) That the permittee shall at all times maintain in good working order and operate as efficiently as possible any facilities or systems of control installed by the permittee to achieve compliance with the terms and conditions of the permit;
283.31(4)(e) (e) That if a toxic effluent standard or prohibition, including any schedule of compliance specified in such effluent standard or prohibition, is established under s. 283.21 (1) for a toxic pollutant present in the permittee's discharge and, if such standard or prohibition is more stringent than any limitation upon such pollutant in the permit, the department shall revise or modify the permit in accordance with the toxic effluent standard or prohibition;
283.31(4)(f) (f) That, if the permit is for a discharge from a publicly owned treatment work, the permittee shall:
283.31(4)(f)1. 1. Inform the department of any new introduction of pollutants into the treatment works under s. 283.59 (2);
283.31(4)(f)2. 2. Require that any industrial user of such treatment work comply with the requirements of ss. 283.21 (2), 283.55 and 283.57.
283.31(5) (5) Each permit issued by the department under this section shall, in addition to those criteria provided in subs. (3) and (4), specify maximum levels of discharges. Maximum levels of discharges shall be developed from the permittee's reasonably foreseeable projection of maximum frequency or maximum level of discharge resulting from production increases or process modifications during the term of the permit.
283.31(6) (6) Any permit issued by the department under this chapter which by its terms limits the discharge of one or more pollutants into the waters of the state may require that the location, design, construction and capacity of water intake structures reflect the best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact.
283.31(7) (7) The holder of a permit under this section shall pay $100 to the department as a groundwater fee on January 1 if the permittee discharges effluent on land or if the permittee produces sludge from a treatment work which is disposed of on land. If the permittee discharges effluent on land and disposes of sludge from a treatment work on land, the permittee shall pay $200 to the department as a groundwater fee on January 1. The moneys collected under this subsection shall be credited to the environmental fund for groundwater management.
283.31 History History: 1973 c. 74; 1975 c. 349; 1983 a. 410; 1993 a. 16.; 1995 a. 227 s. 851, 857; Stats. 1995 s. 283.31.
283.31 Annotation Department has authority under (1) to issue permits to federal agencies. 68 Atty. Gen. 52.
283.33 283.33 Storm water discharge permits.
283.33(1) (1)Requirement. An owner or operator shall obtain a permit under this section for any of the following:
283.33(1)(a) (a) A discharge from a discernible, confined and discrete conveyance of storm water associated with an industrial activity, including construction, that meets criteria in rules promulgated by the department.
283.33(1)(b) (b) A discharge of storm water from a municipal separate storm sewer system serving an incorporated area with a population of 100,000 or more.
283.33(1)(d) (d) A discharge of storm water from a facility or activity, other than a facility or activity under par. (a) or (b), if the department determines that the discharge either contributes to a violation of a water quality standard or is a significant contributor of pollutants to the waters of the state.
283.33(2) (2)Municipal separate storm sewer systems; applications. The owner or operator of a portion of a municipal separate storm sewer system for which a permit is required under sub. (1) shall do one of the following:
283.33(2)(a) (a) Submit a permit application for its portion of the municipal separate storm sewer system.
283.33(2)(b) (b) Submit a permit application jointly with one or more other owners or operators of the municipal separate storm sewer system.
283.33(2)(c) (c) Authorize a regional authority with control over discharges to a separate storm sewer system that serves areas in more than one municipality to submit an application for a permit that covers the owner's or operator's portion of the municipal separate storm sewer system and other portions of the system if all of the following apply:
283.33(2)(c)1. 1. The regional authority, together with the owners or operators, has authority over a storm water management program that will be in operation by the deadline established by the department.
283.33(2)(c)2. 2. The regional authority or the owners or operators demonstrate their ability to supply all of the required application information by the deadlines established by the department.
283.33(2)(c)3. 3. Each of the owners or operators of a portion of the system covered by the application provides the information required by the department.
283.33(3) (3)Municipal separate storm sewer systems; permits.
283.33(3)(a)(a) The department may issue one permit for all discharges from a municipal separate storm sewer system for which a permit is required under sub. (1) or may issue separate permits for each municipality served by the system, for each type of discharge from the system, for individual discharges from the system or for other categories specified by the department.
283.33(3)(b) (b) If the department issues more than one permit for discharges from a municipal separate storm sewer system, the permits may specify differing requirements.
283.33(3)(c) (c) In a permit for part or all of a municipal separate storm sewer system, the department may specify differing conditions relating to different discharges covered by the permit, including differing management programs for the various drainage areas that contribute storm water to the system.
283.33(4) (4)Discharges through municipal separate storm sewer systems.
283.33(4)(a)(a) In addition to obtaining a permit under this section, the owner or operator of an industrial activity described in sub. (1) (a) that discharges storm water through a municipal separate storm sewer system described in sub. (1) (b) shall submit the following information to the owner or operator of the municipal separate storm sewer system:
283.33(4)(a)1. 1. The name of the facility from which the release occurs.
283.33(4)(a)2. 2. The name and address of a person to contact for information about the discharge.
283.33(4)(a)3. 3. The location of the discharge.
283.33(4)(a)4. 4. A description of the principal products or services provided by the facility and the number of any permit covering the facility.
283.33(4)(b)1.1. If a person required to provide information under par. (a) is releasing storm water into the municipal separate storm sewer system before the system is subject to sub. (1), the person shall provide the information no later than 60 days after the system becomes subject to sub. (1).
283.33(4)(b)2. 2. If a person required to provide information under par. (a) is not releasing storm water into the municipal separate storm sewer system before the system is subject to sub. (1), the person shall provide the information no later than 180 days before beginning to release storm water into the system.
283.33(5) (5)Other dischargers. A person who is required to obtain a permit under sub. (1) (a) or (d) may apply for an individual permit or request coverage under a general permit issued by the department under s. 283.35.
283.33(6) (6)Other coverage.
283.33(6)(a)(a) A municipal separate storm sewer system that is combined with a sanitary sewer system is not required to be covered by a permit under this section but is required to be covered by a permit under s. 283.31.
283.33(6)(b) (b) The department may include coverage of a storm water discharge in a permit issued under s. 283.31. For the purposes of this chapter, the portion of a permit issued under s. 283.31 that covers a storm water discharge is considered a permit issued under this section.
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