“Sodium bentonite" means a clay formed from the decomposition and recrystallization of volcanic ash and is largely composed of the clay mineral montmorillonite (Na.33
), commonly referred to as “western" or “Wyoming" bentonite, and has extensive ability to absorb water and swell to many times its original volume.
“Soil absorption unit" means an absorption field, dry well, seepage bed, seepage pit, seepage mound or seepage trench designed for the disposal of wastewater effluent or clear water wastes by soil absorption. Soil absorption unit includes units both regulated and not regulated by ch. SPS 383
and units abandoned within 3 years.
“Solid waste processing facility" means a solid waste facility at which solid waste is baled, shredded, pulverized, composted, classified, separated, combusted or otherwise treated or altered by some means to facilitate further transfer, processing, utilization or disposal. Solid waste processing facility does not include an operation conducted by scrap metal, paper, fiber or plastic processors which are excluded form the definition of “solid waste facilities" in ch. NR 500
“Solid waste transfer facility" means a solid waste site for baling or transferring solid waste from one vehicle or container to another.
“Special well casing pipe depth area" means an area established by the department requiring greater depth of well casing pipe and stringent well construction methods because of contamination. A list is available from the department.
“Specific capacity" means the continuous yield of water from a well at a given discharge expressed in gallons per minute per foot of drawdown.
“Spring" means a place where groundwater flows naturally from rock or soil onto the land surface or into a body of water.
“Standard dimension ratio" means the ratio of average outside pipe diameter to minimum pipe wall thickness.
“Static water level" means the level of the surface of the water in a well or water pressure at the top of a well, when no water flows or is being pumped. For flowing wells with a positive water pressure at the top of the well, the static water elevation is determined either by a stilling pipe or pressure gauge. Water levels are referenced to the elevation of the top of the well or the established ground surface at the well.
“Storm building drain" means horizontal piping within or under a building which conveys storm water, clear water or both, and which is installed below the lowest fixture or the lowest floor level, from which fixtures or sources can drain by gravity to the building sewer.
“Storm building sewer" means that part of the drain system not within or under a building which conveys its discharge of storm water, clear water, or both, to a public sewer, private interceptor main sewer, private onsite wastewater system or other point of discharge or dispersal.
“Storm collector sewer" means a storm sewer that collects storm water, storm waste, clear water wastes or other similar water from 2 or more storm sewer inlets or catch basins.
“Subsoil drain" means that part of a drain system that conveys groundwater to a point of discharge or dispersal.
“Sump" means a tank or pit that receives wastewater that must be emptied by mechanical means.
“Surface water" means all water which is open to the atmosphere and subject to surface runoff.
“Surge tank" means a tank into which overflow from a flowing well, spring or other water source is discharged and is repumped to a pressure tank or the water system.
“Telescoping method" means a method for setting a well screen where the well casing pipe is driven to the proposed screen setting depth and the well casing pipe is then pulled back to expose the screen. A packer is used to seal the annulus between the top of the screen and the bottom of the well casing pipe.
“Temporary manure stack" means solid manure only, piled for no more than 120 days within any one year period.
“Temporary outer casing" means a string of casing pipe that is driven, turned or placed from the ground surface into the surficial geological formation or formations as part of the process of constructing an upper enlarged drillhole and which is not intended to be left in place as a permanent well casing pipe.
“Top of bedrock" means the top of firm rock. The determination of the top of bedrock shall be based on the change in the action of the drilling machine and on the change in the type and size of the drill cuttings. The presence of bedrock shall be indicated when a majority of the drill cuttings consist of either angular rock fragments, as in the case of crystalline bedrock, or rock fragments composed of individual grains or rock particles that are cemented together to form an aggregate, as opposed to single sediment particles, such as in sand.
“Treatment pond" means a structure that is used for the treatment or storage of liquid waste. Treatment pond includes absorption, retention, storage and treatment ponds or lagoons.
“Upstream" means, with respect to the pump installation discharge and pressure system, in a direction back towards the well.
NR 812.07 Note
Note: In previous versions of this rule the term “prior to" was used in lieu of the term “upstream."
“Variance" means a department approval to construct or install a water system or a portion of a water system in a manner not in strict compliance with the requirements of this chapter, but providing comparable sanitary protection in accordance with conditions specified by the department in its approval.
“Vegetated treatment area" means a component of an agricultural waste management system that is an area or strip of herbaceous vegetation designed and constructed to Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) Standard 635 specifications, located adjacent to an animal barn, animal barn pen, animal shelter, animal yard or a manure storage facility and which is intended to improve water quality by reducing pollutants associated with animal manure and other agricultural wastewater runoff.
NR 812.07 Note
Note: In previous versions of this rule the term “Filter strip" was used instead of the term “Vegetated treatment area."
“Vertical zone of contamination" means that depth of geologic formations, generally near the ground surface, containing connecting pore spaces, crevices or similar openings, including artificial channels, such as unprotected wells or drillholes, through which contaminated water or contaminants gain access to a well or to the groundwater.
“Walkout basement" means a basement, with the floor at ground grade level on at least one side of the structure, from which it is possible to walk directly outside without walking upstairs or uphill.
“Wastewater" means any water carrying wastes created in and conducted away from residences, industrial establishments and public buildings with ground or surface water which may be present including any liquid wastes except clear water wastes.
“Water supply" means the sources, wells, pumps and intake and storage structures from which water is supplied for any purpose.
“Water system" means the water supply, storage, treatment facilities and all structures and piping by which water is provided for any purpose.
“Well" means any drillhole or other excavation or opening deeper than it is wide that extends more than 10 feet below the ground surface constructed for the purpose of obtaining groundwater.
“Well and pressure system" means the water supply and pump installation upstream of a building control valve or pressure tank and including any pressure tank.
“Well cap or seal" means an approved apparatus or device used to cover the top of a well casing pipe.
“Well casing pipe" means pipe meeting standards specified in s. NR 812.17
which is driven or set to seal off the vertical zone of contamination.
“Well constructor" means any person that constructs a well which is not required to be constructed by a licensed individual water well driller or a registered water well drilling business.
“Well drilling" has the meaning specified in s. 280.01 (8)
, Stats., and includes any activity which requires the use of a well drilling rig or similar equipment, or any activity which is conducted using a well drilling rig or similar equipment with the exception of the driving of points having pipe or casing smaller than three inches in diameter. Well drilling also includes constructing a well or performing any activity which changes the characteristics of a drilled well including constructing, reconstructing or deepening a well, sealing the annular space of a well, joining or welding together lengths of well casing pipe or liner pipe, installation of a liner, installing or replacing a screen, well rehabilitation, hydrofracturing, blasting, and chemical conditioning.
NR 812.07 Note
Section 280.01 (8)
, Stats., defines “Well drilling" to mean the industry and procedure employed in obtaining groundwater from a well by digging, boring, drilling, driving or other methods but not including the driving of points for the purpose of obtaining ground water. It shall also include all construction work and installation of well casings in said well involved therein for the protection of such well water against pollution.
NR 812.07 Note
Note: Attaching well casing pipe to the upper portion of a well to extend the well out of a pit is not considered well drilling.
“Well Notification" means a notice provided by a prospective well owner or well driller to the department in accordance with s. 281.34
, Stats., before any new private well is constructed.
NR 812.07 Note
Note: The Well Notification does not apply to proposed high capacity wells, school wells or wastewater treatment plant wells.
“Well-point driving" means constructing a well by joining a drive point screen with lengths of pipe and driving the assembly into the ground with percussion equipment or by hand, but without removing material from a drillhole more than 10 feet below the ground surface.
“Well vent" means a screened opening in a well seal to allow atmospheric pressure to be maintained in the well.
“Well yield" means the quantity of water which may flow or be pumped from the well per unit of time.
“Zone of saturation" means that part of the earth's crust beneath the shallowest water table in which all voids are filled with water under pressure greater than atmospheric.
NR 812.07 History
Cr. Register, January, 1991, No. 421
, eff. 2-1-91; am. (3), (4), (48), (61m), (74) (b), (79), (81), (82), (107) and (119), cr. (27m) (30f), (30m), (30t), (30x), (72m), (79m), (97m) and (110m), renum. (36) and (39) to be (61q) and (61u) and am. Register, September, 1994, No. 465
, eff. 10-1-94; corrections made under s. 13.93 (2m) (b) 7., Stats., Register, September, 1994, No. 465
; correction in (29), (30) and (79m) made under s. 13.93 (2m) (b) 6. and 7., Stats., Register, September, 1996, No. 489
; corrections in (50), (81), (97), (123) and (124) made under s. 13.93 (2m) (b) 7., Stats., Register, December, 1998, No. 516
; correction in (71) made under s. 13.93 (2m) (b) 7., Stats., Register July 2002 No. 559
; CR 05-020
: cr. (24m) and (57w) Register January 2006 No. 601
, eff. 2-1-06; corrections in (28) and (56) made under s. 13.92 (4) (b) 6. and 7., Stats., Register July 2010 No. 655
; correction in (29), (97) made under s. 13.92 (4) (b) 6., 7., Stats., and (29) renumbered to (35g) under s. 13.92 (4) (b) 1., Stats., Register December 2011 No. 672
; CR 13-096
: am. (33) (a), cr. (50e), CR 13-099
: cr. (1d), (1h), (1p), (1t), am. (3), (4), (6), (10), cr. (10m), (17m), (19m), am. (23), (24), cr. (27t), (29m), am. (35), cr. (35e), am. (38), cr. (41m), (47m), am. (49), renum. (51) to (50), (52) to (51), am. (53), (54), cr. (54g), (54r), (55m), am. (57m), cr. (57s), am. (60), cr. (61g), am. (64), (67), (72), (74) (b), cr. (74) (c) to (e), (75c), (75g), (75L), (75p), (75t), (75x), (79e), (79p), (79t), am. (80), cr. (80m), r. and recr. (82), am. (84), cr. (85m), am. (86), (90), (91), (93) (intro.), (a), (94), cr. (94g), (94r), (96g), am. (104) to (108), cr. (108r), (110s), renum. (112g) to (111m), cr. (112m), (112v), (119g), am. (122), r. and recr. (124), cr. (124m) Register September 2014 No. 705
, eff. 10-1-14; correction in (67) made under s. 35.17, Stats., Register September 2014 No. 705
NR 812.08 Water well, heat exchange drillhole, reservoir and spring location. NR 812.08(1)
Any potable or nonpotable well, reservoir, or spring shall be located:
So the well and its surroundings can be kept in a sanitary condition.
At the highest point on the property consistent with the general layout and surroundings if reasonably possible, but in any case protected against surface water flow and flooding.
As far away from any known or possible source of contamination as the general layout of the premises and the surroundings allow.
NR 812.08 Note
Section PSC 114.234 (6)
requires that a horizontal clearance of at least 3/4 of the vertical clearance of the conductors, including overhead power lines to the ground required by Rule 232 shall be maintained between open conductors and wells. Persons installing wells must comply with this requirement.
Such that any potential contaminant source, not identified in this section or in Table A, is a minimum of 8 feet from the well, reservoir, or spring.
Every well shall be located so that it is reasonably accessible with proper equipment for cleaning, treatment, repair, testing, inspection and any other maintenance that may be necessary.
(2) Relation to buildings.
In relation to buildings, the location of any potable or nonpotable well shall be as follows:
When a well is located outside it shall be located so that the top of the well casing pipe extends at least 12 inches above the final established ground grade and in a manner such that it is not directly in line with a rainwater downspout outlet or other similar clear water discharge that creates a sanitary hazard to the well.
NR 812.08 Note
Note: The department recommends that when a well is located adjacent to a building, it be located so the center line of the well extended vertically will clear the overhang of any building by not less than 2 feet to allow for well reconstruction and for pulling the pump.
When a structure is built over a drilled well, it shall have an easily removable access hatch, or provide other practicable access to allow for pulling and servicing the pump. The well casing pipe shall extend at least 12 inches above ground grade or above the ground-grade floor of the building and shall be sealed watertight at the point where it extends through the floor.
No well may be located, nor a building constructed, such that the well casing pipe will terminate in a basement or extend through the basement of any building or terminate under the floor of a building having no basement. A well may not terminate in or extend through a crawl space having a below ground grade depression or excavation.
NR 812.08 Note
Note: Wells terminating in basements and below-grade crawl spaces often pose a sanitary hazard to safe drinking water so they have not been allowed to be constructed, nor have screens been allowed to be replaced since April 10, 1953. Many wells terminating in basements or crawl spaces do not meet the requirements of Subchapter IV.
NR 812.08 Note
Note: This paragraph does not apply to wells located in alcoves or subsurface pumprooms adjoining a basement.
The top of a well casing pipe may terminate in a walkout basement if the following conditions are met:
It is possible to walk directly outside from the walkout basement without walking upstairs or upslope.
The surface of the ground around the outside exit door of the walkout basement slopes down away from the door.
The well and pump installation are accessible for repair and removal.
The well produces water continuously free from contaminants in excess of the drinking water standards of s. NR 812.06
The well and pump installation are in compliance with all other requirements of this chapter.
A well may not terminate in or extend through a crawl space having a below grade depression or excavation.
If a well must be located in a driveway, parking area, walkway or other high traffic area due to lot size or to meet minimum required separation distances between the well and contaminant sources, the well may be contained within a driveway ramp structure without department approval providing the driveway ramp meets the specifications of s. NR 812.36
. Driveway ramps may not be constructed or located in a floodway or floodplain.
A yard hydrant may not be installed within or on a well.
A potable or nonpotable well may be constructed, reconstructed or replaced in a floodfringe provided that the top of the well is terminated at least 2 feet above the regional flood elevation for the well site.
A well may be reconstructed or replaced in a floodway provided that the top of the well is terminated at least 2 feet above the regional flood elevation for the well site.
A well may not be constructed on a floodway property that is either undeveloped or has building structures but no existing well.
The regional flood elevation may be obtained from the department.
(4) Relation to contamination sources.
Minimum separating distances between any new potable or nonpotable well, heat exchange drillhole, reservoir or spring and existing sources of contamination; or between new sources of contamination and potable or nonpotable wells, heat exchange drillholes, reservoirs or springs shall be maintained as described in this subsection. The minimum separating distances of this subsection do not apply to dewatering wells approved under s. NR 812.09 (4) (a)
. Greater separation distances may be required for wells requiring plan approval under s. NR 812.09
. Separation distance requirements to possible sources of contamination will not be waived because of property lines. Separation distances shall be measured from the edge of the well, reservoir or spring, to the nearest edge of the contamination source. Minimum separating distances are listed in Table A and are as follows: