NR 812.24(1)(a) (a) Concrete curbing wall. The curbing wall shall be circular and at least 6 inches thick with concrete placed so as to be free from voids. The concrete mixture shall conform to provisions of s. NR 812.20 (1). The curbing wall shall be reinforced vertically and horizontally with 3/8-inch rods on 12-inch centers. Rods shall lap 12 inches and be staggered, but the lap may not occur at construction joints. The curbing wall should be poured in one operation. There may not be a construction joint within 10 feet of the ground surface. Construction joints shall be left rough and shall be washed and brushed with neat cement grout before pouring of concrete is continued, if possible.
- See PDF for diagram PDFFigure 18a. Hand pump installation protected from frost with outer casing and drainback mechanism.
NR 812.24(1)(b) (b) Steel curbing wall. A steel curbing wall shall have a thickness of at least 1/4 inch thick and assembled with welded joints.
NR 812.24(1)(c) (c) Curbing wall installation. The curbing wall shall be constructed at the surface and carried down by excavating from the interior. If wood forms are used on the exterior of a concrete curbing wall, they shall be removed before the curbing is lowered. Exterior wood forms may not be used below the ground surface. Metal forms may be left in place.
NR 812.24(1)(d) (d) Annular opening. The opening between the face of the excavation and the curbing wall through the vertical zone of contamination shall be filled with clean clay slurry.
NR 812.24(1)(e) (e) Upper terminal. The curbing wall shall extend at least 12 inches above the established ground surface. The ground shall be graded up around the curbing wall to a height of at least 6 inches above the ground surface so surface water will flow away from the well.
NR 812.24(2) (2)Dug well cover. The cover of the well curbing shall be made of reinforced watertight concrete at least 5 inches thick and of a diameter large enough to overlap the curbing wall by at least 2 inches. A drip groove shall be provided within one inch of the outer edge of the underside of the cover. The cover shall be free from joints. A pump installation access sleeve comprising a section of steel well casing pipe conforming to s. NR 812.17 (2) shall be installed in the cover at the time of pouring the concrete to fabricate the cover and shall terminate at least 12 inches above the top of the cover. The top of the cover shall be sloped to drain away from the access sleeve. A manhole, if installed, shall be provided with a 4-inch high metal curb which shall be equipped with an overlapping metal cover, the sides of which extend downward at least 1-1/2 inches. A tight joint shall be provided between the top of the curbing and the cover using a nontoxic plastic sealing compound. The manhole cover shall be locked or bolted in place to prevent entrance of water and to be safe from vandalism and accidents.
NR 812.24(3) (3)Equipment location. All pump piping, including the pump discharge or suction pipe, shall extend watertight through an access sleeve in the dug well cover.
NR 812.24 History History: Cr. Register, January, 1991, No. 421, eff. 2-1-91.
NR 812.25 NR 812.25Springs. The unprotected nature of springs subjects them to wide fluctuations in water quality. The department discourages their use as a source of potable water.
NR 812.25(1) (1) Springs vary from the standpoint of sources, locations, surrounding land uses and elevation. Each spring considered for use as a source of potable water shall be evaluated by the department prior to use as a potable source. Development of a spring as a source of potable water will be approved only after a department evaluation and approval. The placement or driving of a casing pipe into an undeveloped spring in a location easily accessible to the public regardless of the intended use of the spring water is prohibited.
NR 812.25(2) (2) Water supplies using springs as a source of water shall meet the following requirements:
NR 812.25(2)(a) (a) Location.
NR 812.25(2)(a)1.1. The area surrounding the spring to a distance of at least 100 feet laterally and 50 feet downgrade and the area immediately upslope from the spring to a point beyond the crest of the slope or to a distance of at least 200 feet upslope from the spring, may not be used for any activity, including human habitation, which may contaminate the spring.
NR 812.25(2)(a)2. 2. The spring outlet shall be at least 2 feet above the regional flood water level.
NR 812.25(2)(a)3. 3. The spring water shall flow from an underground source having enough overburden so that a horizontal plane extending back into the slope of the hill 100 feet will be at least 25 feet below the ground surface.
NR 812.25(2)(a)4. 4. The spring shall meet the distance separation requirements from potential contamination sources as specified in s. NR 812.08.
NR 812.25(2)(b) (b) Construction. The spring outlet shall be completely protected against the entrance of surface water runoff, insects, rodents and contaminants.
NR 812.25(2)(b)1. 1. As depicted in figure 19, a poured concrete box structure reinforced with 3/8 inch bars each way shall be constructed to house the spring outlet. This spring box shall meet the following minimum construction requirements:
NR 812.25(2)(b)1.a. a. Five-inch thick walls and roof with no cracks or holes, except for the overflow pipe in the wall and the access openings in the roof,
NR 812.25(2)(b)1.b. b. A width of 4 feet, with a 24-square foot cross section,
NR 812.25(2)(b)1.c. c. A 20-inch diameter round, or a 20-inch square access opening in the roof with a 4-inch thick concrete curbing wall that extends 8 inches above the roof,
NR 812.25(2)(b)1.d. d. An overlapping, tight-fitting, shoebox-type cover with 4-inch high skirted sides, constructed from welded sheet steel, to cover the access opening,
NR 812.25(2)(b)1.e. e. A 4-inch diameter or larger steel pipe sleeve, comprising a section of well casing pipe conforming to s. NR 812.17 (2) extending through the roof to a point at least 12 inches above the roof for the passage of the pump suction and discharge pipe or a service pipe from a pressure tank. The steel pipe sleeve shall be provided with a one-piece top plate sanitary well seal, and
NR 812.25(2)(b)1.f. f. An overflow pipe with a screened outlet that terminates at least 2 pipe diameters above the maximum water level at its discharge point.
NR 812.25(2)(b)2. 2. Buried discharge pipe from the spring, from a pump or any service pipes from a pressure tank shall be maintained under positive gauge pressure at all times.
NR 812.25(2)(b)3. 3. When the pump, pressure tank, or both, are installed above the spring outlet box, an insulated housing shall be provided for frost protection.
NR 812.25(2)(c) (c) The spring shall be capable of producing water that is continuously free from coliform bacterial contamination and free of contaminants in excess of the drinking water standards in s. NR 812.06.
NR 812.25 History History: Cr. Register, January, 1991, No. 421, eff. 2-1-91; am. (1) and (2) (a) 1., Register, September, 1994, No. 465, eff. 10-1-94.
NR 812.26 NR 812.26Well and drillhole filling and sealing.
NR 812.26(1)(1)Purpose. The filling and sealing of noncomplying, unused, abandoned, or contaminated wells or drillholes and noncomplying water systems is an important step in the protection of the local groundwater quality. Wells or drillholes, especially those with structural defects, may act as conduits for the vertical movement of contamination from or near the ground surface into the groundwater or from one aquifer to another.
NR 812.26(2) (2)Criteria for filling and sealing.
NR 812.26(2)(a)(a) The well owner shall hire a registered water well drilling or pump installing business or licensed water well driller or pump installer to fill and seal a well or a drillhole under any of the following conditions:
NR 812.26(2)(a)1. 1. The well water is contaminated with biological agents, bacteriological, viral or parasitic and 3 attempts at batch chlorination by a licensed or registered water well driller or pump installer fail to eliminate the problem.
NR 812.26(2)(a)2. 2. The well or drillhole poses a hazard to health or safety, or to groundwater,
NR 812.26(2)(a)3. 3. The well or drillhole construction or well location does not comply with the minimum standards of this chapter, or
NR 812.26(2)(a)4. 4. No later than 90 days after the well or drillhole has been removed from service. The 90-day time period in this subdivision does not apply to seasonal water systems or to high capacity irrigation wells.
NR 812.26(2)(a)5. 5. The well construction is noncomplying.
NR 812.26(2)(a)5m. 5m. The heat exchange drillhole will not be used as part of the heat exchange system.
NR 812.26(2)(a)6. 6. The pump installation is not operational or it does not comply with the requirements of this chapter.
NR 812.26(2)(b) (b) The department may require the well owner to hire a registered water well drilling business or a licensed individual water well driller or a registered pump installing business or a licensed individual pump installer to fill and seal a well or drillhole under the following conditions:
NR 812.26(2)(b)1. 1. The well water is contaminated with a substance in exceedence of the drinking water standards specified in s. NR 812.06.
NR 812.26(2)(b)2. 2. The well or heat exchange drillhole was not constructed by the well owner or by a licensed water well or heat exchange driller or registered water well drilling business.
NR 812.26(2)(c) (c) A water well driller or well constructor shall, no later than 30 days after receiving notice from the department, fill and seal a well or drillhole, which the individual constructed or reconstructed, under the following conditions:
NR 812.26(2)(c)1. 1. The well or heat exchange drillhole construction or location does not comply with the minimum standards of this chapter at the time the well or heat exchange drillhole was constructed, or
NR 812.26(2)(c)2. 2. The drillhole is an unsuccessful attempt to construct or reconstruct a well.
NR 812.26(2)(d) (d) The department may require any person who has filled and sealed a well, with a method, material or in a manner not in compliance with this section, to hire a registered water well drilling business or licensed individual water well driller or a registered pump installing business or a licensed pump installer to take corrective action so that the well is filled and sealed in a complying manner.
NR 812.26(3) (3)Requirements for wells removed from service. Any well or drillhole removed from service shall be properly filled and sealed according to the criteria and procedures in this section except as exempted by s. NR 123.23 (3) (c). Any well or drillhole removed from service shall be properly filled and sealed prior to any demolition or construction work on the property. A well driller or well constructor who removes a well from service or constructs a replacement well on a property shall inform the property owner that the department requires that any well replaced or removed from service to be filled and sealed according to the requirements of this section no later than 90 days after the well was removed from service or 90 days after the completion of the replacement well. A well driller or well constructor shall report, on the well construction report, any well he or she removes from service for any replacement well he or she constructs on the property.
- See PDF for diagram PDFFigure 19. Specifications for spring boxes.
NR 812.26(5) (5)Well or drillhole casing pipe. The well casing pipe or drillhole casing pipe shall be left in place when a well or drillhole is filled and sealed, except under par. (a), (b), (c), or (d) and only if the well or drillhole is completely filled and sealed with the sealing material as the well casing pipe is pulled or before it is pulled; and only if any concrete or neat cement grout that settles in the well or drillhole is replaced.
NR 812.26(5)(a) (a) The well casing pipe may be removed from a dry drillhole and reinstalled in a well on the same property within 30 days of original drillhole construction,
NR 812.26(5)(b) (b) The well casing pipe may be removed from a well or drillhole as part of reconstruction ordered or requested by the department. The well casing pipe may only be reinstalled on the same property if the reconstruction takes place within 120 days of the original construction,
NR 812.26(5)(c) (c) The well casing pipe may be removed from a dewatering well or a drillhole. Such well casing pipe may only be reused for dewatering wells.
NR 812.26(5)(d) (d) The well casing pipe may be removed from a recently constructed well or drillhole and reused if the well casing pipe is inspected and approved for reuse by a department representative.
NR 812.26(6) (6)Requirements prior to filling and sealing a well or drillhole.
NR 812.26(6)(a)(a) All debris, pumps, piping, ungrouted liner pipe and any other obstruction known to be in the well or drillhole shall be removed if possible before the well or drillhole is filled and sealed. When a pump is or becomes stuck within the well, a reasonable attempt using the best available technology shall be made to pull it out. If the pump cannot be pulled, a tremie pipe shall be placed in the well to a depth just above the top of the pump and neat cement grout shall be pumped in to entomb the pump and fill and seal the entire well.
NR 812.26(6)(b) (b) In a badly fractured or highly permeable geologic formation sodium bentonite drilling mud may be circulated in the drillhole or in the well prior to the filling and sealing procedures.
NR 812.26(6)(c) (c) The sealing material to be used to fill and seal a well or drillhole greater than 3 inches in diameter shall be placed through a conductor (tremie) pipe or by means of a dump bailer except when approved bentonite chips are used for wells 4 inches or larger in diameter. Conductor (tremie) pipe used shall be any of the following:
NR 812.26(6)(c)1. 1. Metal pipe,
NR 812.26(6)(c)2. 2. Rubber-covered hose reinforced with braided fiber or steel
and rated for at least 300 psi, or
NR 812.26(6)(c)3. 3. For use at depths less than 100 feet, thermoplastic pipe
rated for at least 160 psi including:
NR 812.26(6)(c)3.a. a. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC);
NR 812.26(6)(c)3.b. b. Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC);
NR 812.26(6)(c)3.c. c. Polyethylene (PE);
NR 812.26(6)(c)3.d. d. Polybutylene (PB); and
NR 812.26(6)(c)3.e. e. Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS).
NR 812.26(6)(d) (d) The bottom end of the conductor pipe shall be submerged in the filling and sealing material at all times, except when an alternate procedure is approved by the department.
NR 812.26(6)(e) (e) The flow from a flowing well or drillhole shall be reduced as much as possible with a packer by extending the well casing pipe or by other approved means including those depicted in figures 20 to 22 before it is filled and sealed.
NR 812.26(6)(f) (f) Filling and sealing of wells or drillholes with inadequate grouting or sealing of the annular space outside the well casing pipe or liner shall be performed to ensure complete sealing of the annular space. Techniques are situation dependent and may include reaming a new annular space outside the well casing pipe, use of pressure grouting methods or perforation of the well casing pipe. When perforation of the well casing or liner pipe is undertaken, it shall be done in a manner according to par. (h).
NR 812.26(6)(g) (g) The well casing pipe and filling and sealing material may be terminated as much as 3 feet below the ground surface or to a depth below any future building foundation at the time of the filling and sealing procedure.
NR 812.26(6)(h) (h) When an ungrouted well casing pipe or liner cannot be pulled, it shall be perforated or ripped in place prior the filling and sealing according to the following procedures:
NR 812.26(6)(h)1. 1. The casing pipe or liner shall be perforated using projectiles fired perpendicular to the length of the string of pipe. The perforations shall extend completely through the casing or liner pipe. As an alternative the casing pipe or liner may be vertically ripped.
NR 812.26(6)(h)2. 2. Four perforation shots or one rip shall be provided for each 5-feet of casing or liner.
NR 812.26(6)(h)3. 3. Each perforation shot shall be a minimum of 0.4 inches in diameter. Each rip shall have a minimum width of 0.25 inches and a minimum length of 12 inches.
NR 812.26(6)(h)4. 4. The orientation of each successive perforation shot or rip shall be rotated by 90 degrees along the string of pipe.
NR 812.26(6)(h)5. 5. After the well casing or liner has been perforated or ripped, the well shall be completely filled with neat cement from the bottom up to the ground surface. The well shall be filled both inside and outside the string of casing or liner pipe using a pressure grouting method in accordance with the requirements of s. NR 812.20
NR 812.26(6)(i) (i) When a well has a gravel pack that extends up to or within 20 feet of the ground surface, at least the top 20 feet of it shall be jetted out or removed in some other manner. Once the gravel pack has been removed the open annular space shall be filled and sealed with neat cement grout or concrete applied with a pressure method injected through a conductor (tremie) pipe.
NR 812.26(7) (7)Filling & sealing of wells and drillholes, methods, and materials.
NR 812.26(7)(a)(a) Methods. Once obstructions have been removed from a well or a drillhole, it shall be filled and sealed, from the bottom up, with the materials specified in this paragraph and in Table C with the use of a conductor (tremie) pipe, except where the use of a conductor pipe is specifically exempted, by using one of the following methods:
NR 812.26(7)(a)1. 1. `Wells and drillholes completed in unconsolidated formations'.
NR 812.26(7)(a)1.a.a. Drilled wells and drillholes or driven-point wells larger than 3 inches in diameter in unconsolidated formations shall be filled and sealed with neat cement grout, concrete (sand-cement) grout, concrete or with department-approved bentonite chips as provided and specified in subd. 3. for wells 4 inches or larger in diameter.
NR 812.26(7)(a)1.b. b. Wells and drillholes less than or equal to 3 inches in diameter completed in unconsolidated formations shall be filled and sealed with neat cement grout which may be poured or pumped down the drive pipe or drillhole. The use of a conductor pipe is not required.
NR 812.26(7)(a)2. 2. `Filling and sealing bedrock wells and drillholes'. Wells and drillholes completed in bedrock formations shall be completely filled and sealed from the bottom up with neat cement grout, concrete (sand-cement) grout, concrete or approved bentonite chips as provided in subd. 3. As an alternative for uncontaminated bedrock wells and drillholes deeper than 250 feet, chlorinated, sand-free pea gravel may be used to fill and seal the well or drillhole from the bottom up to 20 feet below the bottom of the casing pipe, or up to the 250-foot depth, whichever is deeper. This alternative may be used provided that for wells having drillholes extending through the Maquoketa Shale formation, a neat cement grout, concrete or bentonite chip plug at least 40 feet thick is placed and centered at the contact surface between the Maquoketa Shale and adjacent geologic formations, both above and below. Additionally, a neat cement grout, concrete or bentonite chip plug at least 40 feet thick shall be placed and centered at the top of the uppermost Cambrian Sandstone formation and at the top of the Eau Claire Formation of the Cambrian Sandstone whenever these layers are present in the open bedrock drillhole. When pea gravel is used for this alternative, it may be poured without the use of a conductor pipe provided the well is sounded at 50-foot intervals to ensure that bridging of the gravel in the well does not occur.
NR 812.26(7)(a)3. 3. `Use of bentonite chips to fill and seal wells and drillholes'. Approved bentonite chips may be used to fill and seal both unconsolidated formation and bedrock wells and drillholes with the following restrictions:
NR 812.26(7)(a)3.a. a. For wells and drillholes 4-inch diameter and larger the total depth may not be deeper than 500 feet and the number of feet of standing water in the well or drillhole may not be more than 350 feet. As an alternative for uncontaminated wells and drillholes deeper than 250 feet, chlorinated, sand-free pea gravel may be used to fill and seal the well or drillhole from the bottom up to 20 feet below the bottom of the casing pipe, or up to the 250-foot depth, whichever is deeper. This alternative may be used provided that for wells or drillholes extending through the Maquoketa Shale formation, a bentonite chip plug at least 40 feet thick is placed and centered at the contact surfaces between the adjacent geologic formations, both above and below. Additionally, a neat cement grout, concrete or bentonite chip plug at least 40 feet thick shall be placed and centered at the top of the uppermost Cambrian Sandstone formation and at the top of the Eau Claire Formation of the Cambrian Sandstone whenever these layers are present in the open bedrock drillhole. When pea gravel is used for this alternative, it may be poured without the use of a conductor pipe provided the well is sounded at 50-foot intervals to ensure that bridging of the gravel in the well does not occur.
NR 812.26(7)(a)3.b. b. Not allowed for wells and drillholes less than 4-inch diameter, and
NR 812.26(7)(a)3.c. c. Not allowed for any well or drillhole filled with drilling mud or bentonite slurry.
NR 812.26(7)(a)3.d. d. Fine particles and dust, typically present in the bags of chips, shall be prevented from entering the well by pouring the chips across a coarse-mesh screen such that they tumble under their own weight across the screen before falling into the well.
NR 812.26(7)(a)3.e. e. The chips shall be poured at a rate such that a 50-pound bag is emptied in a time period not less than 3 minutes. Once the chips rise above the water table, the rate of pour may be increased.
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Published under s. 35.93, Stats. Updated on the first day of each month. Entire code is always current. The Register date on each page is the date the chapter was last published.