Roof only – 0.7 for 5 feet, 1.3 for 15 feet, or 1.6 for 20 feet
Roof + 1 Floor – 0.85 for 5 feet, 1.15 for 15 feet, or 1.3 for 20 feet
Roof + 2 Floors – 0.9 for 5 feet or 1.1 for 15 feet.
eWhere minimum 1/2-inch gypsum wallboard is not included on the interior side of the wall, multiply the number of braced wall panels by 1.7 for LIB bracing or 1.4 for all other bracing methods, except this increase is not required for the portal frame method.
fAdjustments in footnotes b to e apply cumulatively. Fractions of panels shall be rounded to the nearest one-half braced wall panel.
gPerpendicular sides to the front and rear sides are the left and right sides. Perpendicular sides to the left and right sides are the front and rear sides. See Figure 321.25–B.
hThe following braced wall panel conditions shall be permitted to be counted as one-half a braced wall panel toward meeting the required number of panels: (1) one 60 degree LIB; (2) one 48" GB or one 96" GB with gypsum wallboard on one side; (3) one 36" WSP or SFB braced wall panel for wall heights not more than 9 feet; (4) a 48" WSP or SFB braced wall panel where there is no more than one unblocked horizontal joint; or (5) one PF brace panel complying with Figure 321.25–A.
iThis value of less than 2 serves only as the beginning value for calculation purposes. The resulting value shall be 2 or greater, to be consistent with subd. 2.
jAny floor, habitable or otherwise, that is contained wholly within the roof rafters or roof trusses is exempt from being considered a floor for purposes of determining wall bracing if the top-of-wall-to-ridge height does not exceed 20 feet and if no opening in the roof exceeds 48 inches in height.
Table 321.25–J
REQUIRED LENGTH OF CONTINUOUS BRACING ON WALLS PARALLEL TO EACH RECTANGLE SIDE AT EACH FLOOR LEVELa,b,c,d,e,g,h, j - See PDF for table PDF
aInterpolation is permitted. Extrapolation to buildings larger than addressed in this table is prohibited.
bThis table applies to wind exposure category B. For wind exposure category C or D, multiply the required length of wall bracing by 1.3 or 1.6, respectively. Wind exposure categories are as defined in Table 321.25–I footnote b.
cTabulated values are based on a nominal wall height of 10 feet. For nominal wall heights other than 10 feet, multiply the required length of bracing by the following factors: 0.90 for 8 feet, 0.95 for 9 feet, 1.05 for 11 feet, or 1.10 for 12 feet.
dWhere minimum ½-inch gypsum wallboard interior finish is not provided, the required bracing amount for the affected rectangle side shall be multiplied by 1.4, except this increase is not required for the portal frame method.
eAdjustments in footnotes b to d apply cumulatively.
fPerpendicular sides to the front and rear sides are the left and right sides. Perpendicular sides to the left and right sides are the front and rear sides. See Figure 321.25–B.
gContinuous sheathing shall be applied to all surfaces of the wall, including areas between brace panels and above and below wall openings.
hWhen used on a wall line with continuous sheathing, each portal frame panel is counted for its actual length in contributing toward the length of continuous sheathing used on other portions of the same wall line, such as the building side at a given story level.
iAny value of less than 4.0 in this table serves only as the beginning value for calculation purposes. The resulting value shall be 4.0 or greater, to be consistent with Table 321.25–H and subd. 2.
jAny floor, habitable or otherwise, that is contained wholly within the roof rafters or roof trusses is exempt from being considered a floor for purposes of determining wall bracing if the top-of-wall-to-ridge height does not exceed 20 feet and if no opening in the roof exceeds 48 inches in height.
Figure 321.25–C
LOCATION OF BRACED WALL PANELS ALONG A BUILDING SIDEa
SPS 321.25(8)(d) (d) Braced wall panel support. Braced wall panels shall be supported on floor framing or foundations as follows:
SPS 321.25(8)(d)1. 1. Where joists are perpendicular to braced wall lines above or below, blocking shall be provided between the joists at braced wall panel locations to permit fastening of wall plates in accordance with the fastener table in the ch. SPS 325 Appendix A.
SPS 321.25(8)(d)2. 2. Where joists are parallel to braced wall lines above or below, a rim joist or other parallel framing member shall be provided at the wall to permit fastening of wall plates in accordance with the fastener table in the ch. SPS 325 Appendix A.
SPS 321.25(8)(d)3. 3. Braced wall panels shall be permitted to be supported on cantilevered floor joists meeting the cantilever limits of s. SPS 321.22 (6) provided joists are blocked at the nearest bearing wall location, except such blocking is not required for cantilevers not exceeding 24 inches where a full height rim joist is provided.
SPS 321.25 History History: Cr. Register, November, 1979, No. 287, eff. 6-1-80; cr. (1) (d) and am. (3) (b), Register, February, 1985, No. 350, eff. 3-1-85; r. and recr. (3) (b), am. Table 21.25 B and E, Register, January, 1989, No. 397, eff. 2-1-89; am. (3) (a) and (6), Register, March, 1992, No. 435, eff. 4-1-92; r. and recr. (1) (c), am. Table 21.25-D, cr. Table 21.25-F, Register, November, 1995, No. 479, eff. 12-1-95; am. Table 21.25-A, Register, January, 1999, No. 517, eff. 2-1-99; r. (1) (b) and (c), renum. (1) (d) to be (b), r. and recr. (2), (6) and Tables 21.25-E and F, and am. (3) (b) 3., Register, March, 2001, No. 543, eff. 4-1-01; CR 02-077: r. (3) (c) Register May 2003 No. 569, eff. 8-1-03; CR 08-043: am. (1) (title), r. (1) (b), renum. (1) (a) and (6) (a) 4. to be (1) and (6) (a) 5., r. and recr. Table 21.25-A, cr. (6) (a) 4., (7), (8) and (9) Register March 2009 No. 639, eff. 4-1-09; correction in Figure 21.25-E made under s. 13.92 (4) (b) 7., Stats., Register March 2009 No. 639; CR 09-104: am. 21.25 (8) (e) 2., Table 21.25-H, (9) (b) 3., Table 21.25-J, Figure 21.25-G (c), (9) (c) 4. Register December 2010 No. 660, eff. 1-1-11; correction in (1), (2) (b) 3., (3) (a), (6) (c) 2., (d), (8) (c) 1. d., 2. c., (d), (e) 2., 3., (f) 2., (g) 3., (h) 2. b., (9) (b) 1., 2. b., d., 4. b., c., i., (c) 2. (intro.), b., c., d., 3., 4., 5. a., c., d., g., h., i., Table 321.25-H, Figure 321.25-F, -H to -K made under s. 13.92 (4) (b) 7., Stats., Register December 2011 No. 672; EmR1403: emerg. am. Table 321.25-A, (7) (d), r. and recr. (8) (b), (c), Tables 321.25-G to 321.25-J, Figures 321.25-A to 321.25-C, r. (8) (d) to (f), renum. (8) (g) (title), (intro.), 1. to 3. to (8) (d) (title), (intro.), 1. to 3., r. (8) (g) 4., (h), (9), Tables 321.25-K, 321.25-L, Figures 321.25-D to 321.25-K, eff. 4-1-14; CR 14-015: am. Table 321.25-A, (7) (d), r. and recr. (8) (b), (c), Tables 321.25-G to 321.25-J, Figures 321.25-A to 321.25-C, r. (8) (d) to (f), renum. (8) (g) (title), (intro.), 1. to 3. to (8) (d) (title), (intro.), 1. to 3., r. (8) (g) 4., (h), (9), Tables 321.25-K, 321.25-L, Figures 321.25-D to 321.25-K Register August 2014 No. 704, eff. 9-1-14; CR 15-041: cr. (2m), renum. (3) (intro.), (a), (b) to (3) (am), (bm), (cm), cr. (3) (am) (title), am Table I (title), Table J (title) Register December 2015 No. 720, eff. 1-1-16; CR 15-043: am. (8) (d) 1., 2. Register December 2015 No. 720, eff. 1-1-16.
SPS 321.26 SPS 321.26Masonry walls. Masonry walls shall be constructed in accordance with the requirements of this section.
SPS 321.26(1) (1)Cold weather work. When ambient air temperature is below 40°F, the cold weather construction procedures under ACI 530.1 shall be followed.
SPS 321.26 Note Note: The requirements for cold weather work are in sections 1.8 and 1.8C of the 2005 edition of the ACI standard.
SPS 321.26(2) (2)Masonry units.
SPS 321.26(2)(a)(a) Unused concrete units. Previously unused concrete masonry units shall conform to the ASTM C 90 standard.
SPS 321.26(2)(b) (b) Unused clay or shale units. Previously unused clay or shale masonry units shall conform to the appropriate ASTM standard: C 62; C 216; or C 652. Units which will be exposed to weathering or frost action shall be Grade SW as specified in these standards.
SPS 321.26(2)(c) (c) Used masonry units. All previously used masonry units shall be free from physical defects which interfere with the installation or impair the structural properties of the unit.
SPS 321.26(3) (3)Types of mortar.
SPS 321.26(3)(a)(a) Mortar specifications. The type of mortar shall be determined from Table 321.26-A. The mortar shall conform to the requirements of ASTM C-270.
SPS 321.26(3)(b) (b) Surface bond mortars. Surface bond mortars for masonry walls shall be mixed in accordance with the proportions specified on the bag.
SPS 321.26(4) (4)Mortar components. Mortar components shall comply with the following requirements:
SPS 321.26(4)(a) (a) Water. Water shall be clean and free of deleterious amounts of acids, alkalies, or organic materials.
SPS 321.26(4)(b) (b) Admixtures or mortar colors. Admixtures or mortar colors shall not be added to the mortar unless the resulting mortar conforms to the mortar specifications. Only mineral oxide may be used as mortar color and shall not exceed 10% by weight of the cement.
SPS 321.26(4)(c) (c) Mixing. Mortar shall be mixed for at least 3 minutes after all ingredients have been added with the maximum amount of water to produce a workable consistency. Mortars that have stiffened due to water evaporation shall be retempered by adding water as frequently as needed to restore the required consistency. Mortars shall be used and placed in final position within 2½ hours after mixing.
SPS 321.26 Note Note: To ensure proper mortar mixing, machine mixing is recommended. - See PDF for table PDF
SPS 321.26(4)(d) (d) Cementitious material. Cementitious material shall conform to the standards approved by the department.
SPS 321.26 Note Note: The department will accept cementitious material conforming to the following standards: ASTM C91, Masonry Cement; ASTM C150, Portland Cement; ASTM C595, Portland Blast-Furnace Slag Cement; ASTM C207, Hydrated Lime for Masonry Purposes; and ASTM C5, Quick Lime for Structural Purposes.
SPS 321.26(4)(e) (e) Aggregates. Aggregates for use in masonry mortar shall consist of natural sand or manufactured sand and shall be graded.
SPS 321.26 Note Note: The department will accept aggregates in accordance with ASTM C144.
SPS 321.26(5) (5)Cavity wall.
SPS 321.26(5)(a)(a) Corbels. Corbels shall be constructed in accordance with ACI 530.
SPS 321.26(5)(b) (b) Projections. The projection of a wall beyond the edge of a supporting member other than masonry, such as a shelf angle or edge of a beam, shall not exceed 1¼ inches, unless at least 2/3 the mass of the wythe of masonry involved is located directly over the load-carrying member.
SPS 321.26(6) (6)Openings and lintels.
SPS 321.26(6)(a)(a) Openings. The masonry above openings shall be supported. The bearing length of structural elements which support the masonry above the opening shall be not less than 4 inches.
SPS 321.26(6)(b) (b) Lintels. Unless designed through structural analysis, lintels shall be provided using either steel angles or reinforcing bars in accordance with Table 321.26-C. - See PDF for table PDF
SPS 321.26(7) (7)Masonry veneers.
SPS 321.26(7)(a)(a) Veneer over frame construction.
SPS 321.26(7)(a)1.1. Masonry veneers may be corbeled over the foundation wall, but the corbeling shall not exceed one inch.
SPS 321.26(7)(a)2. 2. A minimum one-inch air space shall be provided between the veneer and the sheathing unless a manufactured offset material is used.
SPS 321.26(7)(a)3. 3. Where no brick ledge is formed in the foundation wall, corrosion resistant metal or other water-resistant flashing shall extend over the top of the foundation wall from the outside face of the wall and shall extend at least 6 inches up on the sheathing. The flashing shall be installed to drain any water outward.
SPS 321.26(7)(a)4. 4. Weep holes shall be provided at the bottom masonry course at maximum intervals of 2 feet.
SPS 321.26(7)(a)5. 5. Ventilation openings shall be provided at the top of the wall.
SPS 321.26 Note Note: The ventilation opening could be other than a weep hole.
SPS 321.26(7)(a)6. 6. Studs and sheathing behind masonry veneer shall be covered with material used to construct the water-resistive barrier as required under s. SPS 321.24 (4).
SPS 321.26 Note Note: Acceptable water-resistive barrier materials include polymeric-based house wraps and #15 or greater asphalt-saturated felts that comply with ASTM D 226 for type I felt.
SPS 321.26(7)(a)7. 7. Masonry or brick veneer shall be above final exterior grade unless there is through-wall flashing at grade or within 2 courses above grade.
SPS 321.26(7)(b) (b) Veneer over masonry back-up. Corrosion-resistant metal or other water-resistant base flashing shall be provided at the bottom of the veneer and shall extend over the top of the foundation and up at least 6 inches and be embedded in the back-up course. The flashing shall be installed to drain any water outward. Weep holes shall be provided at maximum intervals of 3 feet.
SPS 321.26(7)(c) (c) Veneer attachment. Veneers shall be anchored or adhered in accordance with ACI 530 and ACI 530.1.
SPS 321.26(8) (8)Flashing.
SPS 321.26(8)(a)(a) General.
SPS 321.26(8)(a)1.1. Flashing shall be installed in accordance with this section to drain any water outward away from structural members, sheathing and insulation.
SPS 321.26(8)(a)2. 2. Open joints or weep holes shall be provided in the facing immediately above the flashing at a horizontal spacing not exceeding 2 feet.
SPS 321.26(8)(a)3. 3. Flashing that will be exposed to ultraviolet light shall consist of materials which are durable and permanently UV-resistant, such as sheet metal or heavy-gauge PVC.
SPS 321.26 Note Note: Materials including house wrap, asphalt-impregnated building paper, plastic sheeting, peel-and-stick rubberized sheet material, and light-gauge PVC are not acceptable as meeting this requirement.
SPS 321.26(8)(b) (b) Location.
SPS 321.26(8)(b)1.1. `Lintels and chimneys.' In exterior hollow masonry walls, flashing shall be installed at the backsides of chimneys and at the bottom of the cavity formed by openings such as lintels over doors and windows.
SPS 321.26(8)(b)2. 2. `Veneer.' Flashing shall be installed at the bottom of veneer and shall extend over the top of the foundation and up at least 8 inches and be embedded in the backing course.
SPS 321.26(8)(c) (c) Weep holes.
SPS 321.26(8)(c)1.1. Weep holes may not be placed below final grade.
SPS 321.26(8)(c)2. 2. Rope or similar material used to form a weep hole shall be removed as soon as the mortar sets.
SPS 321.26(8)(c)3. 3. Weep holes shall be 3/8-inch minimum diameter.
SPS 321.26 Note Note: See s. SPS 321.24 (3) for further requirements relating to flashing for masonry.
SPS 321.26(9) (9)Bearing.
SPS 321.26(9)(a)(a) Concentrated loads. Beams, girders, trusses, joists and other members producing concentrated loads shall bear a minimum of 3 inches on one of the following:
SPS 321.26(9)(a)1. 1. `Concrete beam.' The equivalent of a nominally reinforced 2,500 psi concrete beam 8 inches in height.
SPS 321.26(9)(a)2. 2. `Solid masonry.' At least 8 inches in height of masonry composed of solid masonry units with all voids and joints completely filled with mortar.
SPS 321.26(9)(a)3. 3. `Metal plate.' A metal plate of sufficient thickness and size to distribute the load to masonry units. For piers and columns, the bearing plate shall not exceed 60% of the cross-sectional area of the pier or column and the resultant reaction of all vertical and horizontal loads shall fall within the middle third of the member.
SPS 321.26(9)(a)4. 4. `Bond beam.' The bond beam shall be the equivalent of not less than an 8-inch lintel (bond beam) block with 2 No. 4 bars embedded in high strength mortar fill or equivalent. The loads shall bear on the fill.
SPS 321.26(9)(b) (b) Continuous loads. Joists, trusses and beams other than wood, spaced 4 feet or less on center and 40 feet or less in length, slabs or other members causing continuous loads shall be transmitted to masonry with a minimum bearing of 3 inches upon solid masonry at least 2½ inches in height, or as indicated for concentrated loads.
SPS 321.26(9)(c) (c) Stack bond walls. Concentrated loads shall be distributed into masonry laid in stack bond by a concrete beam or bond beam as defined in par. (a). For masonry of solid units, 2 additional rows of a continuous tie assembly may be used instead of a concrete beam or bond beam.
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Published under s. 35.93, Stats. Updated on the first day of each month. Entire code is always current. The Register date on each page is the date the chapter was last published.