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SPS 375.17 SPS 375.17 Brackets.
SPS 375.17(1)(1) Brackets for a 28 inch or 30 inch platform, when spaced not more than 4 feet apart, shall be made of not less than 7/8 inch square bars or 11/2 × 11/2 × 1/4 inch angles; such bars or angles shall be larger if the platform is wider or if the brackets are farther apart. Each bracket shall be fastened at the top, to the wall, by a through bolt (at least 7/8 inch diameter), nut, and washer (at least 4 inch diameter). The slope of the lower bracket bar shall be not less then 30º with the horizontal. The lower bar shall have a washer or shoulder to give sufficient bearing against the wall.
SPS 375.17 Note Note: In applying the requirements of the building code to the design of a bracket, the lower bracket bar must be designed according to the column formula. According to this formula (for example), brackets made of 1 inch square wrought iron, 4 feet apart, carrying a 3 feet 4 inches platform, are just within the limit of stiffness. If the brackets were over 4 feet apart, a heavier bar or an angle would have to be used.
SPS 375.17(2) (2) The strength of the wall to which brackets are to be attached shall be carefully considered in determining the spacing, shape, and inside connection of brackets, so that under full load the wall will not be unduly strained.
SPS 375.17 History History: 1-2-56; renum., Register, September, 1974, No. 225, eff. 10-1-74.
SPS 375.18 SPS 375.18 Stairways.
SPS 375.18(1)(1) Each stairway of an "A" type fire escape shall be at least 24 inches wide between stringers; such stairway shall have a uniform rise of not more than 8 inches, and a uniform run of not less than 8 inches.
SPS 375.18(2) (2) Each stairway of a "B" type fire escape shall be at least 3 feet 4 inches wide between stringers; such stairway shall have a uniform rise of not more than 8 inches, and a uniform run of not less than 9 inches.
SPS 375.18 Note Note: The rise is the vertical distance from the extreme edge of any step to the corresponding extreme edge of the next step. The run is the horizontal distance between the same points.
SPS 375.18(3) (3) Stairway stringers shall consist of either:
SPS 375.18(3)(a) (a) A 5 inch channel or larger.
SPS 375.18(3)(b) (b) Two angles 2 × 2 × 1/ 4 inch or larger
SPS 375.18(3)(c) (c) Two flat bars 2 × 3/8 inch or larger.
SPS 375.18(3)(d) (d) One flat bar 6 × 1/4 inch or larger.
SPS 375.18(4) (4) If 2 angles or 2 flat bars are used, they shall be properly tied together by lattice bars, vertical as well as horizontal. If flat bars are used, every stairway of more than 10 risers shall have lateral bracing. The connection of stringers to platform, at top and bottom, shall be at least equal in strength to the stringers and shall safely carry the full live and dead loads. If stringers are carried by intermediate brackets, the stringers shall have a horizontal bearing on the brackets and shall be properly and securely connected thereto.
SPS 375.18(5) (5) Treads shall consist of either flat or square bars, (not round), of the size and spacing specified for platforms. An "A" tread shall consist of at least 6 square bars or 7 flat bars. A "B" tread shall consist of at least 7 square bars or 8 flat bars. A "B" tread made of flat bars shall have separators and bolt through the center. A "B" tread made of square bars shall be trussed. Treads and platforms may be solid if covered by a roof.
SPS 375.18 History History: 1-2-56; renum., Register, September, 1974, No. 225, eff. 10-1-74.
SPS 375.19 SPS 375.19 Balanced stairway.
SPS 375.19(1)(1) All "B" type fire escapes, and all fire escapes on schools, theaters, and assembly halls, either shall reach to the ground or shall have a balanced stairway reaching to the ground. "A" type fire escapes which are not on schools, theaters, or assembly halls, may terminate on a platform at least 3 feet long, located not more than 10 feet above the ground.
SPS 375.19(2) (2) Every balanced stairway shall conform to the requirements for other stairways except that the stringers and the top rail may be lighter if they are properly trussed. The counterbalancing device shall be attached to both sides of the stairway equally, or a special attachment shall be used to prevent warping or twisting. The counterbalancing device shall operate gradually and easily as the live load is applied.
SPS 375.19 Note Note: The use of cables and sheaves will be permitted only under exceptional conditions, as rust is almost sure to interfere with their proper operation. In such cases the sheaves shall turn on a brass pin or in brass bearings and shall be protected from the weather at the top and on all sides.
SPS 375.19(3) (3) Treads for "A" type balanced stairways may be made as follows: two 11/4× 11/4 × 1/4 inch angles at front and back; two 1 1/4× 1/4 inch bars between, lying flatwise; one inch space between bars. Treads for"B" type balanced stairways may be made as follows: two 11/2 × 1 1/2 × 1/4 inch angles at front and back; two 11/2 × 1/4 inch bars between, lying flatwise; one inch space between bars. All such treads shall be strongly fastened together with cross bars not more than 14 inches apart.
SPS 375.19 History History: 1-2-56; renum., Register, September, 1974, No. 225, eff. 10-1-74.
SPS 375.20 SPS 375.20 Railings.
SPS 375.20(1)(1) Railings shall be provided on all open sides of platforms and stairways, and on both sides of balanced stairways. Either a railing or a handrail fastened to wall shall be provided on each side of all "B" type fire escape stairways. Railings shall be at least 3 feet high, measuring vertically from floor of platform or from nose of step.
SPS 375.20(2) (2) Every railing shall have posts, not more than 5 feet apart, made of not less than 11/2 × 11/2 × 1/4 inch angles or tees, or 11/ 4 inch pipe; top rail not less than 11/4 × 11/4 × 1/4 inch angle or equivalent; center rail not less than 11/4 × 5/16 flat bar or equivalent. All connections shall be such as to make the railing stiff; 2 bolts (3/8 inch or larger) shall be used at the foot of each post wherever possible, or at least 1/2 inch bolt shall be used. Railings shall be continuous. No projections on the inside of the railing shall be permitted. Where a railing returns to the wall, it shall be fastened thereto with a through bolt (at least 5/8 inch diameter), nut, and washer; or (in reinforced concrete) with an approved insert; or the railing shall be made equally secure with a diagonal brace extending at least 3 feet horizontally and 3 feet vertically.
SPS 375.20(3) (3) All outside railings which are more than 60 feet above grade shall be at least 6 feet high, measuring vertically from floor or platform or from nose of step. Such railings shall be of special design approved by the department, having not less than 4 longitudinal rails, and vertical lattice bars not more than 8 inches apart, and proper stiffening braces or brackets.
SPS 375.20 History History: 1-2-56; renum. and am., Register, September, 1974, No. 225, eff. 10-1-74.
SPS 375.21 SPS 375.21 Ladder to roof.
SPS 375.21(1)(1) Every fire escape which extends higher than the second floor shall be provided with a ladder leading from the upper platform to the roof, unless the fire escape stairway leads to the roof. The ladder shall have stringers of not less than 11/4 inch pipe, or not less than 2 × 3/8 inch flat bars, at least 17 inches apart in the clear. The rungs shall be not less than 1/2 inch square or 5/8 inch round bars, 14 inches center to center. The stringers shall be securely tied together at intervals no greater than every fifth rung.
SPS 375.21(2) (2) The stringers of each ladder shall extend not less than 4 feet above the roof coping and return to within 2 feet of the roof with the top rung of the ladder level with the top of the parapet wall.
SPS 375.21 History History: 1-2-56; renum., Register, September, 1974, No. 225, eff. 10-1-74.
SPS 375.22 SPS 375.22 Standpipe.
SPS 375.22(1)(1) A standpipe shall be attached to every fire escape on every building of more than 3 stories not having an automatic sprinkler system; except that buildings requiring more than one fire escape on any side thereof, shall be provided with at least one standpipe on each side.
SPS 375.22(2) (2) Every standpipe shall extend from a point within 5 feet of the ground to a point 3 feet above the roof or cornice, and shall be securely fastened to and accessible from each platform. The standpipe shall be made of not less than 3 inch wrought iron pipe, with 21/2 inch outlet hose valve at each floor and at roof, and a double Siamese valve at the base of the pipe. All connections shall conform to the size and patterns used by the local fire department, and the entire standpipe shall conform to all requirements of such department.
SPS 375.22 History History: 1-2-56; renum., Register, September, 1974, No. 225, eff. 10-1-74.
SPS 375.23 SPS 375.23 Other types of fire escape. Sliding or chute fire escapes may be used, upon the approval of the department, in place of "A" type or "B" type fire escapes. Every sliding fire escape shall be provided with a ladder constructed as in s. SPS 375.21, extending from 5 feet above grade, to 4 feet above the roof coping.
SPS 375.23 History History: 1-2-56; renum. and am., Register, September, 1974, No. 225, eff. 10-1-74; correction made under s. 13.93 (2m) (b) 7., Stats., Register, June, 1995, No. 474; correction made under s. 13.92 (4) (b) 7., Stats., Register December 2011 No. 672.
SPS 375.24 SPS 375.24 Standard exit doors.
SPS 375.24(1)(1) Every door which serves as a required exit from a public passageway, stairway or building, or which forms a horizontal exit, shall be a standard exit door. See also ss. SPS 376.06, 377.06, 378.04, 379.07.
SPS 375.24(2) (2) Every standard exit door shall swing outward or toward the natural means of egress (except as below and as in s. SPS 379.07). It shall be so hung that, when open, it will not block any part of the required width of any other doorway, passageway, stairway, or fire escape. No revolving door (unless collapsible) and no sliding door, (except where it opens onto a stairway enclosure, or serves as a horizontal exit) shall be considered as a standard exit door. Where revolving doors are used, they shall be of a type and make approved by the department.
SPS 375.24(3) (3) A standard exit door shall have such fastenings or hardware that it can be opened from the inside without using a key, by pushing against a single bar or plate, or turning a single knob or handle; it shall not be locked, barred, or bolted at any time while the building is occupied.
SPS 375.24 Note Note: For theaters, schools, large factories and hotels, etc., the "panic bolt" which operates by pressure against a bar or plate is recommended.
SPS 375.24(4) (4) An approved type, illuminated, transparent exit sign shall be provided and operated over all exit doors in accordance with ss. SPS 376.06, 377.14 and 379.08. Exit lights shall be installed as required by the Wisconsin state electrical code.
SPS 375.24 History History: 1-2-56; renum. and am., Register, September, 1974, No. 225, eff. 10-1-74; corrections made under s. 13.93 (2m) (b) 7., Stats., Register, June, 1995, No. 474; correction in (1), (2), (4) made under s. 13.92 (4) (b) 7., Stats., Register December 2011 No. 672.
SPS 375.25 SPS 375.25 Location and maintenance of exits. Every required exit (including stairways, fire escapes, horizontal exits, and doors) shall lead to a street, alley or open court connected with a street. All such exits, and all passageways leading to and from the same, shall be kept in good repair and unobstructed at all times.
SPS 375.25 History History: 1-2-56; renum., Register, September, 1974, No. 225, eff. 10-1-74.
SPS 375.26 SPS 375.26 First aid standpipes.
SPS 375.26(1) (1) For the number and location of first aid standpipes required in buildings of various classes, see ss. SPS 376.09, 378.07.
SPS 375.26(2) (2) Standpipes shall be sufficient in number so that any part of every floor area can be reached within 20 feet by a nozzle attached to not more than 75 feet of hose connected to a standpipe.
SPS 375.26(3) (3) No required standpipe shall be less than 2 inches in diameter, and not less than 21/2 inches in diameter for buildings 5 stories or more in height. An approved 11/2 inch hose valve shall be located in each story, not more than 5 feet above the floor level; valves of the gate type shall be equipped with a suitable open drip connection. An approved pressure-reducing device shall be installed at hose valves where pressure would otherwise be over 50 pounds.
SPS 375.26(4) (4) Not more than 75 feet of hose shall be attached to each outlet. Hose shall be of unlined linen construction, 11/ 2 inches in diameter, with a 1/2 inch nozzle attached, and shall be located in approved cabinets or racks.
SPS 375.26(5) (5) Water supply shall be automatic, and be designed for 70 gallons per minute for 30 minutes with 25 pounds flowing pressure at the top outlet. Such supply may be from city connection, gravity tank, pressure tank or pump.
SPS 375.26 History History: 1-2-56; renum. and am., Register, September, 1974, No. 225, eff. 10-1-74; corrections made under s. 13.93 (2m) (b) 7., Stats., Register, June, 1995, No. 474; correction in (1) made under s. 13.92 (4) (b) 7., Stats., Register December 2011 No. 672.
SPS 375.27 SPS 375.27 Fire extinguishers.
SPS 375.27(1)(1) Where fire extinguishers are required, they shall be of a type approved by the department. All fire extinguishers shall be charged in accordance with the instructions of the manufacturer.
SPS 375.27(2) (2) Extinguishers shall be conspicuously located where they will always be readily accessible and so distributed as to be immediately available in event of fire. They shall be hung on hangers or set on brackets or shelves so that the top of the extinguisher is not more than 5 feet above the floor.
SPS 375.27 History History: 1-2-56; renum. and am., Register, September, 1974, No. 225, eff. 10-1-74.
SPS 375.28 SPS 375.28 Automatic sprinklers.
SPS 375.28(1) (1) Required automatic sprinkler systems shall be designed and constructed in conformity with good established practice. Only materials and devices approved by the department may be used. Re-installation of used sprinkler heads is prohibited, and other second hand devices may be installed by special permission only.
SPS 375.28(2) (2) Where an automatic sprinkler system is required throughout a building, supply shall be from a city water main, or from a gravity or pressure tank. If the city water supply is inadequate in either pressure or volume, a tank of not less than 5,000 gallons capacity shall be provided. The bottom of a gravity tank shall be not less than 35 feet above the under side of the roof.
SPS 375.28(3) (3) Where automatic sprinklers are required in a basement only, the supply shall be from a city water main. Where there is no city water supply, such basement sprinklers need not be installed, but at such time as a city supply becomes available, such required basement sprinklers shall be installed.
SPS 375.28(4) (4) Every basement sprinkler system shall also include sprinklers in all shafts (except elevator shafts) leading to the story above.
SPS 375.28(5) (5) Every sprinkler system shall have a suitable audible alarm and an approved Siamese connection marked "To Automatic Sprinklers."
SPS 375.28 History History: 1-2-56; renum. and am., Register, September, 1974, No. 225, eff. 10-1-74.
SPS 375.29 SPS 375.29 Fire alarm systems.
SPS 375.29(1)(1) Interior fire alarm systems required under ss. SPS 376.11, 378.08 and 379.18 shall be designed and constructed in conformity with the following requirements.
SPS 375.29(2) (2) All such alarm systems shall consist of operating stations on each floor of the building, including the basement, with bells, horns, or other approved sounding devices which are effective throughout the building. The system shall be so arranged that the operation of any one station will actuate all alarm devices connected to the system except in the case of a presignal system. Fire alarms shall be readily distinguishable from any other signaling devices used in the building. A system designed for fire alarm and paging service may be used if the design is such that fire alarm signals will have precedence over all others.
SPS 375.29(3) (3) Every fire alarm system shall be electrically operated except as stated in s. SPS 378.08 and shall be operated on closed circuit current under constant electrical supervision, so arranged that upon a circuit opening and remaining open, or in case of a ground or short circuit in the ungrounded conductor, audible trouble signals will be given instantly.
SPS 375.29(4) (4) In buildings more than 3 stories in height, coded fire alarm systems shall be provided, and the systems shall be so arranged that the code transmitted shall indicate the location and the story of the structure in which the signal originated.
SPS 375.29(4m) (4m) In apartment buildings less than 6 stories in height and having less than 5,000 square feet area per floor, non-coded, electrically supervised, continuous ringing fire alarm systems will be accepted.
SPS 375.29(5) (5) Operating stations shall be prominently located in an accessible position at all required exit doors and required exit stairways. Operating stations shall be of an approved type and shall be conspicuously identified. All such operating stations shall be of a type, which after being operated, will indicate that an alarm has been sent therefrom until reset by an authorized means. (Operating stations having a "Break Glass" panel will be acceptable. On coded systems having a device to permanently record the transmission of an alarm, "Open Door" type stations may be used.) The fire alarm operating stations shall be mounted approximately 5 feet above the finished floor as measured from the floor to the center of the box.
SPS 375.29(6) (6) All such alarm systems shall be tested at least once a week and a record of such tests shall be kept.
SPS 375.29(7) (7) Existing fire alarm systems that are effective in operation will be accepted if approved by the department.
SPS 375.29 Note Note: The following sections are taken from the Wisconsin state electrical code.
SPS 375.29(9) (9) The energy for operation of fire alarm systems shall be taken from sources suited to the design of the system. Primary batteries shall not be used.
SPS 375.29(10) (10) A 3 wire 110-220 volt service will be accepted for supervised systems, providing the operating current is secured from one ungrounded conductor and the neutral or grounded conductor and the current for operation of trouble signal (or signals) is secured from the other ungrounded conductor and the neutral or grounded conductor.
SPS 375.29(11) (11) Electrical wiring in connection with fire alarm systems shall be installed in rigid metal conduit, flexible metal conduit, electrical metallic tubing or surface metal raceway, armored cable (metal) may be used where it can be fished in hollow spaces of walls or partitions in apartments or rooming houses not over 3 stories in height. Where the wiring is subject to excessive moisture or severe mechanical injury, rigid metal conduit shall be used. The smallest size conductor to be used in any fire alarm system in a building over 3 stories in height shall be #14 AWG, or #16 AWG for buildings not over 3 stories in height. The wires shall be provided with insulation suitable for use on circuits not exceeding 600 volts. Fire alarm systems shall be connected to the line side of the service switch or to the emergency bus, where available, through an approved fire alarm cut-out or equivalent.
SPS 375.29 History History: 1-2-56; renum. and am., Register, September, 1974, No. 225, eff. 10-1-74; corrections made under s. 13.93 (2m) (b) 7., Stats., Register, June, 1995, No. 474; correction in (1), (3) made under s. 13.92 (4) (b) 7., Stats., Register December 2011 No. 672.
SPS 375.30 SPS 375.30 Boilers, furnaces and stoves.
SPS 375.30(1)(1)Protection of floor. Except as provided in ss. SPS 376.13, 377.31, 378.09 and 379.20, every existing boiler, furnace or oven shall be placed on a fire-resistive floor projecting at least 2 feet on all sides. Such floor shall also be provided for every coal, wood, or oil stove or range which is more than 16 square feet in horizontal area or which has a flame at the bottom. If any such floor rests on or is in contact with any combustible material, then the fire-resistive floor layer shall be at least 3 inches thick and shall be hollow, with air spaces running horizontally through the same. The air spaces shall be open at both ends and shall be so placed that air can circulate through them; their horizontal area shall equal at least one-half the horizontal area of the fire-resistive slab.
SPS 375.30 Note Note: The purpose of these air spaces is to permit air to circulate through the fire-resistive slab and keep down its temperature. When a range or a heater rests on a solid layer of brick or concrete, it has been found that after several months the heat strikes through to the wood below. Many fires have been caused in this way.
SPS 375.30(2) (2)Air spaces. The air spaces may be secured by using hollow tile placed end to end; or by imbedding wrought or sheet iron pipes (say 3 inch diameter or larger) in a layer of concrete. The air spaces should run parallel to the short dimension of the slab.
SPS 375.30(3) (3)Fire-resistive floor layer. If the stove, range, etc., is raised at least 6 inches above the floor and such air space is not enclosed, then the fire-resistive floor layer may be reduced to not less than 2 inch solid thickness, without air spaces, provided it is covered with sheet metal.
SPS 375.30(4) (4)Coal, wood, oil stove. Every coal, wood or oil stove or range not more than 16 square feet in horizontal area and not having a flame at the bottom shall, if placed on a combustible floor, be raised at least 6 inches above the floor, and such air space shall not be enclosed. Such floor shall be protected with a stove board of sheet metal or asbestos, projecting at least one foot on all sides.
SPS 375.30(5) (5)Gas stove. Gas stoves shall be protected as above specified, except that:
SPS 375.30(5)(a) (a) A 3 inch solid fire-resistive floor layer, projecting at least 6 inches on all sides shall be sufficient protection if the stove has a false bottom at least 3 inches above such fire-resistive floor; and
SPS 375.30(5)(b) (b) If the stove is less than 16 square feet in horizontal area and has a false bottom at least 5 inches above the floor, no fire-resistive floor shall be required.
SPS 375.30 History History: 1-2-56; renum. and am., Register, September, 1974, No. 225, eff. 10-1-74; corrections made under s. 13.93 (2m) (b) 7., Stats., Register, June, 1995, No. 474; correction in (1) made under s. 13.92 (4) (b) 7., Stats., Register December 2011 No. 672.
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