160.001 Cross-reference Cross-reference: See also ch. NR 140, Wis. adm. code.
160.001 Annotation The promulgation of rules that prescribe the use of risk-based methodologies to respond to petroleum contamination in soil and groundwater would violate ch. 160. OAG 3-99.
160.01 160.01 Definitions. As used in this chapter, unless the context requires otherwise:
160.01(1) (1)“Department," when used without qualification, means the department of natural resources.
160.01(2) (2)“Enforcement standard" means a numerical value expressing the concentration of a substance in groundwater which is adopted under ss. 160.07 and 160.09.
160.01(3) (3)“Federal number" means a numerical expression of the concentration of a substance in water, established as:
160.01(3)(a) (a) A drinking water standard or maximum contaminant level, by the federal environmental protection agency;
160.01(3)(b) (b) A suggested no-adverse-response level, by the federal environmental protection agency; or
160.01(3)(c) (c) For oncogenic substances, a concentration based on a risk level determination by the federal environmental protection agency or a concentration based on a probability of risk model determined by the national academy of sciences.
160.01(4) (4)“Groundwater" means any of the waters of the state, as defined in s. 281.01 (18), occurring in a saturated subsurface geological formation of rock or soil.
160.01(5) (5)“Point of standards application" means the specific location, depth or distance from a facility, activity or practice at which the concentration of a substance in groundwater is measured for purposes of determining whether a preventive action limit or an enforcement standard has been attained or exceeded.
160.01(6) (6)“Preventive action limit" means a numerical value expressing the concentration of a substance in groundwater which is adopted under s. 160.15.
160.01(6m) (6m)“Property boundary" means the boundary of the total contiguous parcel of land owned by a common owner, regardless of whether public or private roads run through the parcel.
160.01(7) (7)“Regulatory agency" means the department of agriculture, trade and consumer protection, the department of safety and professional services, the department of transportation, the department of natural resources and other state agencies which regulate activities, facilities or practices which are related to substances which have been detected in or have a reasonable probability of entering the groundwater resources of the state.
160.01(8) (8)“Substance" means any solid, liquid, semisolid, dissolved solid or gaseous material, naturally occurring or man-made chemical, parameter for measurement of water quality or biological organism which, in its original form, or as a metabolite or a degradation or waste product, may decrease the quality of groundwater.
160.03 160.03 Duties of department. The department shall exercise both the responsibilities assigned specifically to it under this chapter as well as those assigned generally to the department as a regulatory agency.
160.03 History History: 1983 a. 410.
160.03 Cross-reference Cross-reference: See also ch. NR 140, Wis. adm. code.
160.05 160.05 Identification of groundwater contamination; categories.
160.05(1)(1)Identification. Each regulatory agency shall submit to the department a list of those substances which are related to facilities, activities and practices within its authority to regulate and which are detected in or have a reasonable probability of entering the groundwater resources of the state.
160.05(2) (2) Petition.
160.05(2)(a)(a) Any person may petition a regulatory agency to add a substance to or delete a substance from the list submitted to the department under sub. (1). The petition shall clearly and concisely state all of the following:
160.05(2)(a)1. 1. The name of the substance which is proposed to be added or removed from the list.
160.05(2)(a)2. 2. The regulatory authority of the regulatory agency over the facility, activity or practice which is the source of the substance.
160.05(2)(a)3. 3. The reasons for believing the substance exists in or has a reasonable probability of entering the groundwater or the reasons for believing the substance should be removed from the list.
160.05(2)(b) (b) Within a reasonable period of time after the receipt of a petition a regulatory agency shall either deny the petition in writing or submit the name of the substance to the department under sub. (1). If the regulatory agency denies the petition, it shall give notice of the denial promptly to the person who filed the petition, including a statement of its reasons for the denial.
160.05(3) (3) Establish categories. Within 60 days following receipt of a name of a substance under sub. (1), the department shall place the substance into one of the following categories:
160.05(3)(a) (a) Category 1, if the substance is detected in groundwater in concentrations in excess of a federal number for that substance.
160.05(3)(b) (b) Category 2, if the substance is detected in groundwater and is of public health or welfare concern but:
160.05(3)(b)1. 1. Is not detected in concentrations in excess of a federal number; or
160.05(3)(b)2. 2. For which there is no federal number.
160.05(3)(c) (c) Category 3, if the substance has a reasonable probability of being detected in groundwater and is of public health or welfare concern.
160.05(4) (4) Ranking within categories. The department shall rank each substance within its category. The department shall give highest rankings to those substances which pose the greatest risks to the health or welfare of persons in the state, taking into consideration, among other things, the following characteristics:
160.05(4)(a) (a) Carcinogenicity.
160.05(4)(b) (b) Teratogenicity.
160.05(4)(c) (c) Mutagenicity.
160.05(4)(d) (d) Interactive effects.
160.05(5) (5) Revision of substance lists. The department shall revise, as necessary, the ranking of substances within categories to include additional substances as they are reported, to reflect a change in the status of a substance which requires that it be placed in a different category or to remove from the list substances which are not shown to involve public health or welfare concerns or which do not have a reasonable probability of entering the groundwater.
160.05(6) (6) Public health concerns.
160.05(6)(a)(a) The department shall designate which of the substances in each category are of public health concern and which are of public welfare concern.
160.05(6)(b) (b) In determining whether a substance is of public health concern, the department shall take into account the degree to which the substance may:
160.05(6)(b)1. 1. Cause or contribute to an increase in mortality;
160.05(6)(b)2. 2. Cause or contribute to an increase in illness or incapacity, whether chronic or acute;
160.05(6)(b)3. 3. Pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human health because of its physical, chemical or infectious characteristics; or
160.05(6)(b)4. 4. Cause or contribute to other adverse human health effects or changes of a chronic or subchronic nature even if not associated with illness or incapacity.
160.05(6)(c) (c) In determining whether a substance is of public health concern, the department may consider other effects not specified under par. (b) if those effects are reasonably related to public health.
160.05(6)(d) (d) In determining whether a substance is of public welfare concern, the department shall take into account whether the substance may:
160.05(6)(d)1. 1. Influence the aesthetic suitability of water for human use;
160.05(6)(d)2. 2. Influence the suitability of water for uses other than human drinking water; or
160.05(6)(d)3. 3. Have a substantial adverse effect on plant life or animal life.
160.05(6)(e) (e) In determining whether a substance is of public welfare concern, the department may consider additional characteristics not specified under par. (d) if those characteristics are reasonably related to public welfare.
160.05 History History: 1983 a. 410.
160.07 160.07 Establishment of enforcement standards; substances of public health concern.
160.07(1)(1)The department of health services and the department shall enter into a memorandum of understanding setting forth the procedures and responsibilities of each agency in establishing enforcement standards under this section. The memorandum shall include those standards to be used by the department in making the designation required under s. 160.05 (6).
160.07(2) (2)Within 10 days after placing the name of a new substance within a category or changing the category of a substance under s. 160.05, the department shall submit the current list of categories and rankings of substances to the department of health services.
160.07(3) (3)The department of health services shall recommend to the department an enforcement standard for each substance submitted to it under sub. (2) which is designated as of public health concern, in the order of rankings within each category under s. 160.05 (4).
160.07(4) (4)The department of health services shall develop recommendations for enforcement standards for substances of public health concern as follows:
160.07(4)(a) (a) If a single federal number exists for a substance, the federal number shall be the enforcement standard.
160.07(4)(b) (b) If more than one federal number exists for a substance, the most recently established federal number representing the most current data shall be the enforcement standard.
160.07(4)(c) (c) If no federal number exists for a substance, but there is a state drinking water standard, the state drinking water standard shall be the enforcement standard.
160.07(4)(d) (d) If neither a federal number nor a state drinking water standard exists for a substance, the department of health services shall develop a recommended enforcement standard using the methodology under s. 160.13.
160.07(4)(e) (e) Notwithstanding pars. (a) and (b), the department of health services may recommend an enforcement standard different than the federal number if there is significant technical information which is scientifically valid and which was not considered when the federal number was established, upon which the department of health services concludes, utilizing the methodology under s. 160.13 and with a reasonable scientific certainty, that such a standard is justified. The department of health services may recommend a change in an enforcement standard previously adopted by utilization of a federal number. In evaluating the evidence for establishing an enforcement standard different than a federal number, the department of health services shall consider the extent to which the evidence was developed in accordance with scientifically valid analytical protocols and may consider whether the evidence was subjected to peer review, resulted from more than one study and is consistent with other credible medical or toxicological evidence.
160.07(5) (5)Within 9 months after transmitting the name of a substance to the department of health services under sub. (2), the department of natural resources shall propose rules establishing the recommendation of the department of health services as the enforcement standard for that substance and publish the notice required under s. 227.16 (2) (e), 227.17 or 227.24 (3).
160.07(6) (6)If a federal number is established or changed for a substance after an enforcement standard is recommended by the department of health services and if any person or regulatory agency submits a request, the department of natural resources shall determine whether the enforcement standard needs revision based on recommendations under sub. (4).
160.09 160.09 Establishment of enforcement standards; substances of public welfare concern.
160.09(1)(1)Notwithstanding the authority of the department under ss. 280.11, 281.15 and 281.17 (8) to establish standards for pure drinking water, the department shall establish enforcement standards for substances of public welfare concern as follows:
160.09(1)(a) (a) If a single federal number exists for a substance, the federal number shall be the enforcement standard.
160.09(1)(b) (b) If more than one federal number exists for a substance, the most recently established federal number representing the most current data shall be the enforcement standard.
160.09(1)(c) (c) If no federal number exists for a substance, but there is a state drinking water standard, the state drinking water standard shall be the enforcement standard.
160.09(1)(d) (d) If neither a federal number nor a state drinking water standard exists for a substance, the department shall establish an enforcement standard using all relevant and scientifically valid information available in technical literature concerning the substance and, if necessary, by comparison to similar compounds or classes of compounds.
160.09(1)(e) (e) Notwithstanding pars. (a) and (b), the department may establish an enforcement standard different than the federal number if there is significant technical information which is scientifically valid and which was not considered when the federal number was established, upon which the department concludes, with a reasonable scientific certainty, that such a standard is justified. The department may change an enforcement standard previously adopted by utilization of a federal number. In evaluating the evidence for establishing an enforcement standard different than a federal number, the department shall consider the extent to which the evidence was developed in accordance with scientifically valid analytical protocols and may consider whether the evidence was subjected to peer review, resulted from more than one study and is consistent with other credible medical or toxicological evidence.
160.09(2) (2)The department shall establish an enforcement standard for each substance of public welfare concern in the order of rankings within each category under s. 160.05 (4).
160.09(3) (3)The department shall establish enforcement standards by rule. The department shall prepare proposed rules establishing enforcement standards and shall provide the notice under s. 227.16 (2) (e), 227.17 or 227.24 (3) within 9 months after the name of a substance is received under s. 160.05.
160.09(4) (4)If a federal number is changed or newly established for a given substance after an enforcement standard is established by the department and if a request is submitted to the department by any person or regulatory agency, the department shall determine whether the enforcement standard needs to be revised based on sub. (1).
160.09 History History: 1983 a. 410; 1985 a. 135; 1985 a. 182 s. 57; 1995 a. 227.
160.11 160.11 Public information. In promulgating any enforcement standards as rules under ss. 160.07 and 160.09, the department, with the assistance of the department of health services, shall prepare a document describing the information and methodology used and the conclusions reached in establishing each proposed enforcement standard. The department shall make the document available when the notice is provided under s. 227.16 (2) (e), 227.17 or 227.24 (3). Any person may submit written questions on the document to the department at any time after the notice is provided under s. 227.16 (2) (e), 227.17 or 227.24 (3) and before any public hearing on the proposed rule is held. The department, with the assistance of the department of health services, shall respond at the public hearing to all questions previously submitted in writing.
160.13 160.13 Methodology to establish enforcement standard.
160.13(1)(1)Definitions. In this section:
160.13(1)(a) (a) “Acceptable daily intake" means the dose of a substance which, if ingested daily over an entire human lifetime, appears to be without appreciable risk on the basis of all known facts at the time it is established. Acceptable daily intake is expressed in units of milligrams of the substance per kilogram of body weight.
160.13(1)(b) (b) “Department" means the department of health services.
160.13(1)(c) (c) “No-observable-effect level" means that level of intake of a substance which, when administered to a group of humans or experimental animals, does not produce any of the effects observed or measured at any higher level of intake and produces no significant difference between the test group and an unexposed control group of humans or animals maintained under identical conditions.
160.13(2) (2) Methodology.
160.13(2)(a)(a) The department shall establish a recommended enforcement standard for a substance by first determining the acceptable daily intake for the substance under par. (b) and then basing the recommended enforcement standard on that acceptable daily intake under par. (c). In complying with pars. (b) and (c), the department shall utilize, where available, relevant and scientifically valid information from the office of pesticide programs and the office of drinking water in the federal environmental protection agency.
160.13(2)(b) (b) The department shall determine the acceptable daily intake for the substance as follows:
160.13(2)(b)1. 1. If an acceptable daily intake for the substance is established by the office of pesticide programs or office of drinking water in the federal environmental protection agency, that federal value shall be the acceptable daily intake.
160.13(2)(b)2. 2. Notwithstanding subd. 1., the department may determine an acceptable daily intake value different than the federal value established by the office of pesticide programs or office of drinking water in the federal environmental protection agency, if there is significant technical information which is scientifically valid and which was not considered when the federal value was established, upon which the department concludes, with a reasonable scientific certainty, that such a value is justified. In evaluating the evidence for establishing an acceptable daily intake value different than a federal value, the department shall consider the extent to which the evidence was developed in accordance with scientifically valid analytical protocols and may consider whether the evidence was subjected to peer review, resulted from more than one study and is consistent with other credible medical or toxicological evidence.
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2017-18 Wisconsin Statutes updated through 2019 Wis. Act 102 and through all Supreme Court and Controlled Substances Board Orders filed before and in effect on February 24, 2020. Published and certified under s. 35.18. Changes effective after February 24, 2020, are designated by NOTES. (Published 2-24-20)