23.74(2) (2)If both parties, in a court of record, request a trial by the court or if neither demands a trial by jury, the right to a trial by jury is waived.
23.74 History History: 1975 c. 365; 1977 c. 305; 1977 c. 449 s. 497.
23.75 23.75 Proceedings in court.
23.75(1)(1)If the defendant appears in court at the time directed in the citation or summons, the case shall be tried as provided by law.
23.75(2) (2)If the defendant fails to appear in court at the time fixed in the complaint and summons, judgment may be rendered against the defendant according to the demand of the complaint, or the court may issue a warrant for the defendant's arrest.
23.75(3) (3)If the defendant fails to appear in court at the time fixed in the citation or by subsequent postponement, the following procedure shall apply:
23.75(3)(a)1.1. If the defendant has not made a deposit, the court may consider the nonappearance to be a plea of no contest and enter judgment accordingly or the court may issue a summons or an arrest warrant.
23.75(3)(a)2. 2. If the court considers the nonappearance to be a plea of no contest and enters judgment accordingly, the court shall promptly mail a copy or notice of the judgment to the defendant. The judgment shall allow the defendant not less than 20 working days from the date the judgment copy or notice is mailed to pay the forfeiture, plus costs, fees, and surcharges imposed under ch. 814.
23.75(3)(b) (b) If the defendant has made a deposit, the citation may serve as the initial pleading and the defendant shall be deemed to have tendered a plea of no contest and submitted to a forfeiture, plus costs, fees, and surcharges imposed under ch. 814, not exceeding the amount of the deposit. The court may either accept the plea of no contest and enter judgment accordingly, or reject the plea and issue a summons. If the defendant fails to appear in response to the summons, the court shall issue an arrest warrant. If the court accepts the plea of no contest, the defendant may move within 90 days after the date set for appearance to withdraw the plea of no contest, open the judgment, and enter a plea of not guilty if the defendant shows to the satisfaction of the court that failure to appear was due to mistake, inadvertence, surprise, or excusable neglect. If a party is relieved from the plea of no contest, the court or judge may order a written complaint to be filed and set the matter for trial. After trial, the costs, fees, and surcharges imposed under ch. 814 shall be taxed as provided by law. If on reopening the defendant is found not guilty, the court shall delete the record of conviction and shall order the defendant's deposit returned.
23.75(3)(c) (c) If the defendant has made a deposit and stipulation of no contest, the citation may serve as the initial pleading and the defendant shall be deemed to have tendered a plea of no contest and submitted to a forfeiture, plus costs, fees, and surcharges imposed under ch. 814, not exceeding the amount of the deposit. The court may either accept the plea of no contest and enter judgment accordingly, or reject the plea and issue a summons. If the defendant fails to appear in response to the summons, the court shall issue an arrest warrant. After signing a stipulation of no contest, the defendant may, at any time prior to or at the time of the court appearance date, move the court for relief from the effect of the stipulation. The court may act on the motion, with or without notice, for cause shown by affidavit and upon just terms, and relieve the defendant from the stipulation and the effects thereof. If the defendant is relieved from the stipulation of no contest, the court may order a citation or complaint to be filed and set the matter for trial. After trial, the costs, fees, and surcharges imposed under ch. 814 shall be taxed as provided by law.
23.75(4) (4)If a citation or summons is issued to a defendant and he or she is unable to appear in court on the day specified, the defendant may enter a plea of not guilty by mailing to the judge at the address indicated on the citation or summons a letter stating such plea. The letter must show the defendant's return address. Such letter may include a request for trial during normal daytime business hours. Upon receipt of the letter, the judge shall reply by letter to the defendant's address setting forth a time and place for trial, such time to be during normal business hours if so requested. The date of the trial shall be at least 10 days from the mailing by the judge. Nothing in this subsection forbids the setting of the trial at any time convenient to all parties concerned.
23.75(5) (5)Costs shall not be taxed against the plaintiff.
23.76 23.76 Burden of proof. In all actions under this chapter, the state must convince the trier of fact to a reasonable certainty of every element of the offense by evidence that is clear, satisfactory and convincing.
23.76 History History: 1975 c. 365.
23.77 23.77 Jury trial.
23.77(1)(1)If in circuit court either party files a written demand for a jury trial within 20 days after the court appearance date and immediately pays the fee prescribed in s. 814.61 (4), the court shall place the case on the jury calendar. The number of jurors shall be determined under s. 756.06 (2) (b). If no party demands a trial by jury, the right to trial by jury is permanently waived.
23.77(3) (3)If there is a demand for a trial by jury, the provisions of s. 345.43 (3) (a) and (b) are applicable.
23.77 History History: 1975 c. 365; 1977 c. 305, 318, 447; 1977 c. 449 s. 497; 1979 c. 175 s. 53; 1981 c. 317; 1995 a. 427; Sup. Ct. Order No. 96-08, 207 Wis. 2d xv (1997).
23.78 23.78 Verdict. A verdict is valid if agreed to by five-sixths of the jury. If a verdict relates to more than one count, it shall be valid as to any count if any five-sixths of the jury agree thereto. The form of the verdict shall be guilty or not guilty. The amount of the forfeiture shall be stated by the court after a finding of guilty.
23.78 History History: 1975 c. 365.
23.79 23.79 Judgment.
23.79(1)(1)If the defendant is found guilty, the court may enter judgment against the defendant for a monetary amount not to exceed the maximum forfeiture provided by the statute for the violation, plus costs, fees, and surcharges imposed under ch. 814.
23.79(2) (2)The payment of any judgment may be suspended or deferred for not more than 90 days in the discretion of the court. In cases where a deposit has been made, any forfeitures, costs, fees, and surcharges imposed under ch. 814 shall be taken out of the deposit and the balance, if any, returned to the defendant.
23.79(3) (3)In addition to any monetary penalties, the court may order the defendant to perform or refrain from performing such acts as may be necessary to fully protect and effectuate the public interest. The court may order abatement of a nuisance, restoration of a natural resource, restoration of an archaeological feature subject to the prohibition under s. 23.095 (1m), or other appropriate action designed to eliminate or minimize any environmental damage caused by the defendant.
23.79(4) (4)The court may, where provided by law, revoke or suspend any or all privileges and licenses.
23.79(5) (5)All civil remedies are available in order to enforce the judgment of the court, including the power of contempt under ch. 785.
23.795 23.795 Nonpayment of judgments.
23.795(1)(1)If a defendant fails to timely pay a judgment entered under s. 23.75 (3) (a) 2. or 23.79, the court may issue an arrest warrant or a summons ordering the defendant to appear in court or both. If the defendant appears before the court pursuant to a warrant or summons or the defendant otherwise notifies the court that he or she is unable to pay the judgment, the court shall conduct a hearing. If the defendant failed to pay the forfeiture, the court shall determine if the defendant is unable to pay the amount specified in the judgment for good cause or because of the defendant's indigence. If the court determines that the failure of the defendant to comply with the judgment is for good cause or because of the defendant's indigence, the court may order that the amount of the judgment be modified, suspended or permanently stayed. If the defendant fails to appear before the court for a hearing under this subsection or if the court determines at the hearing that the failure of a defendant to pay the judgment is not for good cause or not because of the defendant's indigence, the court shall order one of the following:
23.795(1)(a) (a) That the defendant be imprisoned for a time not to exceed 5 days or until the amount is paid, whichever is less.
23.795(1)(b) (b) That the amount of the judgment be modified, suspended or permanently stayed.
23.795(2) (2)In lieu of an order of imprisonment under sub. (1) (a) for a violation of ch. 29, the court may revoke or suspend any privilege or approval granted under ch. 29 as provided in s. 29.971 (12).
23.795(3) (3)In lieu of an order of imprisonment under sub. (1) (a) for a violation of ch. 169, the court may revoke or suspend any privilege or license granted under ch. 169 as provided in s. 169.45 (6).
23.795(4) (4)In lieu of an order of imprisonment under sub. (1) (a) for a violation of s. 90.21, the court may suspend any fence inspection certificate issued under s. 90.21, as provided in s. 90.21 (8) (b).
23.795 History History: 1993 a. 156; 1997 a. 248; 2001 a. 56.
23.80 23.80 Judgment against a corporation or municipality.
23.80(1)(1)If a corporation or municipality fails to appear within the time required by the citation or summons, the default of such corporation or municipality may be recorded and the charge against it taken as true and judgment shall be rendered accordingly.
23.80(2) (2)Upon default of the defendant corporation or municipality, or upon conviction, judgment for the amount of the forfeiture, plus costs, fees, and surcharges imposed under ch. 814, shall be entered.
23.81 23.81 Effect of plea of no contest. Forfeiture of deposit under s. 23.75 (3) (b), an accepted plea of no contest under s. 23.70, or a stipulation of no contest under s. 23.75 (3) (c) to a charge of violation of a natural resources law shall not be admissible in evidence as an admission against interest in any action or proceeding arising out of the same occurrence.
23.81 History History: 1975 c. 365.
23.82 23.82 Fees. Fees in forfeiture actions under this chapter are prescribed in s. 814.63.
23.82 History History: 1975 c. 365; 1977 c. 305, 318, 449; 1981 c. 317.
23.83 23.83 Appeal.
23.83(1)(1)Jurisdiction on appeal. Appeal may be taken by either party. On appeal from the circuit court, the appeal is to the court of appeals.
23.83(2) (2)Stay of execution. The amount of undertaking required to stay execution on appeal shall not exceed the amount of the maximum forfeiture, plus costs, fees, and surcharges imposed under ch. 814.
23.83(3) (3)Procedure on appeal. An appeal to the court of appeals shall be in accordance with chs. 808 and 809.
23.84 23.84 Forfeitures, costs, fees, and surcharges collected; to whom paid. Except for actions in municipal court, all moneys collected in favor of the state or a municipality for a forfeiture, plus costs, fees, and surcharges imposed under ch. 814, shall be paid by the officer who collects the same to the appropriate municipal or county treasurer, within 20 days after their receipt by the officer, except that all jail surcharges imposed under ch. 814 shall be paid to the county treasurer. In case of any failure in the payment, the municipal or county treasurer may collect the payment from the officer by an action in the treasurer's name of office and upon the official bond of the officer, with interest at the rate of 12 percent per year from the time when it should have been paid.
23.85 23.85 Statement to county board; payment to state. Every county treasurer shall, on the first day of the annual meeting of the county board of supervisors, submit to it a verified statement of all forfeitures, costs, fees, and surcharges imposed under ch. 814 and received during the previous year. The county clerk shall deduct all expenses incurred by the county in recovering those forfeitures, costs, fees, and surcharges from the aggregate amount so received, and shall immediately certify the amount of clear proceeds of those forfeitures, costs, fees, and surcharges to the county treasurer, who shall pay the proceeds to the state as provided in s. 59.25 (3). Jail surcharges imposed under ch. 814 shall be treated separately as provided in s. 302.46 and moneys collected from the crime prevention funding board surcharge under s. 973.0455 (2) shall be treated separately as provided in s. 973.0455 (2).
23.90 23.90 Place of trial.
23.90(1)(1)Civil actions shall be tried in the county where the offense was committed, except as otherwise provided.
23.90(2) (2)Where 2 or more acts are requisite to the commission of any offense, the trial may be in any county in which any of such acts occurred.
23.90(3) (3)Where an offense is committed on or within one-fourth of a mile of the boundary of 2 or more counties, the defendant may be tried in any of such counties.
23.90(4) (4)If an offense is commenced outside the state and is consummated within the state, the defendant may be tried in the county where the offense was consummated.
23.90(5) (5)If an offense is committed on boundary waters at a place where 2 or more counties have common jurisdiction under s. 2.03 or 2.04 or under any other law, the prosecution may be in either county. The county whose process against the offender is first served shall be conclusively presumed to be the county in which the offense was committed.
23.90(6) (6)If an offense results from the violation of a prohibition against breaking, removing, interfering with, altering, forging, or misrepresenting an approval or proof of an approval issued under ch. 29 or a prohibition under ch. 29 against counterfeit approvals or illegally obtained approvals and the offense was committed outside of this state, the defendant may be tried in Dane County.
23.90 History History: 1975 c. 365; 2015 a. 89.
23.99 23.99 Parties to a violation.
23.99(1)(1)Whoever is concerned in the commission of a violation of this chapter for which a forfeiture is imposed is a principal and may be charged with and convicted of the violation although he or she did not directly commit it and although the person who directly committed it has not been convicted of the violation.
23.99(2) (2)A person is concerned in the commission of the violation if the person:
23.99(2)(a) (a) Directly commits the violation;
23.99(2)(b) (b) Aids and abets the commission of it; or
23.99(2)(c) (c) Is a party to a conspiracy with another to commit it or advises, hires or counsels or otherwise procures another to commit it.
23.99 History History: 1975 c. 365.
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2017-18 Wisconsin Statutes updated through 2019 Wis. Act 20 and through all Supreme Court and Controlled Substances Board Orders filed before and in effect on November 11, 2019. Published and certified under s. 35.18. Changes effective after November 11, 2019, are designated by NOTES. (Published 11-11-19)