The total volume of surface water and groundwater resources that supply a common distribution system shall determine the volume of a withdrawal, consumptive use, or diversion.
The watershed of each Great Lake shall include its upstream and downstream connecting channels.
Transmission in water lines.
Transmission of water within a line that extends outside the basin as it conveys water from one point to another within the basin shall not be considered a diversion if none of the water is used outside the basin.
The Lake Michigan and Lake Huron watersheds shall be considered to be a single hydrologic unit and watershed.
Bulk water transfer.
A proposal to withdraw water and to remove it from the basin in any container greater than 5.7 gallons shall be treated under this compact in the same manner as a proposal for a diversion. Each party shall have the discretion, within its jurisdiction, to determine the treatment of proposals to withdraw water and to remove it from the basin in any container of 5.7 gallons or less.
(4v) Water management and regulation; exemptions.
Withdrawals from the basin for the following purposes are exempt from the requirements of subs. (4)
To supply vehicles, including vessels and aircraft, whether for the needs of the persons or animals being transported or for ballast or other needs related to the operation of the vehicles.
To use in a noncommercial project on a short-term basis for fire fighting, humanitarian, or emergency response purposes.
(4x) Water management and regulation; U.S. Supreme Court decree in Wisconsin et al. v. Illinois et al. 281.343(4x)(a)(a)
Notwithstanding any terms of this compact to the contrary, with the exception of par. (e)
, current, new, or increased withdrawals, consumptive uses, and diversions of basin water by the state of Illinois shall be governed by the terms of the United States Supreme Court decree in Wisconsin et al. v. Illinois et al.
and shall not be subject to the terms of this compact nor any rules or regulations promulgated pursuant to this compact. This means that, with the exception of par. (e)
, for purposes of this compact, current, new, or increased withdrawals, consumptive uses, and diversions of basin water within the state of Illinois shall be allowed unless prohibited by the terms of the United States Supreme Court decree in Wisconsin et al. v. Illinois et al.
The parties acknowledge that the United States Supreme Court decree in Wisconsin et al. v. Illinois et al.
shall continue in full force and effect, that this compact shall not modify any terms thereof, and that this compact shall grant the parties no additional rights, obligations, remedies, or defenses thereto. The parties specifically acknowledge that this compact shall not prohibit or limit the state of Illinois in any manner from seeking additional basin water as allowed under the terms of the United States Supreme Court decree in Wisconsin et al. v. Illinois et al.
, any other party from objecting to any request by the state of Illinois for additional basin water under the terms of said decree, or any party from seeking any other type of modification to said decree. If an application is made by any party to the Supreme Court of the United States to modify said decree, the parties to this compact who are also parties to the decree shall seek formal input from the Canadian Provinces of Ontario and Quebec with respect to the proposed modification, shall use best efforts to facilitate the appropriate participation of said provinces in the proceedings to modify the decree, and shall not unreasonably impede or restrict such participation.
With the exception of par. (e)
, because current, new, or increased withdrawals, consumptive uses, and diversions of basin water by the state of Illinois are not subject to the terms of this compact, the state of Illinois is prohibited from using any term of this compact, including sub. (4n)
, to seek new or increased withdrawals, consumptive uses, or diversions of basin water.
With the exception of par. (e)
, because subs. (4d)
, (4t) (a)
, and (j)
, and (4v)
all relate to current, new, or increased withdrawals, consumptive uses, and diversions of basin waters, said provisions do not apply to the state of Illinois. All other provisions of this compact not listed in the preceding sentence shall apply to the state of Illinois, including the water conservation programs provision of sub. (4b)
In the event of a proposal for a diversion of basin water for use outside the territorial boundaries of the parties to this compact, decisions by the state of Illinois regarding such a proposal would be subject to all terms of this compact, except pars. (a)
, and (d)
For purposes of the state of Illinois' participation in this compact, the entirety of this subsection is necessary for the continued implementation of this compact and, if severed, this compact shall no longer be binding on or enforceable by or against the state of Illinois.
(4z) Water management and regulation; assessment of cumulative impacts. 281.343(4z)(a)
The parties in cooperation with the provinces shall collectively conduct within the basin, on a lake watershed and St. Lawrence River basin basis, a periodic assessment of the cumulative impacts of withdrawals, diversions, and consumptive uses from the waters of the basin, every 5 years or each time the incremental basin water losses reach 50,000,000 gallons per day average in any 90-day period in excess of the quantity at the time of the most recent assessment, whichever comes first, or at the request of one or more of the parties. The assessment shall form the basis for a review of the standard of review and decision, council and party regulations, and their application. This assessment shall:
Utilize the most current and appropriate guidelines for such a review, which may include but not be limited to council on environmental quality and environment Canada guidelines;
Give substantive consideration to climate change or other significant threats to basin waters and take into account the current state of scientific knowledge, or uncertainty, and appropriate measures to exercise caution in cases of uncertainty if serious damage may result; and
Consider adaptive management principles and approaches, recognizing, considering, and providing adjustments for the uncertainties in, and evolution of, science concerning the basin's water resources, watersheds, and ecosystems, including potential changes to basin-wide processes, such as lake level cycles and climate.
The parties have the responsibility of conducting this cumulative impact assessment. Applicants are not required to participate in this assessment.
Unless required by other statutes, applicants are not required to conduct a separate cumulative impact assessment in connection with an application but shall submit information about the potential impacts of a proposal to the quantity or quality of the waters and water dependent natural resources of the applicable source watershed. An applicant may, however, provide an analysis of how the applicant's proposal meets the no significant adverse cumulative impact provision of the standard of review and decision.
In addition to all other opportunities to comment pursuant to sub. (6) (b)
, appropriate consultations shall occur with federally recognized tribes in the originating party for all proposals subject to council or regional review pursuant to this compact. Such consultations shall be organized in the manner suitable to the individual proposal and the laws and policies of the originating party.
All federally recognized tribes within the basin shall receive reasonable notice indicating that they have an opportunity to comment in writing to the council or the regional body, or both, and other relevant organizations on whether the proposal meets the requirements of the standard of review and decision when a proposal is subject to regional review or council approval. Any notice from the council shall inform the tribes of any meeting or hearing that is to be held under sub. (6) (b)
and invite them to attend. The parties and the council shall consider the comments received under this subsection before approving, approving with modifications, or disapproving any proposal subject to council or regional review.
In addition to the specific consultation mechanisms described above, the council shall seek to establish mutually agreed upon mechanisms or processes to facilitate dialogue with, and input from, federally recognized tribes on matters to be dealt with by the council; and the council shall seek to establish mechanisms and processes with federally recognized tribes designed to facilitate ongoing scientific and technical interaction and data exchange regarding matters falling within the scope of this compact. This may include participation of tribal representatives on advisory committees established under this compact or such other processes that are mutually agreed upon with federally recognized tribes individually or through duly authorized intertribal agencies or bodies.
The parties recognize the importance and necessity of public participation in promoting management of the water resources of the basin. Consequently, all meetings of the council shall be open to the public, except with respect to issues of personnel.
The minutes of the council shall be a public record open to inspection at its offices during regular business hours.
It is the intent of the council to conduct public participation processes concurrently and jointly with processes undertaken by the parties and through regional review. To ensure adequate public participation, each party or the council shall ensure procedures for the review of proposals subject to the standard of review and decision consistent with the following requirements:
Provide public notification of receipt of all applications and a reasonable opportunity for the public to submit comments before applications are acted upon.
Assure public accessibility to all documents relevant to an application, including public comment received.
Provide guidance on standards for determining whether to conduct a public meeting or hearing for an application, time and place of such a meeting or hearing, and procedures for conducting of the same.
Provide the record of decision for public inspection including comments, objections, responses, and approvals, approvals with conditions, and disapprovals.
(7) Dispute resolution and enforcement; good faith implementation.
Each of the parties pledges to support implementation of all provisions of this compact, and covenants that its officers and agencies shall not hinder, impair, or prevent any other party carrying out any provision of this compact.
(7g) Dispute resolution and enforcement; alternative dispute resolution. 281.343(7g)(a)
Desiring that this compact be carried out in full, the parties agree that disputes between the parties regarding interpretation, application, and implementation of this compact shall be settled by alternative dispute resolution.
The council, in consultation with the provinces, shall provide by rule procedures for the resolution of disputes pursuant to this subsection.
(7r) Dispute resolution and enforcement; enforcement. 281.343(7r)(a)(a)
Any person aggrieved by any action taken by the council pursuant to the authorities contained in this compact shall be entitled to a hearing before the council. Any person aggrieved by a party action shall be entitled to a hearing pursuant to the relevant party's administrative procedures and laws. After exhaustion of such administrative remedies, any aggrieved person shall have the right to judicial review of a council action in the United States district court for the District of Columbia or the district court in which the council maintains offices, provided such action is commenced within 90 days; and any aggrieved person shall have the right to judicial review of a party's action in the relevant party's court of competent jurisdiction, provided that an action or proceeding for such review is commenced within the time frames provided for by the party's law. For the purposes of this paragraph, a state or province is deemed to be an aggrieved person with respect to any party action pursuant to this compact.
Any party or the council may initiate actions to compel compliance with the provisions of this compact, and the rules and regulations promulgated hereunder by the council. Jurisdiction over such actions is granted to the court of the relevant party, as well as the United States district court for the District of Columbia and the district court in which the council maintains offices. The remedies available to any such court shall include, but not be limited to, equitable relief and civil penalties.
Each party may issue orders within its respective jurisdiction and may initiate actions to compel compliance with the provisions of its respective statutes and regulations adopted to implement the authorities contemplated by this compact in accordance with the provisions of the laws adopted in each party's jurisdiction.
Any aggrieved person, party, or the council may commence a civil action in the relevant party's courts and administrative systems to compel any person to comply with this compact should any such person, without approval having been given, undertake a new or increased withdrawal, consumptive use, or diversion that is prohibited or subject to approval pursuant to this compact.
The originating party or council approval for the new or increased withdrawal, consumptive use, or diversion has been granted; or
The originating party or council has found that the new or increased withdrawal, consumptive use, or diversion is not subject to approval pursuant to this compact.
A person commencing such action has first given 60 days prior notice to the originating party, the council, and person alleged to be in noncompliance; and
Neither the originating party nor the council has commenced and is diligently prosecuting appropriate enforcement actions to compel compliance with this compact.
The available remedies shall include equitable relief, and the prevailing or substantially prevailing party may recover the costs of litigation, including reasonable attorney and expert witness fees, whenever the court determines that such an award is appropriate.
Each of the parties may adopt provisions providing additional enforcement mechanisms and remedies including equitable relief and civil penalties applicable within its jurisdiction to assist in the implementation of this compact.
Nothing in this compact shall be construed to affect, limit, diminish, or impair any rights validly established and existing as of the effective date of this compact under state or federal law governing the withdrawal of waters of the basin.
Nothing contained in this compact shall be construed as affecting or intending to affect or in any way to interfere with the law of the respective parties relating to common law water rights.
Nothing in this compact is intended to abrogate or derogate from treaty rights or rights held by any tribe recognized by the federal government of the United States based upon its status as a tribe recognized by the federal government of the United States.
An approval by a party or the council under this compact does not give any property rights, nor any exclusive privileges, nor shall it be construed to grant or confer any right, title, easement, or interest in, to, or over any land belonging to or held in trust by a party; neither does it authorize any injury to private property or invasion of private rights, nor infringement of federal, state, or local laws or regulations; nor does it obviate the necessity of obtaining federal assent when necessary.
Relationship to agreements concluded by the United States of America. 281.343(8)(b)1.1.
Nothing in this compact is intended to provide nor shall be construed to provide, directly or indirectly, to any person any right, claim, or remedy under any treaty or international agreement nor is it intended to derogate any right, claim, or remedy that already exists under any treaty or international agreement.
Nothing in this compact is intended to infringe nor shall be construed to infringe upon the treaty power of the United States of America, nor shall any term hereof be construed to alter or amend any treaty or term thereof that has been or may hereafter be executed by the United States of America.
Nothing in this compact is intended to affect nor shall be construed to affect the application of the Boundary Waters Treaty of 1909 whose requirements continue to apply in addition to the requirements of this compact.
Nothing in this compact requires a party to breach confidentiality obligations or requirements prohibiting disclosure or to compromise security of commercially sensitive or proprietary information.
A party may take measures, including but not limited to deletion and redaction, deemed necessary to protect any confidential, proprietary, or commercially sensitive information when distributing information to other parties. The party shall summarize or paraphrase any such information in a manner sufficient for the council to exercise its authorities contained in this compact.
Nothing in this compact shall be construed to repeal, modify, or qualify the authority of any party to enact any legislation or enforce any additional conditions and restrictions regarding the management and regulation of waters within its jurisdiction.
Amendments and supplements.
The provisions of this compact shall remain in full force and effect until amended by action of the governing bodies of the parties and consented to and approved by any other necessary authority in the same manner as this compact is required to be ratified to become effective.
Should a court of competent jurisdiction hold any part of this compact to be void or unenforceable, it shall be considered severable from those portions of the compact capable of continued implementation in the absence of the voided provisions. All other provisions capable of continued implementation shall continue in full force and effect.
Once effective, the compact shall continue in force and remain binding upon each and every party unless terminated.
This compact may be terminated at any time by a majority vote of the parties. In the event of such termination, all rights established under it shall continue unimpaired.
Effectuation by chief executive.
The governor is authorized to take such action as may be necessary and proper in his or her discretion to effectuate the compact and the initial organization and operation thereunder, consistent with s. 281.346
The parties consider this compact to be complete and an integral whole. Each provision of this compact is considered material to the entire compact, and failure to implement or adhere to any provision may be considered a material breach. Unless otherwise noted in this compact, any change or amendment made to the compact by any party in its implementing legislation or by the U.S. Congress when giving its consent to this compact is not considered effective unless concurred in by all parties.
Effective date and execution.
This compact shall become binding and effective when ratified through concurring legislation by the states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, and Wisconsin and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and consented to by the U.S. Congress.
NOTE: The compact became effective on December 8, 2008.
History: 2007 a. 227
Water conservation, reporting, and supply regulation; when compact is not in effect. 281.344(1)(d)
“Community within a straddling county" means any city, village, or town that is not a straddling community and that is located outside the Great Lakes basin but wholly within a county that lies partly within the Great Lakes basin.
“Compact" means the Great Lakes — St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact under s. 281.343
“Consumptive use" means a use of water that results in the loss of or failure to return some or all of the water to the basin from which the water is withdrawn due to evaporation, incorporation into products, or other processes.
“Cumulative impacts" means the impacts on the Great Lakes basin ecosystem that result from incremental effects of all aspects of a withdrawal, interbasin transfer, or consumptive use in addition to other past, present, and reasonably foreseeable future withdrawals, interbasin transfers, and consumptive uses regardless of who undertakes the other withdrawals, interbasin transfers, and consumptive uses, including individually minor but collectively significant withdrawals, interbasin transfers, and consumptive uses taking place over a period of time.
“Environmentally sound and economically feasible water conservation measures" means those measures, methods, or technologies for efficient water use and for reducing water loss and waste or for reducing the amount of a withdrawal, consumptive use, or interbasin transfer that are, taking into account environmental impact, the age and nature of equipment and facilities involved, the processes employed, the energy impacts, and other appropriate factors, all of the following:
Reflective of best practices applicable to the water use sector.