In this section, “recycling" means the process by which solid waste is returned to productive use as material or energy, but does not include the collection of solid waste.
(3) Waiver; research projects.
The intent of this subsection is to encourage research projects designed to demonstrate the feasibility of recycling certain solid wastes while providing adequate and reasonable safeguards for the environment. The department may waive compliance with the requirements of this chapter for a project developed for research purposes to evaluate the potential for the recycling of high-volume industrial waste if the following conditions are met:
The project is designed to demonstrate the feasibility of recycling solid waste or the feasibility of improved solid waste disposal methods.
The department determines that the project is unlikely to violate any law relating to surface water or groundwater quality including this chapter or ch. 160
The department reviews and approves the project prior to its initiation.
The owner or operator of the project agrees to provide all data, reports and research publications relating to the project to the department.
The owner or operator of the project agrees to take necessary action to maintain compliance with surface water and groundwater laws, including this chapter and chs. 160
and to take necessary action to regain compliance with these laws if a violation occurs because of the functioning or malfunctioning of the project.
(4) Exemption from licensing or regulation; development of improved methods.
For the purpose of encouraging the development of improved methods of solid waste disposal, the department may specify by rule types of solid waste facilities that are not required to be licensed under ss. 289.21
or types of solid waste that need not be disposed of at a licensed solid waste disposal facility.
(5) Exemption from regulation; single-family waste disposal.
The department may not regulate under chs. 281
any solid waste from a single family or household disposed of on the property where it is generated.
(6) Exemption from licensing; agricultural landspreading of sludge.
The department may not require a license under ss. 289.21
for agricultural land on which nonhazardous sludges from a treatment work, as defined under s. 283.01 (18)
, are land spread for purpose of a soil conditioner or nutrient.
(6m) Exemption from licensing, agricultural use of wood ash.
No license is required under ss. 289.21
for the agricultural use of wood ash.
(7) Exemption from licensing; recycling of high-volume industrial waste. 289.43(7)(a)
Any person who generates, treats, stores or disposes of high-volume industrial waste may request the department to exempt an individual solid waste facility or specified types of solid waste facilities from this chapter for the purpose of allowing the recycling of any high-volume industrial waste.
A person who requests an exemption under par. (a)
shall provide any information requested by the department relating to the characteristics of the high-volume industrial waste, the characteristics of the site of the recycling and the proposed methods of recycling.
The department shall approve the requester's exemption proposal if the department finds that the proposal, as approved, will comply with this chapter and chs. 30
and ss. 1.11
. If the proposal does not comply with one or more of the requirements specified in this paragraph, the department shall provide a written statement describing how the proposal fails to comply with those requirements. The department shall respond to an application for an exemption under this subsection within 90 days.
The department may require periodic testing and may impose other conditions on any exemption granted under this subsection. The department may require a person granted an exemption under this subsection to identify the location of any site where high-volume industrial waste is recycled.
Each applicant for an exemption under this subsection shall submit a nonrefundable fee of $500 with the application to cover the department's cost for the initial screening of the application. The department may waive this fee if the cost of the initial screening to the department will be minimal.
The department shall, by rule, establish fees for approved applications which, together with the $500 application fees, shall, as closely as possible, equal the actual cost of reviewing applications.
(8) Exemption from regulation; low-hazard waste. 289.43(8)(a)(a)
The department shall conduct a continuing review of the potential hazard to public health or the environment of various types of solid wastes and solid waste facilities. The department shall consider information submitted by any person concerning the potential hazard to public health or the environment of any type of solid waste.
If the department, after a review under par. (a)
, finds that regulation under this chapter is not warranted in light of the potential hazard to public health or the environment, the department shall either:
Promulgate a rule specifying types of solid waste that need not be disposed of at a licensed solid waste disposal facility.
On a case-by-case basis, exempt from regulation under this chapter specified types of solid waste facilities.
Authorize an individual generator to dispose of a specified type of solid waste at a site other than a licensed solid waste disposal facility.
Authorize use of the solid waste in public works projects.
The department may require periodic testing of solid wastes and impose other conditions on exemptions granted under par. (b)
(9) Exemption from regulation; animal carcasses.
The department may not regulate under chs. 281
any animal carcass buried or disposed of, in accordance with ss. 95.35
, on the property owned or operated by the owner of the carcass, if the owner is a farmer, as defined under s. 102.04 (3)
See also ch. NR 538
, Wis. adm. code.
Exemption from regulation under s. 144.44 (7) (g) (now s. 289.43 (8)) preempts municipal regulation. DeRosso Landfill Co. v. City of Oak Creek, 200 Wis. 2d 642
, 547 N.W.2d 770
Local approvals, as defined in s. 289.33 (3) (d), required to construct a low-hazard “clean fill” facility are preempted by sub. (8) and no longer required for exempt facilities, as settled by DeRosso
, which remains authoritative and unmodified. Because zoning requirements are expressly listed in s. 289.33 (3) (d) as local approvals, a “clean fill” facility like the one proposed in this case was exempt from any zoning requirements. However, the definition of “local approval” in s. 289.33 (3) (d) indicates it is not limited to enumerated statutes and fairly included the village's preconstruction storm water and erosion permitting requirements at issue in this case. Scenic Pit LLC v. Village of Richfield, 2017 WI App 49
, 377 Wis. 2d 280
, 900 N.W.2d 84
Exemption for certain alcohol fuel production systems. 289.44(1)(1)
As used in this section:
“Distillate waste product" means solid, semisolid or liquid by-products or wastes from the distillation or functionally equivalent process of an alcohol fuel production system.
“Environmentally sound storage facility" means a facility, including a holding lagoon, which is used to store distillate waste products so that no waste products from the facility enter or leach into the waters of the state.
“Private alcohol fuel production system" means an alcohol fuel production system from which no alcohol is sold and from which all the alcohol is used as a fuel by the owner.
No permit, license or plan approval is required under this chapter for the owner of a private alcohol fuel production system to establish, construct or operate a system for the treatment, storage or disposal of distillate waste products if the distillate waste product is stored in an environmentally sound storage facility and disposed of using an environmentally safe land spreading technique and the storage, treatment or disposal is confined to the property of the owner.
History: 1979 c. 221
; 1995 a. 227
Exemption for certain fruit and vegetable washing facilities. 289.445(1)(1)
As used in this section:
No permit, license or, except as provided in par. (d)
, plan approval is required under this chapter for the owner of a washing station to establish, construct or operate a solid waste facility for the treatment, storage or disposal of wash water or to compost or land spread plant parts separated from wash water if all of the following requirements are met:
The washing station is not adjacent to or operated as part of a food processing plant, as defined in s. 97.29 (1) (h)
All wash water is either stored in a sealed wash water storage facility or is dispersed on land owned or leased by the owner of the washing station in a manner which avoids ponding, runoff or nuisance conditions and in accordance with acceptable agricultural practices or acceptable practices for the land spreading of waste.
All plant parts that are separated from wash water are either composted or stored in a plant parts storage facility and disposed of using an environmentally safe land spreading technique. The treatment, storage, disposal or composting under this paragraph must be confined to property owned or leased by the owner of the washing station.
For a washing station that anticipates operating at least 100 days per year or that operated at least 100 days during the immediately preceding year, do all of the following:
Register annually with the department as a washing station.
Submit annually an operating plan that implements best management practices and that is approved by the department.
Operate only in accordance with the approved operating plan.
History: 1995 a. 99
; 1995 a. 227
; Stats. 1995 s. 289.445.
Solid waste storage.
No person may store or cause the storage of solid waste in a manner which causes environmental pollution.
History: 1981 c. 374
.; 1995 a. 227
; Stats. 1995 s. 289.45.
Transference of responsibility. 289.46(1)(1)
Any person acquiring rights of ownership, possession or operation in a licensed solid or hazardous waste facility at any time after the facility begins to accept waste is subject to all requirements of the license approved for the facility including any requirements relating to long-term care of the facility and is subject to any negotiated agreement or arbitration award related to the facility under s. 289.33
. Upon acquisition of the rights, the department shall issue a new operating license if the previous licensee is no longer connected with the operation of the facility, if the new licensee meets all requirements specified in the previous license, the approved plan of operation, if any, and the rules promulgated under s. 291.05
, if applicable.
Any person having or acquiring rights of ownership in land where a solid or hazardous waste disposal facility was previously operated may not undertake any activities on the land which interfere with the closed facility causing a significant threat to public health, safety or welfare.
History: 1977 c. 377
; 1981 c. 374
; 1983 a. 410
, 2202 (38)
; Stats. 1983 s. 144.444; 1989 a. 31
; 1995 a. 227
; Stats. 1995 s. 289.46.
At least 120 days prior to the closing of a solid waste disposal facility or at least 180 days prior to the closing of a hazardous waste facility, the owner or operator shall notify the department in writing of the intent to close the facility.
History: 1995 a. 227
FACILITIES; REGULATION OF SPECIFIC
FACILITY OR WASTE TYPES
Solid waste open burning standards. 289.51(1)(a)
“Air curtain destructor" means a solid waste disposal operation that combines a fixed wall open pit and a mechanical air supply which uses an excess of oxygen and turbulence to accomplish the smokeless combustion of clean wood wastes.
“Household waste" means any solid waste derived from a household, hotel, motel, bunkhouse, ranger station, crew quarters, campground, picnic ground or day-use recreation area.
“Open burning" means the combustion, except in a properly operated air curtain destructor, of solid waste if that combustion lacks any of the following:
Control of combustion air to maintain adequate temperature for efficient combustion.
Containment of the combustion reaction in an enclosed device to provide sufficient residence time and mixing for complete combustion.
“Population equivalent" means the population equal to the sum of the population of the geographical area based on the most recent census data, or department of administration census data used for tax sharing purposes, plus the seasonal population not included in the census data, plus one person per 1,000 pounds per year of industrial, commercial and agricultural waste.
The department shall grant licenses for the open burning of solid waste at the licensee's solid waste disposal facilities if:
The open burning operation serves a population equivalent of less than 10,000 or, if the operation is controlled by more than one municipality, a population equivalent of less than 2,500 for each additional controlling municipality. The department shall give consideration to seasonal variations in population in granting partial yearly burning exemptions.
All portions of the licensed operation are greater than one-fourth mile from any residence or place of public gathering, or written consent is obtained from all residents and proprietors within one-fourth mile thereof.
The open burning does not include the burning of wet combustible rubbish, garbage, oily substances, asphalt, plastic or rubber products and, if the open burning operation serves a population equivalent of more than 2,500, the open burning includes only wood and paper which is separated from other solid waste.
The open burning operation is supervised by an attendant.
The open burning operation is accomplished in a nuisance-free manner and does not create hazards for adjacent properties.
Adequate firebreaks are provided and provision is made to obtain the services of the local fire protection agency if needed.
The open burning operation is not in violation of any federal air pollution control or municipal solid waste regulations, or any state air pollution control rules required to be adopted under applicable federal statutes or regulations.
The department may not require that ash resulting from the burning of a structure for practice or instruction of fire fighters or the testing of fire fighting equipment be disposed of in a landfill licensed under s. 289.31
History: 1995 a. 227
; Stats. 1995 s. 289.51; 2009 a. 28
Commercial PCB waste storage and treatment facilities. 289.53(1)(a)
“Commercial" means providing services to persons other than the owner or operator.
“PCB waste" means any product containing PCBs, as defined under s. 299.45 (1) (c)
, which is subject to regulation under s. 299.45
after the product becomes a solid waste. This term also means any material which is contaminated by the discharge, as defined under s. 292.01 (3)
, of a substance containing PCBs subject to regulation under s. 292.11