410.402(5) (5)If a funds transfer is not completed as stated in sub. (3) and an intermediary bank is obliged to refund payment as stated in sub. (4) but is unable to do so because not permitted by applicable law or because the bank suspends payments, a sender in the funds transfer that executed a payment order in compliance with an instruction, as stated in s. 410.302 (1) (a), to route the funds transfer through that intermediary bank is entitled to receive or retain payment from the sender of the payment order that it accepted. The first sender in the funds transfer that issued an instruction requiring routing through that intermediary bank is subrogated to the right of the bank that paid the intermediary bank to refund as stated in sub. (4).
410.402(6) (6)The right of the sender of a payment order to be excused from the obligation to pay the order as stated in sub. (3) or to receive refund under sub. (4) may not be varied by agreement.
410.402 History History: 1991 a. 304.
410.403 410.403 Payment by sender to receiving bank.
410.403(1)(1)Payment of the sender's obligation under s. 410.402 to pay the receiving bank occurs as follows:
410.403(1)(a) (a) If the sender is a bank, payment occurs when the receiving bank receives final settlement of the obligation through a federal reserve bank or through a funds-transfer system.
410.403(1)(b) (b) If the sender is a bank and the sender credited an account of the receiving bank with the sender, or caused an account of the receiving bank in another bank to be credited, payment occurs when the credit is withdrawn or, if not withdrawn, at midnight of the day on which the credit is withdrawable and the receiving bank learns of that fact.
410.403(1)(c) (c) If the receiving bank debits an account of the sender with the receiving bank, payment occurs when the debit is made to the extent the debit is covered by a withdrawable credit balance in the account.
410.403(2) (2)
410.403(2)(a)(a) If the sender and receiving bank are members of a funds-transfer system that nets obligations multilaterally among participants, the receiving bank receives final settlement when settlement is complete in accordance with the rules of the system.
410.403(2)(b) (b) The obligation of the sender to pay the amount of a payment order transmitted through the funds-transfer system may be satisfied, to the extent permitted by the rules of the system, by setting off and applying against the sender's obligation the right of the sender to receive payment from the receiving bank of the amount of any other payment order transmitted to the sender by the receiving bank through the funds-transfer system.
410.403(2)(c) (c) The aggregate balance of obligations owed by each sender to each receiving bank in the funds-transfer system may be satisfied, to the extent permitted by the rules of the system, by setting off and applying against that balance the aggregate balance of obligations owed to the sender by other members of the system. The aggregate balance is determined after the right of setoff stated in par. (b) has been exercised.
410.403(3) (3)If 2 banks transmit payment orders to each other under an agreement that settlement of the obligations of each bank to the other under s. 410.402 will be made at the end of the day or other period, the total amount owed with respect to all orders transmitted by one bank shall be set off against the total amount owed with respect to all orders transmitted by the other bank. To the extent of the setoff, each bank has made payment to the other.
410.403(4) (4)In a case not covered by sub. (1), the time when payment of the sender's obligation under s. 410.402 (2) or (3) occurs is governed by applicable principles of law that determine when an obligation is satisfied.
410.403 History History: 1991 a. 304.
410.404 410.404 Obligation of beneficiary's bank to pay and give notice to beneficiary.
410.404(1)(1)Subject to ss. 410.211 (5) and 410.405 (4) and (5), if a beneficiary's bank accepts a payment order, the bank is obliged to pay the amount of the order to the beneficiary of the order. Payment is due on the payment date of the order, but if acceptance occurs on the payment date after the close of the funds-transfer business day of the bank, payment is due on the next funds-transfer business day. If the bank refuses to pay after demand by the beneficiary and receipt of notice of particular circumstances that will give rise to consequential damages as a result of nonpayment, the beneficiary may recover damages resulting from the refusal to pay to the extent the bank had notice of the damages, unless the bank proves that it did not pay because of a reasonable doubt concerning the right of the beneficiary to payment.
410.404(2) (2)If a payment order accepted by the beneficiary's bank instructs payment to an account of the beneficiary, the bank is obliged to notify the beneficiary of receipt of the order before midnight of the next funds-transfer business day following the payment date. If the payment order does not instruct payment to an account of the beneficiary, the bank is required to notify the beneficiary only if notice is required by the order. Notice may be given by 1st class mail or any other means reasonable in the circumstances. If the bank fails to give the required notice, the bank is obliged to pay interest to the beneficiary on the amount of the payment order from the day notice should have been given until the day the beneficiary learned of receipt of the payment order by the bank. No other damages are recoverable. Reasonable attorney fees are also recoverable if demand for interest is made and refused before an action is brought on the claim.
410.404(3) (3)The right of a beneficiary to receive payment and damages as stated in sub. (1) may not be varied by agreement or a funds-transfer system rule. The right of a beneficiary to be notified as stated in sub. (2) may be varied by agreement of the beneficiary or by a funds-transfer system rule if the beneficiary is notified of the rule before initiation of the funds transfer.
410.404 History History: 1991 a. 304.
410.405 410.405 Payment by beneficiary's bank to beneficiary.
410.405(1)(1)If the beneficiary's bank credits an account of the beneficiary of a payment order, payment of the bank's obligation under s. 410.404 (1) occurs when and to the extent the beneficiary is notified of the right to withdraw the credit, the bank lawfully applies the credit to a debt of the beneficiary, or funds with respect to the order are otherwise made available to the beneficiary by the bank.
410.405(2) (2)If the beneficiary's bank does not credit an account of the beneficiary of a payment order, the time when payment of the bank's obligation under s. 410.404 (1) occurs is governed by principles of law that determine when an obligation is satisfied.
410.405(3) (3)Except as stated in subs. (4) and (5), if the beneficiary's bank pays the beneficiary of a payment order under a condition to payment or agreement of the beneficiary giving the bank the right to recover payment from the beneficiary if the bank does not receive payment of the order, the condition to payment or agreement is not enforceable.
410.405(4) (4)A funds-transfer system rule may provide that payments made to beneficiaries of funds transfers made through the system are provisional until receipt of payment by the beneficiary's bank of the payment order it accepted. A beneficiary's bank that makes a payment that is provisional under the rule is entitled to refund from the beneficiary if the rule requires that both the beneficiary and the originator be given notice of the provisional nature of the payment before the funds transfer is initiated, if the beneficiary, the beneficiary's bank and the originator's bank agreed to be bound by the rule, and if the beneficiary's bank did not receive payment of the payment order that it accepted. If the beneficiary is obliged to refund payment to the beneficiary's bank, acceptance of the payment order by the beneficiary's bank is nullified and no payment by the originator of the funds transfer to the beneficiary occurs under s. 410.406.
410.405(5) (5)This subsection applies to a funds transfer that includes a payment order transmitted over a funds-transfer system that nets obligations multilaterally among participants, and that has in effect a loss-sharing agreement among participants for the purpose of providing funds necessary to complete settlement of the obligations of one or more participants that do not meet their settlement obligations. If the beneficiary's bank in the funds transfer accepts a payment order and the system fails to complete settlement pursuant to its rules with respect to any payment order in the funds transfer, all of the following occur:
410.405(5)(a) (a) The acceptance by the beneficiary's bank is nullified and no person has any right or obligation based on the acceptance.
410.405(5)(b) (b) The beneficiary's bank is entitled to recover payment from the beneficiary.
410.405(5)(c) (c) No payment by the originator to the beneficiary occurs under s. 410.406.
410.405(5)(d) (d) Subject to s. 410.402 (5), each sender in the funds transfer is excused from its obligation to pay its payment order under s. 410.402 (3) because the funds transfer has not been completed.
410.405 History History: 1991 a. 304.
410.406 410.406 Payment by originator to beneficiary; discharge of underlying obligation.
410.406(1)(1)Subject to ss. 410.211 (5) and 410.405 (4) and (5), the originator of a funds transfer pays the beneficiary of the originator's payment order at the time a payment order for the benefit of the beneficiary is accepted by the beneficiary's bank in the funds transfer and in an amount equal to the amount of the order accepted by the beneficiary's bank, but not more than the amount of the originator's order.
410.406(2) (2)
410.406(2)(a)(a) If payment under sub. (1) is made to satisfy an obligation, the obligation is discharged to the same extent discharge would result from payment to the beneficiary of the same amount in money, unless all of the following apply:
410.406(2)(a)1. 1. The payment under sub. (1) was made by a means prohibited by the contract of the beneficiary with respect to the obligation.
410.406(2)(a)2. 2. The beneficiary, within a reasonable time after receiving notice of receipt of the order by the beneficiary's bank, notified the originator of the beneficiary's refusal of the payment.
410.406(2)(a)3. 3. Funds with respect to the order were not withdrawn by the beneficiary or applied to a debt of the beneficiary.
410.406(2)(a)4. 4. The beneficiary would suffer a loss that could reasonably have been avoided if payment had been made by a means complying with the contract.
410.406(2)(b) (b) If payment by the originator does not result in discharge under this section, the originator is subrogated to the rights of the beneficiary to receive payment from the beneficiary's bank under s. 410.404 (1).
410.406(3) (3)For the purpose of determining whether discharge of an obligation occurs under sub. (2) (a), if the beneficiary's bank accepts a payment order in an amount equal to the amount of the originator's payment order less charges of one or more receiving banks in the funds transfer, payment to the beneficiary is considered to be in the amount of the originator's order unless upon demand by the beneficiary the originator does not pay the beneficiary the amount of the deducted charges.
410.406(4) (4)Rights of the originator or of the beneficiary of a funds transfer under this section may be varied only by agreement of the originator and the beneficiary.
410.406 History History: 1991 a. 304.
subch. V of ch. 410 SUBCHAPTER V
MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS
410.501 410.501 Variation by agreement and effect of funds-transfer system rule.
410.501(1)(1)Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, the rights and obligations of a party to a funds transfer may be varied by agreement of the affected party.
410.501(2) (2)
410.501(2)(a)(a) “Funds-transfer system rule" means a rule of an association of banks governing transmission of payment orders by means of a funds-transfer system of the association or rights and obligations with respect to those orders, or to the extent the rule applies, governing rights and obligations between banks that are parties to a funds transfer in which a federal reserve bank, acting as an intermediary bank, sends a payment order to the beneficiary's bank.
410.501(2)(b) (b) Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, a funds-transfer system rule governing rights and obligations between participating banks using the system may be effective even if the rule conflicts with this chapter and indirectly affects another party to the funds transfer who does not consent to the rule. A funds-transfer system rule may also govern rights and obligations of parties other than participating banks using the system to the extent stated in ss. 410.404 (3), 410.405 (4) and 410.507 (3).
410.501 History History: 1991 a. 304.
410.502 410.502 Creditor process served on receiving bank; setoff by beneficiary's bank.
410.502(1)(1)In this section, “creditor process" means levy, attachment, garnishment, notice of lien, sequestration, or similar process issued by or on behalf of a creditor or other claimant with respect to an account.
410.502(2) (2)This subsection applies to creditor process with respect to an authorized account of the sender of a payment order if the creditor process is served on the receiving bank. For the purpose of determining rights with respect to the creditor process, if the receiving bank accepts the payment order, the balance in the authorized account is considered to be reduced by the amount of the payment order to the extent the bank did not otherwise receive payment of the order, unless the creditor process is served at a time and in a manner affording the bank a reasonable opportunity to act on it before the bank accepts the payment order.
410.502(3) (3)If a beneficiary's bank has received a payment order for payment to the beneficiary's account in the bank, the following rules apply:
410.502(3)(a) (a) The bank may credit the beneficiary's account. The amount credited may be set off against an obligation owed by the beneficiary to the bank or may be applied to satisfy creditor process served on the bank with respect to the account.
410.502(3)(b) (b) The bank may credit the beneficiary's account and allow withdrawal of the amount credited unless creditor process with respect to the account is served at a time and in a manner affording the bank a reasonable opportunity to act to prevent withdrawal.
410.502(3)(c) (c) If creditor process with respect to the beneficiary's account has been served and the bank has had a reasonable opportunity to act on it, the bank may not reject the payment order except for a reason unrelated to the service of process.
410.502(4) (4)Creditor process with respect to a payment by the originator to the beneficiary pursuant to a funds transfer may be served only on the beneficiary's bank with respect to the debt owed by that bank to the beneficiary. Any other bank served with the creditor process is not obliged to act with respect to the process.
410.502 History History: 1991 a. 304.
410.503 410.503 Injunction or restraining order with respect to funds transfer. For proper cause and in compliance with applicable law, a court may restrain a person from issuing a payment order to initiate a funds transfer, an originator's bank from executing the payment order of the originator, or the beneficiary's bank from releasing funds to the beneficiary or the beneficiary from withdrawing the funds. A court may not otherwise restrain a person from issuing a payment order, paying or receiving payment of a payment order, or otherwise acting with respect to a funds transfer.
410.503 History History: 1991 a. 304.
410.504 410.504 Order in which items and payment orders may be charged to account; order of withdrawals from account.
410.504(1)(1)If a receiving bank has received more than one payment order of the sender or one or more payment orders and other items that are payable from the sender's account, the bank may charge the sender's account with respect to the various orders and items in any sequence.
410.504(2) (2)In determining whether a credit to an account has been withdrawn by the holder of the account or applied to a debt of the holder of the account, credits first made to the account are first withdrawn or applied.
410.504 History History: 1991 a. 304.
410.505 410.505 Preclusion of objection to debit of customer's account. If a receiving bank has received payment from its customer with respect to a payment order issued in the name of the customer as sender and accepted by the bank, and the customer received notification reasonably identifying the order, the customer is precluded from asserting that the bank is not entitled to retain the payment unless the customer notifies the bank of the customer's objection to the payment within one year after the notification was received by the customer.
410.505 History History: 1991 a. 304.
410.506 410.506 Rate of interest.
410.506(1)(1)If, under this chapter, a receiving bank is obliged to pay interest with respect to a payment order issued to the bank, the amount payable may be determined by agreement of the sender and receiving bank, or may be determined by a funds-transfer system rule if the payment order is transmitted through a funds-transfer system.
410.506(2) (2)If the amount of interest is not determined by an agreement or rule as stated in sub. (1), the amount is calculated by multiplying the applicable federal funds rate by the amount on which interest is payable, and then multiplying the product by the number of days for which interest is payable. The applicable federal funds rate is the average of the federal funds rates published by the federal reserve bank of New York for each of the days for which interest is payable divided by 360. The federal funds rate for any day on which a published rate is not available is the same as the published rate for the next preceding day for which there is a published rate. If a receiving bank that accepted a payment order is required to refund payment to the sender of the order because the funds transfer was not completed, but the failure to complete was not due to any fault by the bank, the interest payable is reduced by a percentage equal to the reserve requirement on deposits of the receiving bank.
410.506 History History: 1991 a. 304.
410.507 410.507 Choice of law.
410.507(1)(1)The following rules apply unless the affected parties otherwise agree or sub. (3) applies:
410.507(1)(a) (a) The rights and obligations between the sender of a payment order and the receiving bank are governed by the law of the jurisdiction in which the receiving bank is located.
410.507(1)(b) (b) The rights and obligations between the beneficiary's bank and the beneficiary are governed by the law of the jurisdiction in which the beneficiary's bank is located.
410.507(1)(c) (c) The issue of when payment is made pursuant to a funds transfer by the originator to the beneficiary is governed by the law of the jurisdiction in which the beneficiary's bank is located.
410.507(2) (2)If the parties described in each paragraph of sub. (1) have made an agreement selecting the law of a particular jurisdiction to govern rights and obligations between each other, the law of that jurisdiction governs those rights and obligations, whether or not the payment order or the funds transfer bears a reasonable relation to that jurisdiction.
410.507(3) (3)
410.507(3)(a)(a) A funds-transfer system rule may select the law of a particular jurisdiction to govern any of the following:
410.507(3)(a)1. 1. Rights and obligations between participating banks with respect to payment orders transmitted or processed through the system.
410.507(3)(a)2. 2. Rights and obligations of some or all parties to a funds transfer any part of which is carried out by means of the system.
410.507(3)(b) (b) A choice of law made pursuant to par. (a) 1. is binding on participating banks. A choice of law made pursuant to par. (a) 2. is binding on the originator, other sender, or a receiving bank having notice that the funds-transfer system might be used in the funds transfer and of the choice of law by the system when the originator, other sender, or receiving bank issued or accepted a payment order. The beneficiary of a funds transfer is bound by the choice of law if, when the funds transfer is initiated, the beneficiary has notice that the funds-transfer system might be used in the funds transfer and of the choice of law by the system. The law of a jurisdiction selected pursuant to this subsection may govern, whether or not that law bears a reasonable relation to the matter in issue.
410.507(4) (4)In the event of inconsistency between an agreement under sub. (2) and a choice-of-law rule under sub. (3), the agreement under sub. (2) prevails.
410.507(5) (5)If a funds transfer is made by use of more than one funds-transfer system and there is inconsistency between choice-of-law rules of the systems, the matter in issue is governed by the law of the selected jurisdiction that has the most significant relationship to the matter in issue.
410.507 History History: 1991 a. 304.
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2017-18 Wisconsin Statutes updated through 2019 Wis. Act 186 and through all Supreme Court and Controlled Substances Board Orders filed before and in effect on July 3, 2020. Published and certified under s. 35.18. Changes effective after July 3, 2020, are designated by NOTES. (Published 7-3-20)