425.109(4) (4)For purposes of subchs. III and IV, a complaint that fails to comply with this section does not constitute a violation of chs. 421 to 427, and shall not give rise to recovery of attorney fees under s. 425.308, unless the customer establishes by a preponderance of the evidence that the failure to comply was willful or intentional.
425.109 History History: 1971 c. 239; 1983 a. 389; 1991 a. 236; 2015 a. 155.
425.109 Annotation A stated amount owed as of a specific date with a per diem interest figure is not a sufficient statement of “the figures necessary for computation of the amount" as required by sub. (1) (d). A complaint is not sufficient under this section because it meets the general rules of notice pleading. Household Finance Corp. v. Kohl, 173 Wis. 2d 798, 496 N.W.2d 708 (Ct. App. 1993). See also Bank One v. Ofojebe, 2005 WI App 151, 284 Wis. 2d 510, 702 N.W.2d 456, 04-0902.
425.109 Annotation A company that purchased an overdue credit card account and brought an action to collect the amount due on it was not a “creditor" within the meaning of s. 421.301 (16) and not subject to the pleading requirements of sub. (1). Rsidue, LLC v. Michaud, 2006 WI App 164, 295 Wis. 2d 585, 721 N.W.2d 718, 05-1299.
425.109 Annotation Sub. (2) requires a creditor to document any transaction it wishes to collect upon. Estate of Newgard v. Bank of America, 2007 WI App 161, 303 Wis. 2d 466, 735 N.W.2d 578, 07-0082.
425.109 Annotation Even if there was a failure to comply with the pleading requirements of this section, such a failure cannot deprive a small claims court of subject matter jurisdiction and cannot render a default judgment void. Mercado v. GE Money Bank, 2009 WI App 73, 318 Wis. 2d 216, 768 N.W.2d 53, 08-1992.
425.110 425.110 No discharge from employment for garnishment.
425.110(1)(1)No employer shall discharge an employee because a merchant has subjected or attempted to subject unpaid earnings of the employee to garnishment or like proceedings directed to the employer for the purpose of paying a judgment arising from a consumer credit transaction.
425.110(2) (2)If an employer violates this section, an employee shall recover back wages and be reinstated, if the employee files an action for such relief within 90 days of the employee's discharge.
425.110 History History: 1971 c. 239.
425.111 425.111 Levy before judgment.
425.111(1)(1)Prior to entry of judgment in an action subject to this subchapter, no process, other than a restraining order to protect collateral (s. 425.207), shall issue with respect to amounts that are owing or are claimed to be owing or may be owing to the customer by any 3rd person, whether by way of attachment, garnishment or other process.
425.111(2) (2)With respect to property of the customer other than that described in sub. (1), process may issue in accordance with ch. 811 to establish a lien, except that such process shall not be effective to take, or to divest the customer of possession of, the property until final judgment is entered.
425.111(3) (3)If the court finds that the creditor probably will recover on the action, and that the customer is acting, or is about to act, with respect to property of the customer upon which a lien has been established under sub. (2), in a manner which substantially impairs the creditor's prospects for satisfying the judgment against such property (s. 811.03), the court may issue an order restraining the customer from so acting with respect to that property until final judgment is entered.
425.111 History History: 1971 c. 239; 1973 c. 2; Sup. Ct. Order, 67 Wis. 2d 585, 776 (1975).
425.111 Note Legislative Council Note, 1973: Clarifies applicability of this subsection. Section 425.111 (1) refers to property of the customer subject to garnishment, and prescribes limitations on creditors' actions in relation to it. Sub. (2) refers to other property of the customer; however, the language struck by this amendment appears to make sub. (2) refer back to the same property dealt with by sub. (1), so it is deleted. [Bill 355-A]
425.112 425.112 Stay of execution. At the time of or at any time after the entry of a judgment in favor of a creditor against a customer in an action arising from a consumer transaction, the court, for cause and upon motion of a party or on its own motion, may stay enforcement of the judgment by order upon just and equitable conditions, and continue, modify or revoke the order as the interests of justice may require.
425.112 History History: 1971 c. 239.
425.113 425.113 Body attachments.
425.113(1)(1)No merchant shall cause or permit a warrant against the person of a customer to issue under ch. 816 with respect to a claim arising from a consumer credit transaction. Any process issued in violation of this section is void.
425.113(2) (2)A violation of this section is subject to s. 425.305.
425.113 History History: 1971 c. 239; Sup. Ct. Order, 67 Wis. 2d 585, 776 (1975).
425.113 Cross-reference Cross-reference: See also s. DFI-WCA 1.66, Wis. adm. code.
425.113 Annotation If s. 425.113 were to be interpreted to remove a court's power to issue a body attachment for one who chooses to ignore its orders, the interpretation would cause the statute to be unconstitutional as a violation of the principle of separation of powers. Smith v. Burns, 65 Wis. 2d 638, 223 N.W.2d 562 (1974).
subch. II of ch. 425 SUBCHAPTER II
ENFORCEMENT OF SECURITY INTERESTS IN COLLATERAL
425.201 425.201 Scope. This subchapter applies to the enforcement by a creditor of security interests in collateral.
425.201 History History: 1971 c. 239.
425.202 425.202 Definitions. For purposes of this chapter:
425.202(1) (1)“Collateral" means goods subject to a security interest in favor of a merchant which secures a customer's obligations under a consumer credit transaction.
425.202(2) (2)“Motor vehicle" has the meaning given in s. 218.0101 (22).
425.202 History History: 1971 c. 239; 1975 c. 407; 2005 a. 255.
425.203 425.203 Enforcement of merchant's rights in collateral and leased goods.
425.203(1)(1)At any time after default (s. 425.103) and the expiration of the period for cure of default (s. 425.105), if applicable, a merchant may commence an action to recover collateral or goods subject to a consumer lease pursuant to s. 425.205, or reduce the claim to a judgment by any available judicial procedure.
425.203(2) (2)In any action for a judgment under sub. (1) other than an action pursuant to s. 425.205, the judgment may provide for the right to possession of the collateral or leased goods by the merchant and for a deficiency, if the merchant would not be precluded from a deficiency judgment under s. 425.209 had the merchant initially proceeded against the collateral and if the judgment includes a finding that the merchant has the right to possession of any collateral securing the consumer credit transaction or goods subject to a consumer lease. Upon determining such judgment under this subsection the merchant shall have the right to:
425.203(2)(a) (a) Have execution issue to require the sheriff in the county where the collateral or leased goods may be to take the same from the defendant and deliver it to the plaintiff; or
425.203(2)(b) (b) Immediately exercise the right to nonjudicial recovery of the collateral or leased goods, subject to s. 425.206.
425.203(3) (3)Following recovery of collateral pursuant to a judgment under sub. (2), the merchant may either retain the collateral in full satisfaction of the customer's obligation pursuant to ss. 409.620 to 409.624, in which event the merchant shall satisfy the judgment obtained pursuant to sub. (2); or shall dispose of the collateral pursuant to subch. VI of ch. 409, in which event:
425.203(3)(a) (a) The merchant shall apply to the court which entered the judgment pursuant to sub. (2) to confirm the sale or other disposition of the collateral upon 8 days' notice to all parties named in such action, either personally or by certified or registered mail directed to the last-known address of the parties. Such notice shall state, in addition to any other matter required by law, the time and place of the hearing, the amount of the judgment, the proceeds received upon disposition of the collateral, the fair market value of the collateral claimed by the merchant if such standard is applicable under s. 425.210, the reasonable expenses incurred in disposition of collateral, the net amount proposed to be credited against the judgment, and any deficiency remaining. In addition, the notice directed to the customer shall conspicuously advise the customer of the right to appear at such hearing and to contest any matter set forth in the notice.
425.203(3)(b) (b) At such a hearing on confirmation, the court shall determine on the basis of the evidence presented by the parties, by affidavit or otherwise, the commercial reasonableness of the merchant's disposition of the collateral, the reasonable expenses incurred by the merchant in disposition of the collateral, the compliance with s. 425.210 if applicable, the resulting amount to be credited against the judgment and the remaining deficiency. Following such hearing and determinations, the court shall enter an appropriate order to satisfy the judgment and provide such other relief as may be appropriate. Where the underlying transaction is a consumer credit sale of goods or services or a consumer loan in which the lender is subject to defenses arising from s. 422.408, this hearing shall be considered a proceeding for a deficiency judgment pursuant to s. 425.209 (1).
425.203(4) (4)Following recovery of goods subject to a consumer lease pursuant to a judgment under sub. (2), no deficiency shall be allowable unless the merchant disposes of the leased goods and applies the proceeds to the customer's obligation, in which event:
425.203(4)(a) (a) The merchant shall apply to the court which entered the judgment pursuant to sub. (2) to confirm the sale or other disposition of the leased goods upon 8 days' notice to all parties named in the action, either personally or by certified or registered mail directed to the last-known address of the parties. Such notice shall state, in addition to any other matter required by law, the time and place of the hearing, the amount of the judgment, the proceeds received upon disposition of the leased goods, the reasonable expenses incurred in disposition of the leased goods, the net amount proposed to be credited against the judgment, and any deficiency remaining. In addition, the notice directed to the customer shall conspicuously advise the customer of the right to appear at such hearing and to contest any matter set forth in the notice.
425.203(4)(b) (b) At such a hearing on confirmation, the court shall determine on the basis of evidence presented by the parties, by affidavit or otherwise, the commercial reasonableness of the merchant's disposition of the leased goods, the reasonable expenses incurred by the merchant in disposition of the leased goods, and the resulting amount to be credited against the judgment entered pursuant to sub. (2). Following such hearing and determinations, the court shall enter an appropriate order to satisfy the judgment and provide such other relief as may be appropriate.
425.203 History History: 1971 c. 239; 1975 c. 407, 421; 2001 a. 10.
425.204 425.204 Voluntary surrender of collateral.
425.204(1)(1)Notwithstanding a waiver by the creditor of the security interest in collateral under s. 425.203 (2) or any other law, the customer shall have the right at any time to voluntarily surrender all of the customer's rights and interests in the collateral to the merchant.
425.204(2) (2)The rights and obligations of the merchant and customer with respect to collateral voluntarily surrendered as defined in this section shall be governed by subch. VI of ch. 409, and are not subject to this subchapter.
425.204(3) (3)The surrender of collateral by a customer is not a voluntary surrender if it is made pursuant to a request or demand, other than a notice under s. 425.205 (1g) (a), by the merchant for the surrender of the collateral, or if it is made pursuant to a threat, statement, or notice, other than a notice under s. 425.205 (1g) (a), by the merchant that the merchant intends to take possession of the collateral.
425.204 History History: 1971 c. 239; 1991 a. 316; 2001 a. 10; 2005 a. 255.
425.204 Cross-reference Cross-reference: See also s. DFI-WCA 1.67, Wis. adm. code.
425.204 Annotation Under the facts of the case, the customer did not “voluntarily surrender" collateral under sub. (3). Wachal v. Ketterhagen Motor Sales, Inc. 81 Wis. 2d 605, 260 N.W.2d 770 (1978).
425.205 425.205 Action to recover collateral.
425.205(1)(1)Except as provided in s. 425.206, a creditor seeking to obtain possession of collateral or goods subject to a consumer lease shall commence an action for replevin of the collateral or leased goods. Those actions shall be conducted in accordance with ch. 799, notwithstanding s. 799.01 (1) (c) and the value of the collateral or leased goods sought to be recovered, except that:
425.205(1)(a) (a) Notwithstanding ss. 799.05 (2) and 799.06 (2), process shall be issued by the clerk of court, and such action shall be commenced upon the request of an officer or employee of a merchant on the merchant's behalf;
425.205(1)(b) (b) The summons shall be in the form prescribed in sub. (2), and a complaint in the form described in sub. (3) shall be served with the summons;
425.205(1)(c) (c) When service is made pursuant to s. 799.12 (3) certified mail with return receipt requested shall be employed;
425.205(1)(d) (d) On the return date of the summons or any adjournment date thereof the customer shall have the right to a hearing on the issue of default or other matter which questions the validity of the merchant's claim to the collateral or leased goods, and the customer may answer, move to dismiss under s. 802.06 (2) or otherwise plead to the complaint orally, but if the customer fails to appear on the return day, judgment may be entered by the clerk or judge in accordance with the demands of the verified complaint, or upon an affidavit of the facts, or sworn testimony or other evidence to the clerk or judge; and
425.205(1)(e) (e) Judgment in such action shall determine only the right to possession of the collateral or leased goods, but such judgment shall not bar any subsequent action for damages or deficiency to the extent permitted by this subchapter.
425.205(1g) (1g)
425.205(1g)(a)(a) A merchant may not take possession of motor vehicle collateral or goods subject to a motor vehicle consumer lease under s. 425.206 (1) (d), unless the merchant gives, by mail, the customer a notice containing all of the following information:
425.205(1g)(a)1. 1. The name, address, and telephone number of the merchant, a brief identification of the consumer credit transaction, and a brief description of the collateral or goods.
425.205(1g)(a)2. 2. A statement that, as a result of the customer's default on the consumer credit transaction, the merchant may have the right to take possession of the collateral or goods without further notice or court proceeding.
425.205(1g)(a)3. 3. A statement that if the customer is not in default or objects to the merchant's right to take possession of the collateral or goods, the customer may, no later than 15 days after the merchant has given the notice, demand that the merchant proceed in court by notifying the merchant in writing.
425.205(1g)(a)4. 4. A statement that if the merchant proceeds in court, the customer may be required to pay court costs and attorney fees.
425.205(1g)(b) (b) The information required under par. (a) may be combined with any other notice, except that if the customer has a right to cure under s. 425.105, the information required under par. (a) shall be combined with the notice of right to cure under s. 425.104.
425.205(1g)(c) (c) A merchant is presumed to have given notice under par. (a) if the merchant sent the notice by certified or registered mail. A merchant who fails to give notice under par. (a) by certified or registered mail is subject to the penalties specified in s. 425.302 (1), but such failure does not constitute a failure to comply with s. 425.206 (1) (d).
425.205(2) (2)The summons in such actions shall be in the following form:
State of Wisconsin
Circuit Court
.... County
A. B. Plaintiff
v.
C. D. Defendant
SUMMONS (Small Claim)
THE STATE OF WISCONSIN
To said Defendant:
The Plaintiff named above has commenced an action to recover possession of the following property:
[Description of Collateral or Leased Goods]
This claim arises under a consumer credit transaction under which you are alleged to be in default, as described in the attached complaint.
IF YOU ARE NOT IN DEFAULT OR HAVE AN OBJECTION TO THE PLAINTIFF'S TAKING THE PROPERTY LISTED ABOVE, YOU MAY ARRANGE FOR A HEARING ON THESE ISSUES BY APPEARING IN THE CIRCUIT COURT OF .... COUNTY, IN THE COURTHOUSE LOCATED IN ...., (municipality), BEFORE JUDGE .... OR ANY OTHER JUDGE TO WHOM THE ACTION MAY BE ASSIGNED, ON .... (date), AT .... (time). IF YOU DO NOT APPEAR AT THAT TIME, JUDGMENT WILL BE RENDERED AGAINST YOU FOR DELIVERY OF THE PROPERTY TO THE PLAINTIFF.
DATED ...., .... (year)
E.F.
Clerk of Circuit Court
[or]
Plaintiff's Attorney
Plaintiff's P. O. Address
....
....
Plaintiff's Attorney (if any)
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2017-18 Wisconsin Statutes updated through 2019 Wis. Act 186 and through all Supreme Court and Controlled Substances Board Orders filed before and in effect on August 1, 2020. Published and certified under s. 35.18. Changes effective after August 1, 2020, are designated by NOTES. (Published 8-1-20)