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48.21(5)(b)3. 3. If the judge or circuit court commissioner finds that any of the circumstances specified in s. 48.355 (2d) (b) 1. to 5. applies with respect to a parent, a determination that the county department, department, in a county having a population of 500,000 or more, or agency primarily responsible for providing services under the custody order is not required to make reasonable efforts with respect to the parent to make it possible for the child to return safely to his or her home.
48.21(5)(c) (c) The judge or circuit court commissioner shall make the findings specified in par. (b) 1., 1m., and 3. on a case-by-case basis based on circumstances specific to the child and shall document or reference the specific information on which those findings are based in the custody order. A custody order that merely references par. (b) 1., 1m., or 3. without documenting or referencing that specific information in the custody order or an amended custody order that retroactively corrects an earlier custody order that does not comply with this paragraph is not sufficient to comply with this paragraph.
48.21(5)(d) (d) If the judge or circuit court commissioner finds that any of the circumstances specified in s. 48.355 (2d) (b) 1. to 5. applies with respect to a parent, the judge or circuit court commissioner shall hold a hearing under s. 48.38 (4m) within 30 days after the date of that finding to determine the permanency goal and, if applicable, any concurrent permanency goals for the child.
48.21(5)(e)1.1. In this paragraph, "adult relative" means a grandparent, great-grandparent, aunt, uncle, brother, sister, half brother, or half sister of a child, whether by blood, marriage, or legal adoption, who has attained 18 years of age.
48.21(5)(e)2. 2. The court shall order the county department, the department in a county having a population of 500,000 or more, or the agency primarily responsible for providing services to the child under the custody order to conduct a diligent search in order to locate and provide notice of the information specified in this subdivision to all relatives of the child named under sub. (3) (f) and to all adult relatives of the child within 30 days after the child is removed from the custody of the child's parent unless the child is returned to his or her home within that period. The court may also order the county department, department, or agency to conduct a diligent search in order to locate and provide notice of the information specified in this subdivision to all other adult individuals named under sub. (3) (f) within 30 days after the child is removed from the custody of the child's parent unless the child is returned to his or her home within that period. The county department, department, or agency may not provide that notice to a person named under sub. (3) (f) or to an adult relative if the county department, department, or agency has reason to believe that it would be dangerous to the child or to the parent if the child were placed with that person or adult relative. The notice shall include all of the following:
48.21(5)(e)2.a. a. A statement that the child has been removed from the custody of the child's parent.
48.21(5)(e)2.b. b. A statement that explains the options that the person provided with the notice has under state or federal law to participate in the care and placement of the child, including any options that may be lost by failing to respond to the notice.
48.21(5)(e)2.c. c. A description of the requirements to obtain a foster home license under s. 48.62 or to receive kinship care or long-term kinship care payments under s. 48.57 (3m) or (3n) and of the additional services and supports that are available for children placed in a foster home or in the home of a person receiving those payments.
48.21(5)(e)2.d. d. A statement advising the person provided with the notice that he or she may incur additional expenses if the child is placed in his or her home and that reimbursement for some of those expenses may be available.
48.21(5)(e)2.e. e. The name and contact information of the agency that removed the child from the custody of the child's parent.
48.21(6) (6)Amendment of order. An order placing a child under sub. (4) (a) on conditions specified in this section may at any time be amended, with notice, so as to place the child in another form of custody for failure to conform to the conditions originally imposed. A child may be transferred to secure custody if he or she meets the criteria of s. 48.208.
48.21(7) (7)Informal disposition. If the judge or circuit court commissioner determines that the best interests of the child and the public are served or, in the case of a child expectant mother who has been taken into custody under s. 48.19 (1) (cm) or (d) 8., that the best interests of the unborn child and the public are served, he or she may enter a consent decree under s. 48.32 or order the petition dismissed and refer the matter to the intake worker for informal disposition in accordance with s. 48.245.
48.21 Annotation The period under sub. (1) (a) runs from the time the intake worker decides to hold the child. Curtis W. v. State, 192 Wis. 2d 719, 531 N.W.2d 633 (Ct. App. 1995).
48.213 48.213 Hearing for adult expectant mother in custody.
48.213(1)(1) Hearing; when held.
48.213(1)(a)(a) If an adult expectant mother of an unborn child who has been taken into custody is not released under s. 48.203, a hearing to determine whether the adult expectant mother shall continue to be held in custody under the criteria of s. 48.205 (1m) shall be conducted by the judge or a circuit court commissioner within 48 hours after the time that the decision to hold the adult expectant mother was made, excluding Saturdays, Sundays and legal holidays. By the time of the hearing a petition under s. 48.25 shall be filed, except that no petition need be filed when an adult expectant mother is taken into custody under s. 48.193 (1) (b) or (d) 1. or 3., in which case a written statement of the reasons for holding the adult expectant mother in custody shall be substituted if the petition is not filed. If no hearing has been held within those 48 hours, excluding Saturdays, Sundays and legal holidays, or if no petition or statement has been filed at the time of the hearing, the adult expectant mother shall be released except as provided in par. (b).
48.213(1)(b) (b) If no petition has been filed by the time of the hearing, an adult expectant mother of an unborn child may be held in custody with the approval of the judge or circuit court commissioner for an additional 72 hours after the time of the hearing, excluding Saturdays, Sundays and legal holidays, only if, as a result of the facts brought forth at the hearing, the judge or circuit court commissioner determines that probable cause exists to believe that there is a substantial risk that if the adult expectant mother is not held, the physical health of the unborn child, and of the child when born, will be seriously affected or endangered by the adult expectant mother's habitual lack of self-control in the use of alcohol beverages, controlled substances or controlled substance analogs, exhibited to a severe degree, and to believe that the adult expectant mother is refusing or has refused to accept any alcohol or other drug abuse services offered to her or is not making or has not made a good faith effort to participate in any alcohol or other drug abuse services offered to her. The extension may be granted only once for any petition. In the event of failure to file a petition within the extension period provided for in this paragraph, the judge or circuit court commissioner shall order the adult expectant mother's immediate release from custody.
48.213(2) (2)Proceedings concerning unborn children in need of protection or services and their adult expectant mothers.
48.213(2)(a)(a) Proceedings concerning an unborn child and an adult expectant mother of the unborn child who come within the jurisdiction of the court under s. 48.133 shall be conducted according to this subsection.
48.213(2)(b) (b) The adult expectant mother may waive the hearing under this section. After any waiver, a hearing shall be granted at the request of any interested party.
48.213(2)(c) (c) A copy of the petition shall be given to the adult expectant mother and to the unborn child's guardian ad litem before the hearing begins. Prior notice of the hearing shall be given to the adult expectant mother and unborn child's guardian ad litem in accordance with s. 48.203 (7).
48.213(2)(d) (d) Prior to the commencement of the hearing, the adult expectant mother and the unborn child's guardian ad litem shall be informed by the court of the allegations that have been made or may be made, the nature and possible consequences of this hearing as compared to possible future hearings, the right to confront and cross-examine witnesses, and the right to present witnesses.
48.213(2)(e) (e) If the adult expectant mother is not represented by counsel at the hearing and the adult expectant mother is continued in custody as a result of the hearing, the adult expectant mother may request through counsel subsequently appointed or retained or through a guardian ad litem that the order to hold the adult expectant mother in custody be reheard. If the request is made, a rehearing shall take place as soon as possible. Any order to hold the adult expectant mother in custody shall be subject to rehearing for good cause, whether or not counsel was present.
48.213(3) (3)Continuation of custody. If the judge or circuit court commissioner finds that the adult expectant mother should be continued in custody under the criteria of s. 48.205 (1m), the judge or circuit court commissioner shall enter one of the following orders:
48.213(3)(a) (a) Release the adult expectant mother and impose reasonable restrictions on the adult expectant mother's travel, association with other persons or places of abode during the period of the order, including a condition requiring the adult expectant mother to return to other custody as requested; or subject the adult expectant mother to the supervision of an agency agreeing to supervise the adult expectant mother. Reasonable restrictions may be placed upon the conduct of the adult expectant mother which may be necessary to ensure the safety of the unborn child and of the child when born.
48.213(3)(b) (b) Order the adult expectant mother to be held in an appropriate manner under s. 48.207 (1m).
48.213(4) (4)Orders in writing. All orders to hold an adult expectant mother of an unborn child in custody shall be in writing, listing the reasons and criteria forming the basis for the decision.
48.213(5) (5)Amendment of order. An order under sub. (3) (a) imposing restrictions on an adult expectant mother of an unborn child may at any time be amended, with notice, so as to place the adult expectant mother in another form of custody for failure of the adult expectant mother to conform to the conditions originally imposed.
48.213(6) (6)Informal disposition. If the judge or circuit court commissioner determines that the best interests of the unborn child and the public are served, the judge or circuit court commissioner may enter a consent decree under s. 48.32 or order the petition dismissed and refer the matter to the intake worker for informal disposition in accordance with s. 48.245.
48.213 History History: 1997 a. 292; 2001 a. 61; 2013 a. 170.
48.215 48.215 Mother-young child care program. Sections 48.19 to 48.21 do not apply to children participating in the mother-young child care program under s. 301.049.
48.215 History History: 1991 a. 39.
48.227 48.227 Runaway homes.
48.227(1)(1) Nothing contained in this section prohibits a home licensed under s. 48.48 or 48.75 from providing housing and services to a runaway child with the consent of the child and the consent of the child's parent, guardian or legal custodian, under the supervision of a county department, a child welfare agency or the department. When the parent, guardian or legal custodian and the child both consent to the provision of these services and the child has not been taken into custody, no hearing as described in this section is required.
48.227(2) (2) Any person who operates a home under sub. (1) and licensed under s. 48.48 or 48.75, when engaged in sheltering a runaway child without the consent of the child's parent, guardian or legal custodian, shall notify the intake worker of the presence of the child in the home within 12 hours. The intake worker shall notify the parent, guardian and legal custodian as soon as possible of the child's presence in that home. A hearing shall be held under sub. (4). The child shall not be removed from the home except with the approval of the court under sub. (4). This subsection does not prohibit the parent, guardian or legal custodian from conferring with the child or the person operating the home.
48.227(3) (3) For runaway children who have been taken into custody and then released, the judge may, with the agreement of the persons operating the homes, designate homes licensed under ss. 48.48 and 48.75 as places for the temporary care and housing of such children. If the parent, guardian or legal custodian refuses to consent, the person taking the child into custody or the intake worker may release the child to one of the homes designated under this section; however, a hearing shall be held under sub. (4). The child shall not be removed from the home except with the approval of the court under sub. (4). This subsection does not prohibit the parent, guardian, or legal custodian from conferring with the child or the person operating the home.
48.227(4) (4)
48.227(4)(a)(a) If the child's parent, guardian or legal custodian does not consent to the temporary care and housing of the child at the runaway home as provided under sub. (2) or (3), a hearing shall be held on the issue by the judge or a circuit court commissioner within 24 hours of the time that the child entered the runaway home, excluding Saturdays, Sundays and legal holidays. The intake worker shall notify the child and the child's parent, guardian or legal custodian of the time, place and purpose of the hearing.
48.227(4)(b) (b) If, in addition to jurisdiction under par. (c), the court has jurisdiction over the child under ss. 48.13 to 48.14, excluding s. 48.14 (8), or under ss. 938.12 to 938.14, a hearing may be held under s. 48.21 or 938.21.
48.227(4)(c) (c) For the purposes of this section, the court has jurisdiction over a runaway child only to the extent that it may hold the hearings and make the orders provided in this section.
48.227(4)(d) (d) At the hearing, the child, the child's parent, guardian or legal custodian and a representative of the runaway home may present evidence, cross-examine and confront witnesses and be represented by counsel or guardian ad litem.
48.227(4)(e) (e) At the conclusion of the hearing, the court may order:
48.227(4)(e)1. 1. That the child be released to his or her parent, guardian or legal custodian; or
48.227(4)(e)2. 2. That, with the consent of the child and the runaway home, the child remain in the care of the runaway home for a period of not more than 20 days. Without further proceedings, the child shall be released whenever the child indicates, either by statement or conduct, that he or she wishes to leave the home or whenever the runaway home withdraws its consent. During this time period not to exceed 20 days ordered by the court, the child's parent, guardian or legal custodian may not remove the child from the home but may confer with the child or with the person operating the home. If, at the conclusion of the time period ordered by the court the child has not left the home, and no petition concerning the child has been filed under s. 48.13, 48.133, 938.12 or 938.13, the child shall be released from the home. If a petition concerning the child has been filed under s. 48.13, 48.133, 938.12 or 938.13, the child may be held in temporary physical custody under ss. 48.20 to 48.21 or 938.20 to 938.21.
48.227(5) (5) No person operating an approved or licensed home in compliance with this section is subject to civil or criminal liability by virtue of false imprisonment.
48.23 48.23 Right to counsel.
48.23(1g)(1g) Definition. In this section, "counsel" means an attorney acting as adversary counsel who shall advance and protect the legal rights of the party represented, and who may not act as guardian ad litem or court-appointed special advocate for any party in the same proceeding.
48.23(1m) (1m)Right of children to legal representation. Children subject to proceedings under this chapter shall be afforded legal representation as follows:
48.23(1m)(a) (a) Any child held in a juvenile detention facility shall be represented by counsel at all stages of the proceedings, but a child 15 years of age or older may waive counsel if the court is satisfied that the waiver is knowingly and voluntarily made and the court accepts the waiver.
48.23(1m)(b)1.1. If a child is alleged to be in need of protection or services under s. 48.13, the child may be represented by counsel at the discretion of the court. Except as provided in subd. 2., a child 15 years of age or older may waive counsel if the court is satisfied such waiver is knowingly and voluntarily made and the court accepts the waiver.
48.23(1m)(b)2. 2. If the petition is contested, the court may not place the child outside his or her home unless the child is represented by counsel at the fact-finding hearing and subsequent proceedings. If the petition is not contested, the court may not place the child outside his or her home unless the child is represented by counsel at the hearing at which the placement is made. For a child under 12 years of age, the judge may appoint a guardian ad litem instead of counsel.
48.23(1m)(c) (c) Any child subject to the jurisdiction of the court under s. 48.14 (5) shall be represented by counsel. No waiver of counsel may be accepted by the court.
48.23(1m)(cm) (cm) Any minor who is subject to the jurisdiction of the circuit court under s. 48.16 and who is required to appear in court shall be represented by counsel.
48.23(2) (2)Right of parents to counsel. Whenever a child is the subject of a proceeding involving a contested adoption or the involuntary termination of parental rights, any parent under 18 years of age who appears before the court shall be represented by counsel; but no such parent may waive counsel. Except as provided in sub. (2g), a minor parent petitioning for the voluntary termination of parental rights shall be represented by a guardian ad litem. If a proceeding involves a contested adoption or the involuntary termination of parental rights, any parent 18 years old or older who appears before the court shall be represented by counsel; but the parent may waive counsel provided the court is satisfied such waiver is knowingly and voluntarily made.
48.23(2g) (2g)Right of Indian child's parent or Indian custodian to counsel. Whenever an Indian child is the subject of a proceeding involving the removal of the Indian child from the home of his or her parent or Indian custodian, placement of the Indian child in an out-of-home care placement, or termination of parental rights to the Indian child, the Indian child's parent or Indian custodian shall have the right to be represented by counsel as provided in subs. (2) and (4).
48.23(2m) (2m)Right of expectant mother to counsel.
48.23(2m)(a)(a) When an unborn child is alleged to be in need of protection or services under s. 48.133, the expectant mother of the unborn child, if the expectant mother is a child, shall be represented by counsel and may not waive counsel.
48.23(2m)(b) (b) If a petition under s. 48.133 is contested, no expectant mother may be placed outside of her home unless the expectant mother is represented by counsel at the fact-finding hearing and subsequent proceedings. If the petition is not contested, the expectant mother may not be placed outside of her home unless the expectant mother is represented by counsel at the hearing at which the placement is made. An adult expectant mother, however, may waive counsel if the court is satisfied that the waiver is knowingly and voluntarily made and the court may place the adult expectant mother outside of her home even though the adult expectant mother was not represented by counsel.
48.23(2m)(c) (c) For an expectant mother under 12 years of age, the judge may appoint a guardian ad litem instead of counsel.
48.23(3) (3)Power of the court to appoint counsel. Except in proceedings under s. 48.13, at any time, upon request or on its own motion, the court may appoint counsel for the child or any party, unless the child or the party has or wishes to retain counsel of his or her own choosing. Except as provided in sub. (2g), the court may not appoint counsel for any party other than the child in a proceeding under s. 48.13.
48.23(3m) (3m)Guardians ad litem or counsel for abused or neglected children. The court shall appoint counsel for any child alleged to be in need of protection or services under s. 48.13 (3), (3m), (10), (10m) and (11), except that if the child is less than 12 years of age the court may appoint a guardian ad litem instead of counsel. The guardian ad litem or counsel for the child may not act as counsel for any other party or any governmental or social agency involved in the proceeding and may not act as court-appointed special advocate for the child in the proceeding.
48.23(4) (4)Providing counsel. If a child has a right to be represented by counsel or is provided counsel at the discretion of the court under this section and counsel is not knowingly and voluntarily waived, the court shall refer the child to the state public defender and counsel shall be appointed by the state public defender under s. 977.08 without a determination of indigency. If the referral is of a child who has filed a petition under s. 48.375 (7), the state public defender shall appoint counsel within 24 hours after that referral. Any counsel appointed in a petition filed under s. 48.375 (7) shall continue to represent the child in any appeal brought under s. 809.105 unless the child requests substitution of counsel or extenuating circumstances make it impossible for counsel to continue to represent the child. In any situation under sub. (2), (2g), or (2m) in which a parent 18 years of age or over or an adult expectant mother is entitled to representation by counsel; counsel is not knowingly and voluntarily waived; and it appears that the parent or adult expectant mother is unable to afford counsel in full, or the parent or adult expectant mother so indicates; the court shall refer the parent or adult expectant mother to the authority for indigency determinations specified under s. 977.07 (1). In any other situation under this section in which a person has a right to be represented by counsel or is provided counsel at the discretion of the court, competent and independent counsel shall be provided and reimbursed in any manner suitable to the court regardless of the person's ability to pay, except that the court may not order a person who files a petition under s. 813.122 or 813.125 to reimburse counsel for the child who is named as the respondent in that petition.
48.23(5) (5)Counsel of own choosing. Regardless of any provision of this section, any party is entitled to retain counsel of his or her own choosing at his or her own expense in any proceeding under this chapter.
48.23 Cross-reference Cross-reference: See s. 48.275 (2), concerning contribution toward legal expenses by parent or guardian.
48.23 Annotation The court erred by failing to inform the parents of their right to a jury trial and to representation by counsel. In re Termination of Parental Rights to M. A. M. 116 Wis. 2d 432, 342 N.W.2d 410 (1984).
48.23 Annotation Neither a temporary custody order nor a custodial interrogation were proceedings under sub. (1) (a) [now (1m) (a)]. State v. Woods, 117 Wis. 2d 701, 345 N.W.2d 457 (1984).
48.23 Annotation When a party to a CHIPS action is represented by both adversary counsel and a GAL, adversary counsel must be allowed to zealously represent the client's expressed wishes, even if the GAL holds an opposing view. In Interest of T.L. 151 Wis. 2d 725, 445 N.W.2d 729 (Ct. App. 1989).
48.23 Annotation The right to be represented by counsel includes the right to effective counsel. In Interest of M.D.(S), 168 Wis. 2d 996, 485 N.W.2d 52 (1992).
48.23 Annotation The prohibition in sub. (3) against appointing counsel for a party other than the child is unconstitutional. Joni B. v. State, 202 Wis. 2d 1, 549 N.W.2d 411 (1996), 95-2757.
48.23 Annotation Sub. (4) does not say in cases other than those under s. 48.375 that appointment of counsel does not continue after an appeal has been filed. Section 809.85 provides otherwise. Juneau County Department of Human Services v. James B. 2000 WI App 86, 234 Wis. 2d 406, 610 N.W.2d 144, 99-1309.
48.23 Annotation Under Joni B., juvenile courts have discretionary authority to appoint counsel for parents in CHIPS cases. When a parent requests counsel or when circumstances raise a reasonable concern that the parent will not be able to provide meaningful self-representation, the court must exercise that discretion. State v. Tammy L.D. 2000 WI App 200, 238 Wis. 2d 516, 617 N.W.2d 894, 99-1962.
48.23 Annotation Self-representation competency standards developed in criminal cases apply to parents in termination of parental rights actions. When a defendant seeks self-representation, the circuit court must insure that the defendant: 1) has knowingly, intelligently, and voluntarily waived the right to counsel, and 2) is competent to so proceed. The determination of self-representation competency requires an assessment of whether a person is able to provide himself or herself with meaningful self-representation. Dane County DHS v. Susan P. S. 2006 WI App 100, 293 Wis. 2d 279, 715 N.W.2d 692, 05-3155.
48.23 Annotation This section does not provide a right to counsel only for parents who appear in person. No statutory provision deprives a parent's counsel from presenting evidence and arguing at a termination proceeding when the parent has appeared, but not in person. A mother maintained her statutory right to counsel throughout a termination proceeding after the circuit court found her in default for failing to obey the court's order to personally attend the hearing. It was prejudicial error to dismiss the mother's attorney from the proceedings and to prevent counsel from participating in the proceeding. State v. Shirley E. 2006 WI 129, 298 Wis. 2d 1, 724 N.W.2d 623, 05-2752. See also Dane County Department of Human Services v. Mable K. 2013 WI 28, 346 Wis. 2d 396, 828 N.W.2d 198, 11-0825.
48.23 Annotation `Catch 22': Ethical Dilemma for Defense Counsel in TPR Litigation. Foley. Wis. Law. Aug. 2011.
48.235 48.235 Guardian ad litem.
48.235(1)(1) Appointment.
48.235(1)(a)(a) The court may appoint a guardian ad litem in any appropriate matter under this chapter.
48.235(1)(b) (b) The court shall appoint a guardian ad litem for a minor parent petitioning for the voluntary termination of parental rights.
48.235(1)(c) (c) The court shall appoint a guardian ad litem for any child who is the subject of a proceeding to terminate parental rights, whether voluntary or involuntary, for a child who is the subject of a contested adoption proceeding and for a child who is the subject of a proceeding under s. 48.977 or 48.978.
48.235(1)(d) (d) The circuit court may appoint a guardian ad litem for a minor in a proceeding under s. 48.375 (7) to aid the circuit court in determining under s. 48.375 (7) (c) whether or not the minor is mature and well-informed enough to make the abortion decision on her own and whether or not the performance or inducement of the abortion is in the minor's best interests.
48.235(1)(e) (e) The court shall appoint a guardian ad litem, or extend the appointment of a guardian ad litem previously appointed under par. (a), for any child alleged or found to be in need of protection or services, if the court has ordered, or if a request or recommendation has been made that the court order, the child to be placed out of his or her home under s. 48.345 or 48.357.
48.235(1)(f) (f) The court shall appoint a guardian ad litem, or extend the appointment of a guardian ad litem previously appointed under par. (a), for any unborn child alleged or found to be in need of protection or services.
48.235(1)(g) (g) The court shall appoint a guardian ad litem for a parent who is the subject of a termination of parental rights proceeding, if any assessment or examination of a parent that is ordered under s. 48.295 (1) shows that the parent is not competent to participate in the proceeding or to assist his or her counsel or the court in protecting the parent's rights in the proceeding.
48.235(2) (2)Qualifications. The guardian ad litem shall be an attorney admitted to practice in this state. No person who is an interested party in a proceeding, who appears as counsel or court-appointed special advocate in a proceeding on behalf of any party or who is a relative or representative of an interested party in a proceeding may be appointed guardian ad litem in that proceeding.
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2011-12 Wisconsin Statutes updated though 2013 Wis. Act 200 and all Supreme Court Orders entered before April 18, 2014. Published and certified under s. 35.18. Changes effective after April 18, 2014 are designated by NOTES. (Published 4-18-14)