This subsection does not apply to a radio, electric sound amplification device or other sound-producing device on a motorcycle.
History: 1995 a. 373
; 1999 a. 150
; Stats. 1999 s. 66.0411.
Local regulation of real estate brokers, brokerage services. 66.0412(1)(c)
“Political subdivision" means any city, village, town, or county.
Regulation of brokers, brokerage services. 66.0412(2)(a)
A local governmental unit may not enact an ordinance or adopt a resolution that does any of the following:
In relation to the provision of real estate services, imposes any fees on brokers or on real estate brokerage services.
Imposes any regulations on the professional services provided by a broker or by a person who provides real estate brokerage services.
If a local governmental unit has in effect on July 2, 2013, an ordinance or resolution that is inconsistent with par. (a)
, the ordinance or resolution does not apply and may not be enforced.
History: 2013 a. 20
“Building" includes any building or structure or any portion of a building or structure.
“Raze a building" means to demolish and remove the building and to restore the site to a dust-free and erosion-free condition.
The governing body, building inspector or other designated officer of a municipality may:
If a building is old, dilapidated or out of repair and consequently dangerous, unsafe, unsanitary or otherwise unfit for human habitation and unreasonable to repair, order the owner of the building to raze the building or, if the building can be made safe by reasonable repairs, order the owner to either make the building safe and sanitary or to raze the building, at the owner's option.
If there has been a cessation of normal construction of a building for a period of more than 2 years, order the owner of the building to raze the building.
Notice of unfitness for occupancy or use; penalty. 66.0413(1)(br)1.
If a building subject to an order under par. (b)
is unsanitary and unfit for human habitation, occupancy or use and is not in danger of structural collapse, the building inspector or other designated officer shall post a placard on the premises containing the following notice: “This Building May Not Be Used For Human Habitation, Occupancy or Use." The building inspector or other designated officer shall prohibit use of the building for human habitation, occupancy or use until necessary repairs have been made.
Any person who rents, leases or occupies a building which has been condemned for human habitation, occupancy or use under subd. 1.
shall be fined not less than $5 nor more than $50 or imprisoned not more than 30 days for each week of the violation, or both.
Reasonableness of repair; presumption.
Except as provided in sub. (3)
, if a municipal governing body, building inspector or designated officer determines that the cost of repairs of a building described in par. (b) 1.
would exceed 50 percent of the assessed value of the building divided by the ratio of the assessed value to the recommended value as last published by the department of revenue for the municipality within which the building is located, the repairs are presumed unreasonable for purposes of par. (b) 1.
Service of order.
An order under par. (b)
shall be served on the owner of record of the building that is subject to the order or on the owner's agent if the agent is in charge of the building in the same manner as a summons is served in circuit court. An order under par. (b)
shall be served on the holder of an encumbrance of record by 1st class mail at the holder's last-known address and by publication as a class 1 notice under ch. 985
. If the owner and the owner's agent cannot be found or if the owner is deceased and an estate has not been opened, the order may be served by posting it on the main entrance of the building and by publishing it as a class 1 notice under ch. 985
before the time limited in the order begins to run. The time limited in the order begins to run from the date of service on the owner or owner's agent or, if the owner and agent cannot be found, from the date that the order was posted on the building.
Effect of recording order.
If a raze order issued under par. (b)
is recorded with the register of deeds in the county in which the building is located, the order is considered to have been served, as of the date the raze order is recorded, on any person claiming an interest in the building or the real estate as a result of a conveyance from the owner of record unless the conveyance was recorded before the recording of the raze order.
Failure to comply with order; razing building.
An order under par. (b)
shall specify the time within which the owner of the building is required to comply with the order and shall specify repairs, if any. If the owner fails or refuses to comply within the time prescribed, the building inspector or other designated officer may proceed to raze the building through any available public agency or by contract or arrangement with private persons, or to secure the building and, if necessary, the property on which the building is located if unfit for human habitation, occupancy or use. The cost of razing or securing the building may be charged in full or in part against the real estate upon which the building is located, and if that cost is so charged it is a lien upon the real estate and may be assessed and collected as a special charge, but may not be assessed and collected as a special tax. Any portion of the cost charged against the real estate that is not reimbursed under s. 632.103 (2)
from funds withheld from an insurance settlement may be assessed and collected as a special tax.
Court order to comply.
A municipality, building inspector or designated officer may commence and prosecute an action in circuit court for an order of the court requiring the owner to comply with an order to raze a building issued under this subsection if the owner fails or refuses to do so within the time prescribed in the order, or for an order of the court requiring any person occupying a building whose occupancy has been prohibited under this subsection to vacate the premises, or any combination of the court orders. A hearing on actions under this paragraph shall be given preference. Court costs are in the discretion of the court.
A person affected by an order issued under par. (b)
may within the time provided by s. 893.76
apply to the circuit court for an order restraining the building inspector or other designated officer from razing the building or forever be barred. The hearing shall be held within 20 days and shall be given preference. The court shall determine whether the raze order is reasonable. If the order is found reasonable the court shall dissolve the restraining order. If the order is found not reasonable the court shall continue the restraining order or modify it as the circumstances require. Costs are in the discretion of the court. If the court finds that the order is unreasonable, the building inspector or other designated officer shall issue no other order under this subsection in regard to the same building until its condition is substantially changed. The remedies provided in this paragraph are exclusive remedies and anyone affected by an order issued under par. (b)
is not entitled to recover any damages for the razing of the building.
Removal of personal property.
If a building subject to an order under par. (b)
contains personal property or fixtures which will unreasonably interfere with the razing or repair of the building or if the razing makes necessary the removal, sale or destruction of the personal property or fixtures, the building inspector or other designated officer may order in writing the removal of the personal property or fixtures by a date certain. The order shall be served as provided in par. (d)
. If the personal property or fixtures are not removed by the time specified the inspector may store, sell or, if it has no appreciable value, destroy the personal property or fixture. If the property is stored the amount paid for storage is a lien against the property and against the real estate and, to the extent that the amount is not reimbursed under s. 632.103 (2)
from funds withheld from an insurance settlement, shall be assessed and collected as a special tax against the real estate if the real estate is owned by the owner of the personal property and fixtures. If the property is stored the owner of the property, if known, shall be notified of the place of storage and if the property is not claimed by the owner it may be sold at the expiration of 6 months after it has been stored. The handling of the sale and the distribution of the net proceeds after deducting the cost of storage and any other costs shall be as specified in par. (j)
and a report made to the circuit court as specified in par. (j)
. A person affected by any order made under this paragraph may appeal as provided in par. (h)
Sale of salvage.
If an order to raze a building has been issued, the governing body or other designated officer under the contract or arrangement to raze the building may sell the salvage and valuable materials at the highest price obtainable. The net proceeds of the sale, after deducting the expenses of razing the building, shall be promptly remitted to the circuit court with a report of the sale or transaction, including the items of expense and the amounts deducted, for the use of any person entitled to the net proceeds, subject to the order of the court. If there remains no surplus to be turned over to the court, the report shall so state.
Public nuisance procedure.
A building which is determined under par. (b) 1.
to be old, dilapidated or out of repair and consequently dangerous, unsafe, unsanitary or otherwise unfit for human habitation and unreasonable to repair may be proceeded against as a public nuisance under ch. 823
Acts of municipal authorities under this subsection do not increase the liability of an insurer.
This section does not limit powers otherwise granted to municipalities by other laws of this state.
Razing building that is a public nuisance; in rem procedure. 66.0413(2)(a)2.
“Public nuisance" means a building that, as a result of vandalism or any other reason, has deteriorated or is dilapidated or blighted to the extent that windows, doors or other openings, plumbing or heating fixtures, or facilities or appurtenances of the building are damaged, destroyed or removed so that the building offends the aesthetic character of the immediate neighborhood and produces blight or deterioration.
“Raze a building" means to demolish and remove the building and to restore the site to a dust-free and erosion-free condition.
Notification of nuisance.
If the owner of a building in a city, village or town permits the building to become a public nuisance, the building inspector or other designated officer of the city, village or town shall issue a written notice of the defect that makes the building a public nuisance. The written notice shall be served on the owner of the building as provided under sub. (1) (d)
and shall direct the owner to remedy the defect within 30 days following service.
Failure to remedy; court order to remedy or raze. 66.0413(2)(c)1.
If an owner fails to remedy or improve the defect in accordance with the written notice under par. (b)
within the 30-day period specified in the written notice, the building inspector or other designated officer shall apply to the circuit court of the county in which the building is located for an order determining that the building constitutes a public nuisance. As a part of the application for the order from the circuit court the building inspector or other designated officer shall file a verified petition which recites the giving of written notice, the defect in the building, the owner's failure to comply with the notice and other pertinent facts. A copy of the petition shall be served upon the owner of record or the owner's agent if an agent is in charge of the building and upon the holder of any encumbrance of record under sub. (1) (d)
. The owner shall reply to the petition within 20 days following service upon the owner. Upon application by the building inspector or other designated officer the circuit court shall set promptly the petition for hearing. Testimony shall be taken by the circuit court with respect to the allegations of the petition and denials contained in the verified answer. If the circuit court after hearing the evidence on the petition and answer determines that the building constitutes a public nuisance, the court shall issue promptly an order directing the owner of the building to remedy the defect and to make such repairs and alterations as may be required. The court shall set a reasonable period of time in which the defect shall be remedied and the repairs or alterations completed. A copy of the order shall be served upon the owner as provided in sub. (1) (d)
. The order of the circuit court shall state in the alternative that if the order of the court is not complied with within the time fixed by the court, the court will appoint a receiver or authorize the building inspector or other designated officer to proceed to raze the building under par. (d)
In an action under this subsection, the circuit court before which the action is commenced shall exercise jurisdiction in rem or quasi in rem over the property that is the subject of the action. The owner of record of the property, if known, and all other persons of record holding or claiming any interest in the property shall be made parties defendant, and service of process may be made upon them.
It is not a defense to an action under this subsection that the owner of record of the property is a different person or entity than the owner of record of the property on or after the date the action was commenced if a lis pendens was filed before the change of ownership.
Failure to comply with court order.
If the order of the circuit court under par. (c)
is not complied with within the time fixed by the court under par. (c)
, the court shall authorize the building inspector or other designated officer to raze the building or shall appoint a disinterested person to act as receiver of the property to do either of the following within a reasonable period of time set by the court:
Remedy the defect and make any repairs and alterations necessary to meet the standards required by the building code or any health order. A receiver appointed under this subdivision, with the approval of the circuit court, may borrow money against and mortgage the property held in receivership as security in any amount necessary to remedy the defect and make the repairs and alterations. For the expenses incurred to remedy the defect and make the repairs and alterations necessary under this subdivision, the receiver has a lien upon the property. At the request of and with the approval of the owner, the receiver may sell the property at a price equal to at least the appraised value of the property plus the cost of any repairs made under this subdivision. The selling owner is liable for those costs.
Secure and sell the building to a buyer who demonstrates to the circuit court an ability and intent to rehabilitate the building and to have the building reoccupied in a legal manner.
A receiver appointed under par. (d)
shall collect all rents and profits accruing from the property held in receivership and pay all costs of management, including all general and special real estate taxes or assessments and interest payments on first mortgages on the property. A receiver under par. (d)
shall apply moneys received from the sale of property held in receivership to pay all debts due on the property in the order set by law and shall pay any balance to the selling owner if the circuit court approves.
The circuit court shall set the fees and bond of a receiver appointed under par. (d)
and may discharge the receiver as the court considers appropriate.
Nothing in this subsection relieves the owner of property for which a receiver has been appointed under par. (d)
from any civil or criminal responsibility or liability except that the receiver has civil and criminal responsibility and liability for all matters and acts directly under the receiver's authority or performed at his or her discretion.
If a defect is not remedied and repairs and alterations are not made within the time limit set by the circuit court under par. (d)
, the court shall order that the building inspector or other designated officer proceed to raze the building.
All costs and disbursements to raze a building under this subsection shall be as provided under sub. (1) (f)
“Cost of repairs" includes the estimated cost of repairs that are necessary to comply with applicable building codes, or other ordinances or regulations, governing the repair or renovation of a historic building.
“Historic building" means any building or object listed on, or any building or object within and contributing to a historic district listed on, the national register of historic places in Wisconsin, the state register of historic places or a list of historic places maintained by a municipality.
The state historical society shall notify a municipality of any historic building located in the municipality. If a historic district lies within a municipality, the historical society shall furnish to the municipality a map delineating the boundaries of the district.
If an order is issued under this section to raze and remove a historic building and restore the site to a dust-free and erosion-free condition, an application is made for a permit to raze and remove a historic building and restore the site to a dust-free and erosion-free condition or a municipality intends to raze and remove a municipally owned historic building and restore the site to a dust-free and erosion-free condition, the municipality in which the historic building is located shall notify the state historical society of the order, application or intent. No historic building may be razed and removed nor the site restored to a dust-free and erosion-free condition for 30 days after the notice is given, unless a shorter period is authorized by the state historical society. If the state historical society authorizes a shorter period, however, such a period shall be subject to any applicable local ordinance. During the 30-day period, the state historical society shall have access to the historic building to create or preserve a historic record. If the state historical society completes its creation or preservation of a historic record, or decides not to create or preserve a historic record, before the end of the 30-day period, the society may waive its right to access the building and may authorize the person who intends to raze and remove the building, and restore the site to a dust-free and erosion-free condition, to proceed before the end of such period, except that such a person shall be subject to any applicable local ordinance.
If a municipal governing body, inspector of buildings or designated officer determines that the cost of repairs to a historic building would be less than 85 percent of the assessed value of the building divided by the ratio of the assessed value to the recommended value as last published by the department of revenue for the municipality within which the historic building is located, the repairs are presumed reasonable.
First class cities; other provisions. 66.0413(4)(a)
First class cities may adopt by ordinance alternate or additional provisions governing the placarding, closing, razing and removal of a building and the restoration of the site to a dust-free and erosion-free condition.
This subsection shall be liberally construed to provide 1st class cities with the largest possible power and leeway of action.
The 30-day time limitation within which an owner may apply to the circuit court for an order restraining a municipality from razing a building applicable to sub. (3) [(now (1) (h)], requires an application to the court within the 30-day period. Service of the application or resultant order need not be made within that period, although a hearing on the merits of the controversy must be held within 20 days. Berkoff v. Milwaukee Department of Building Inspection and Safety Engineering, 47 Wis. 2d 215
, 177 N.W.2d 142
The owner has no option to repair buildings ordered razed when the cost of repair would be unreasonable, i.e., exceeding 50 percent of value. Appleton v. Brunschweiler, 52 Wis. 2d 303
, 190 N.W.2d 545
The statute only creates a presumption that repairs in excess of 50 percent are unreasonable; the property owner has the burden to show that the presumption is unreasonable in the particular case. Posnanski v. City of West Allis, 61 Wis. 2d 461
, 213 N.W.2d 51
The trial court exceeded its authority in modifying a building inspector's order to raze a building by instead ordering repairs necessary to make the building fit for human habitation. Modification of an inspector's order must be made in light of the purpose of protecting the public from unsafe buildings. Donley v. Boettcher, 79 Wis. 2d 393
, 255 N.W.2d 574
Persons affected by a raze order have an exclusive remedy under sub. (3) [now sub. (1) (h)]. Gehr v. Sheboygan, 81 Wis. 2d 117
, 260 N.W.2d 30
A city was properly held in contempt for razing a building protected by a foreclosure judgment. Mohr v. Milwaukee, 106 Wis. 2d 80
, 315 N.W.2d 504
A land contract vendor is not an owner of real estate under this section. City of Milwaukee v. Greenberg, 163 Wis. 2d 28
, 471 N.W.2d 33
The 20-day time limit under sub. (1) (h) is directory rather than mandatory. The trial court shall attempt to hold the hearing within 20 days of the application. If a timely request for judicial substitution is filed that increases the time requirements, the court shall schedule the hearing at the earliest convenient time. Matlin v. City of Sheboygan, 2001 WI App 179
, 247 Wis. 2d 270
, 634 N.W.2d 115
Sub. (1) (h) does not bar a property owner from: 1) asserting claims for torts committed in the carrying out of the raze order that are not premised on the wrongfulness or unreasonableness of the order; 2) challenging the reasonableness of a lien imposed under sub. (1) (f) if one has been imposed; and 3) asserting a claim that salvage and valuable materials have been removed from the real estate for the benefit of the contractor without giving the owner a credit against the charges for the costs of razing and removing under sub. (1) (j). Smith v. Williams, 2001 WI App 285
, 249 Wis. 2d 419
, 638 N.W.2d 635
A constructive total loss occurs following the issuance of a raze order. However, there is no requirement on the city to prove that the property was a total loss prior to issuance of a raze order under an ordinance adopted under sub. (4). A&A Enterprises v. City of Milwaukee, 2008 WI App 43
, 308 Wis. 2d 479
, 747 N.W.2d 751
The phrase “out of repair” in sub. (1) (b) 1. is simple and capable of a common understanding. A building inspector's interpretation of “out of repair” to mean that some aspect of the building required fixing or that the building was non-compliant with the relevant housing codes was a common-sense definition. A building can be “out of repair” for any of a number of reasons, including a sudden fire or rapid exposure to some other damaging condition or element. The phrase connotes no sense that the condition rendering the building “out of repair” has existed for any particular length of time. Auto-Owners Insurance Company v. City of Appleton, 2017 WI App 62
, 378 Wis. 2d 155
, 902 N.W.2d 532
There is no basis in this section for a for a rule that smoke and water damage remediation are not part of the “cost of repair” of a fire. “Cost of repairs” under sub. (1) (c) is not defined, but logically it refers to the cost to remedy all conditions that render the building deficient under sub. (1) (b) 1., including not only those that render the building “out of repair,” but also those that affect the suitability of the building for human habitation. Auto-Owners Insurance Company v. City of Appleton, 2017 WI App 62
, 378 Wis. 2d 155
, 902 N.W.2d 532
There was no constitutional “taking" when tenants were ordered to temporarily vacate their uninhabitable dwelling to permit repairs pursuant to the housing code. Devines v. Maier, 728 F.2d 876
Offensive industry. 66.0415(1)(1)
The common council of a city or village board may direct the location, management and construction of, and license, regulate or prohibit, any industry, thing or place where any nauseous, offensive or unwholesome business is carried on, that is within the city or village or within 4 miles of the boundaries of the city or village, except that the Milwaukee, Menominee and Kinnickinnic rivers with their branches to the outer limits of the county of Milwaukee, and all canals connecting with these rivers, together with the lands adjacent to these rivers and canals or within 100 yards of them, are within the jurisdiction of the city of Milwaukee. A town board has the same powers as are provided in this section for cities and villages as to the area within the town that is not licensed, regulated or prohibited by a city or village under this section. A business that is conducted in violation of a city, village or town ordinance that is authorized under this section is a public nuisance. An action for the abatement or removal of the business or an injunction to prevent operation of the business may be brought and maintained by the common council or village or town board in the name of this state on the relation of the city, village or town as provided in ss. 823.01
, or as provided in s. 254.58
. Section 97.42
does not limit the powers granted by this section. Section 95.72
does not limit the powers granted by this section to cities or villages but powers granted to towns by this section are limited by s. 95.72
and by any orders and rules promulgated under s. 95.72
To prevent nuisance, a city or village may, subject to the approval of the appropriate town board, by ordinance enact reasonable regulations governing areas where refuse, rubbish, ashes or garbage are dumped or accumulated in a town within one mile of the corporate limits of the city or village.
History: 1973 c. 206
; Sup. Ct. Order, 67 Wis. 2d 585, 774 (1975); 1993 a. 27
; 1999 a. 150
; Stats. 1999 s. 66.0415.
The social and economic roots of judge-made air pollution policy in Wisconsin. Laitos, 58 MLR 465.
Local enforcement of certain food and health regulations. 66.0417(1)(1)
An employee or agent of a local health department designated by the department of agriculture, trade and consumer protection under s. 97.41
or 97.615 (2)
may enter, at reasonable hours, any premises for which the local health department issues a license under s. 97.41
or 97.615 (2)
to inspect the premises, secure samples or specimens, examine and copy relevant documents and records, or obtain photographic or other evidence needed to enforce ch. 97
, relating to those premises. If samples of food are taken, the local health department shall pay or offer to pay the market value of those samples. The local health department or department of agriculture, trade and consumer protection shall examine the samples and specimens secured and shall conduct other inspections and examinations needed to determine whether there is a violation of ch. 97
, rules adopted by the department under those statutes, ordinances adopted by the village, city or county or regulations adopted by the local board of health under s. 97.41 (7)
Whenever, as a result of an examination, a village, city or county has reasonable cause to believe that any examined food constitutes, or that any construction, sanitary condition, operation or method of operation of the premises or equipment used on the premises creates an immediate danger to health, the administrator of the village, city or county agency responsible for the village's, city's or county's agent functions under s. 97.41
or 97.615 (2)
may issue a temporary order and cause it to be delivered to the licensee, or to the owner or custodian of the food, or to both. The order may prohibit the sale or movement of the food for any purpose, prohibit the continued operation or method of operation of specific equipment, require the premises to cease any other operation or method of operation which creates the immediate danger to health, or set forth any combination of these requirements. The administrator may order the cessation of all operations authorized by the license only if a more limited order does not remove the immediate danger to health. Except as provided in par. (c)
, no temporary order is effective for longer than 14 days from the time of its delivery, but a temporary order may be reissued for one additional 14-day period, if necessary to complete the analysis or examination of samples, specimens or other evidence.