767.57(1e)(b)1m.1m. The department or its designee may collect any unpaid fees under s. 814.61 (12) (b), 1997 stats., that are shown on the department's automated payment and collection system on December 31, 1998, and shall deposit all fees collected under this subdivision in the appropriation account under s. 20.437 (2) (ja). The department or its designee may collect unpaid fees under this subdivision through income withholding under s. 767.75 (2m). If the department or its designee determines that income withholding is inapplicable, ineffective, or insufficient for the collection of any unpaid fees under this subdivision, the department or its designee may move the court for a remedial sanction under ch. 785. The department or its designee may contract with or employ a collection agency or other person for the collection of any unpaid fees under this subdivision and, notwithstanding s. 20.930, may contract with or employ an attorney to appear in any action in state or federal court to enforce the payment obligation. The department or its designee may not deduct the amount of unpaid fees from any maintenance, child or family support, or arrearage payment.
767.57(1e)(b)2m. 2m. A clerk of court may collect any unpaid fees under s. 814.61 (12) (b), 1997 stats., that are owed to the clerk of court, or to his or her predecessor, and that were not shown on the department's automated payment and collection system on December 31, 1998, through income withholding under s. 767.75 (2m). If the clerk of court determines that income withholding is inapplicable, ineffective, or insufficient for the collection of any unpaid fees under this subdivision, the clerk of court may move the court for a remedial sanction under ch. 785.
767.57(1e)(c) (c) The department or its designee shall collect an annual fee of $35 from every individual receiving child support or family support payments. In applicable cases, the fee shall comply with all requirements under 42 USC 654 (6) (B). The department or its designee may deduct the fee from maintenance, child or family support, or arrearage payments. Fees collected under this paragraph shall be deposited in the appropriation account under s. 20.437 (2) (ja).
767.57(1h) (1h)Nonpayment; enforcement. If maintenance, child support, or family support payments are not paid to the department or its designee at the time provided in the judgment or order, the county child support agency under s. 59.53 (5) or a circuit court commissioner of the county shall take proceedings to secure the payment of the sum, including enforcement by contempt proceedings under ch. 785 or by other means. Copies of any order issued to compel the payment shall be mailed to the attorney, if any, who represented each party when the maintenance, child support, or family support payments were awarded. If any fees of officers in any of the proceedings, including the compensation of the circuit court commissioner at the rate of $50 per day unless the commissioner is on a salaried basis, is not collected from the person proceeded against, the fees shall be paid out of the county treasury upon the order of the presiding judge and the certificate of the department.
767.57(1m) (1m)Overpayment. If the department or its designee receives support or maintenance money that exceeds the amount due in the month in which it is received and the department or its designee determines that the excess amount is for support or maintenance due in a succeeding month, the department or its designee may hold the amount of overpayment that does not exceed the amount due in the next month for disbursement in the next month if any of the following applies:
767.57(1m)(a) (a) The payee or the payer requests that the overpayment be held until the month when it is due.
767.57(1m)(b) (b) The court has ordered that overpayments of child support, family support, or maintenance that do not exceed the amount of support or maintenance due in the next month may be held for disbursement in the next month.
767.57(1m)(c) (c) The party entitled to the support or maintenance money or a minor child of the party has applied for or is receiving aid under s. 48.645 or public assistance under ch. 49 and there is an assignment to the state under s. 48.645 (3) or 49.19 (4) (h) 1. b. of the party's right to the support or maintenance money.
767.57(1m)(cm) (cm) A kinship care relative or a long-term kinship care relative of the child who is entitled to the support money has applied for or is receiving kinship care payments or long-term kinship care payments for that child and there is an assignment to the state under s. 48.57 (3m) (b) 2. or (3n) (b) 2. of the child's right to the support money.
767.57(1m)(d) (d) The department or its designee determines that the overpayment should be held until the month when it is due.
767.57(2) (2)Procedure if recipient on public assistance. If a party entitled to maintenance or support, or both, is receiving public assistance under ch. 49, the party may assign the party's right to support or maintenance to the county department under s. 46.215, 46.22, or 46.23 granting the assistance. The assignment shall be approved by order of the court granting the maintenance or support. The assignment may not be terminated if there is a delinquency in the amount to be paid to the assignee of maintenance and support previously ordered without the written consent of the assignee or upon notice to the assignee and a hearing. When an assignment of maintenance or support, or both, has been approved by the order, the assignee shall be deemed a real party in interest within s. 803.01 solely for the purpose of securing payment of unpaid maintenance or support ordered to be paid, by participating in proceedings to secure the payment of unpaid amounts. Notwithstanding assignment under this subsection, and without further order of the court, the department or its designee, upon receiving notice that a party or a minor child of the parties is receiving aid under s. 48.645 or public assistance under ch. 49 or that a kinship care relative or long-term kinship care relative of the minor child is receiving kinship care payments or long-term kinship care payments for the minor child, shall forward all support assigned under s. 48.57 (3m) (b) 2. or (3n) (b) 2., 48.645 (3), 49.19 (4) (h) 1., or 49.45 (19) to the assignee under s. 48.57 (3m) (b) 2. or (3n) (b) 2., 48.645 (3), 49.19 (4) (h) 1., or 49.45 (19).
767.57(3) (3)Procedure if recipient institutionalized or confined.
767.57(3)(a)(a) If maintenance or support, or both, are ordered to be paid for the benefit of any individual who is committed by court order to an institution, who is in confinement, or whose legal custody is vested by court order under ch. 48 or 938 in an agency, department, relative, or other entity, the court may order that the maintenance or support be paid to the relative, agency, institution, welfare department, or other entity having legal or actual custody of the individual, and that it be used for the person's care and maintenance, without the appointment of a guardian in this state.
767.57(3)(b) (b) If a child who is the beneficiary of support under a judgment or order is placed by court order in a residential care center for children and youth, juvenile correctional institution, or state mental institution, the right of the child to support during the period of the child's confinement, including any right to unpaid support accruing during that period, is assigned to the state. If the judgment or order providing for the support of a child who is placed in a residential care center for children and youth, juvenile correctional institution, or state mental institution includes support for one or more other children, the support that is assigned to the state shall be the proportionate share of the child placed in the center or institution, except as otherwise ordered by the court or circuit court commissioner on the motion of a party.
767.57(4) (4)Procedure for certain child recipients. If an order or judgment providing for the support of one or more children not receiving aid under s. 48.57 (3m) or (3n), 48.645, or 49.19 includes support for a minor who is the beneficiary of aid under s. 48.57 (3m) or (3n), 48.645, or 49.19, any support payment made under the order or judgment is assigned to the state under s. 48.57 (3m) (b) 2. or (3n) (b) 2., 48.645 (3), or 49.19 (4) (h) 1. b. in the amount that is the proportionate share of the minor receiving aid under s. 48.57 (3m) or (3n), 48.645, or 49.19, except as otherwise ordered by the court on the motion of a party.
767.57(5) (5)Trustee or receiver may be appointed. The court may appoint a receiver or trustee, as necessary, to receive any payments ordered under this chapter, to invest and pay over the income for the maintenance of the spouse or the support and education of any of the children described in s. 767.511 (4), or to pay over the principal sum in the amount and at the times that the court directs. The court may require the receiver or trustee to post bond, with or without sureties, in the amount that the court directs.
767.57 History History: 1971 c. 41 s. 12; Sup. Ct. Order, 67 Wis. 2d 585, 775 (1975); 1975 c. 82, 200; 1975 c. 401 s. 4; 1977 c. 105 s. 59; 1977 c. 271, 418, 447; 1979 c. 32 ss. 50, 92 (4); 1979 c. 257 s. 17; Stats. 1979 s. 767.29; 1981 c. 20 s. 2202 (20) (m); 1983 a. 27, 302; 1985 a. 29, 176; 1991 a. 39; 1993 a. 481; 1995 a. 27 ss. 7104tm, 9126 (19), 9130 (4); 1995 a. 77, 279, 289, 404; 1997 a. 27, 35, 105, 191, 252; 1999 a. 9; 2001 a. 16, 59, 61, 105; 2005 a. 25, 387; 2005 a. 443 ss. 127 to 132, 144, 225; Stats. 2005 s. 767.57; 2007 a. 20, 96; 2009 a. 28, 180; 2013 a. 20; 2019 a. 9.
767.57 Annotation An agency assigned benefits under sub. (2) was entitled to collect unpaid alimony and support money that had accumulated prior to the effective date of the assignment and prior to the assignor's receipt of public assistance. Schiavo v. Schiavo, 71 Wis. 2d 136, 237 N.W.2d 702 (1976).
767.57 Annotation The defense of laches is not available in an action or proceeding brought to secure enforcement of a child support order in a divorce action. Paterson v. Paterson, 73 Wis. 2d 150, 242 N.W.2d 907 (1976).
767.58 767.58 Notice of change of employer, address, and ability to pay; other information.
767.58(1)(1)Support or maintenance order; notice requirements.
767.58(1)(a) (a) Each order for child support, family support, or maintenance payments shall include an order that the payer and payee notify the county child support agency under s. 59.53 (5) of any change of address within 10 business days of the change.
767.58(1)(b) (b) Each order for child support, family support, or maintenance payments shall also include an order that the payer notify the county child support agency under s. 59.53 (5) and the payee, within 10 business days, of any change of employer and of any substantial change in the amount of his or her income, including receipt of bonus compensation, affecting his or her ability to pay child support, family support, or maintenance. The order shall also include a statement that notification of any substantial change in the amount of the payer's income will not result in a change of the order unless a revision of the order under s. 767.59 or an annual adjustment of the child or family support amount under s. 767.553 is sought.
767.58(1)(c) (c) Each order for family support or maintenance payments shall include an order requiring the payee to notify the court and the payer within 10 business days of the payee's remarriage.
767.58(1)(d) (d) An order under this subsection is enforceable under ch. 785.
767.58(2) (2)Information for child support agency. When an order is entered under sub. (1), each party shall provide to the county child support agency under s. 59.53 (5) his or her social security number, residential and mailing addresses, telephone number, operator's license number and the name, address and telephone number of his or her employer. A party shall advise the county child support agency under s. 59.53 (5) of any change in the information provided under this subsection within 10 business days after the change.
767.58 History History: 1977 c. 105; 1979 c. 32 s. 50; Stats. 1979 s. 767.263; 1989 a. 212; 1995 a. 279; 1997 a. 27, 191; 2001 a. 16; 2005 a. 443 ss. 113, 226; Stats. 2005 s. 767.58; 2013 a. 209.
767.58 Note NOTE: 2005 Wis. Act 443 contains explanatory notes.
767.59 767.59 Revision of support and maintenance orders.
767.59(1)(1)Definition. In this section, “support or maintenance order" means a judgment or order providing for child support under this chapter or s. 48.355 (2) (b) 4. or (4g) (a), 48.357 (5m) (a), 48.363 (2), 938.183 (4), 938.355 (2) (b) 4. or (4g) (a), 938.357 (5m) (a), 938.363 (2), or 948.22 (7), for maintenance payments under s. 767.56, for family support payments under this chapter, or for the appointment of trustees or receivers under s. 767.57 (5).
767.59(1c) (1c)Court authority.
767.59(1c)(a) (a) On the petition, motion, or order to show cause of either of the parties, the department, a county department under s. 46.215, 46.22, or 46.23, or a county child support agency under s. 59.53 (5) if an assignment has been made under s. 48.57 (3m) (b) 2. or (3n) (b) 2., 48.645 (3), 49.19 (4) (h), or 49.45 (19) or if either party or their minor children receive aid under s. 48.57 (3m) or (3n) or 48.645 or ch. 49, a court may, except as provided in par. (b), do any of the following:
767.59(1c)(a)1. 1. Revise and alter a support or maintenance order as to the amount and payment of maintenance or child support and the appropriation and payment of the principal and income of property held in trust.
767.59(1c)(a)2. 2. Make any judgment or order on any matter that the court might have made in the original action.
767.59(1c)(b) (b) A court may not revise or modify a judgment or order that waives maintenance payments for either party or a judgment or order with respect to final division of property.
767.59(1f) (1f)Support: substantial change in circumstances.
767.59(1f)(a)(a) Except as provided in par. (d), a revision under this section of a judgment or order as to the amount of child or family support may be made only upon a finding of a substantial change in circumstances.
767.59(1f)(b) (b) In an action under this section to revise a judgment or order with respect to the amount of child support, any of the following constitutes a rebuttable presumption of a substantial change in circumstances sufficient to justify a revision of the judgment or order:
767.59(1f)(b)1. 1. Commencement of receipt of aid to families with dependent children under s. 49.19 or participation in Wisconsin works under ss. 49.141 to 49.161 by either parent since the entry of the last child support order, including a revision of a child support order under this section.
767.59(1f)(b)2. 2. Unless the amount of child support is expressed in the judgment or order as a percentage of parental income, the expiration of 33 months after the date of the entry of the last child support order, including a revision of a child support order under this section.
767.59(1f)(b)3. 3. Failure of the payer to furnish a timely disclosure under s. 767.54.
767.59(1f)(b)4. 4. A difference between the amount of child support ordered by the court to be paid by the payer and the amount that the payer would have been required to pay based on the percentage standard established by the department under s. 49.22 (9) if the court did not use the percentage standard in determining the child support payments and did not provide the information required under s. 46.10 (14) (d), 49.345 (14) (d), 301.12 (14) (d), or 767.511 (1n), whichever is appropriate.
767.59(1f)(c) (c) In an action under this section to revise a judgment or order with respect to an amount of child support, any of the following may constitute a substantial change of circumstances sufficient to justify revision of the judgment or order:
767.59(1f)(c)1. 1. Unless the amount of child support is expressed in the judgment or order as a percentage of parental income, a change in the payer's income, evidenced by information received under s. 49.22 (2m) by the department or the county child support agency under s. 59.53 (5) or by other information, from the payer's income determined by the court in its most recent judgment or order for child support, including a revision of a child support order under this section.
767.59(1f)(c)2. 2. A change in the needs of the child.
767.59(1f)(c)3. 3. A change in the payer's earning capacity.
767.59(1f)(c)4. 4. Any other factor that the court determines is relevant.
767.59(1f)(d) (d) In an action under this section to revise a judgment or order with respect to child or family support, the court is not required to make a finding of a substantial change in circumstances to change to a fixed sum the manner in which the amount of child or family support is expressed in the judgment or order.
767.59(1k) (1k)Maintenance: change in cost of living. In an action under this section to revise maintenance payments, a substantial change in the cost of living for either party or as measured by the federal bureau of labor statistics may be sufficient to support a revision of the amount of maintenance, except that a change in an obligor's cost of living is not by itself sufficient if payments are expressed as a percentage of income.
767.59(1m) (1m)Payment revisions prospective. In an action under sub. (1c) to revise a judgment or order with respect to child support, maintenance payments, or family support payments, the court may not revise the amount of child support, maintenance payments, or family support payments due, or an amount of arrearages in child support, maintenance payments, or family support payments that has accrued, prior to the date that notice of the action is given to the respondent, except to correct previous errors in calculations.
767.59(1r) (1r)Credit to payer for certain payments. In an action under sub. (1c) to revise a judgment or order with respect to child support or family support, the court may grant credit to the payer against support due prior to the date on which the petition, motion, or order to show cause is served for payments made by the payer other than payments made as provided in s. 767.57 or 767.75, in any of the following circumstances:
767.59(1r)(b) (b) The payer shows by documentary evidence that the payments were made directly to the payee by check or money order, and shows by a preponderance of the evidence that the payments were intended for support and not intended as a gift to or on behalf of the child, or as some other voluntary expenditure, or for the payment of some other obligation to the payee.
767.59(1r)(c) (c) The payer proves by clear and convincing evidence, with evidence of a written agreement, that the payee expressly agreed to accept the payments in lieu of child or family support paid as provided in s. 767.57 or 767.75, not including gifts or contributions for entertainment.
767.59(1r)(d) (d) The payer proves by documentary evidence that, for a period during which unpaid support accrued, the child received benefits under 42 USC 402 (d) based on the payer's entitlement to federal disability insurance benefits under 42 USC 401 to 433. Any credit granted under this paragraph shall be limited to the amount of unpaid support that accrued during the period for which the benefits under 42 USC 402 (d) were paid.
767.59(1r)(e) (e) The payer proves by a preponderance of the evidence that the child lived with the payer, with the agreement of the payee, for more than 60 days beyond a court-ordered period of physical placement. Credit may not be granted under this paragraph if, with respect to the time that the child lived with the payer beyond the court-ordered period of physical placement, the payee sought to enforce the physical placement order through civil or criminal process or if the payee shows that the child's relocation to the payer's home was not mutually agreed to by both parents.
767.59(1r)(f) (f) The payer proves by a preponderance of the evidence that the payer and payee resumed living together with the child and that, during the period for which a credit is sought, the payer directly supported the family by paying amounts at least equal to the amount of unpaid court-ordered support that accrued during that period.
767.59(2) (2)Percentage standard required; exceptions.
767.59(2)(a)(a) Except as provided in par. (b) or (c), if the court revises a judgment or order with respect to child support payments, it shall do so by using the percentage standard established by the department under s. 49.22 (9).
767.59(2)(b) (b) Upon request by a party, the court may modify the amount of revised child support payments determined under par. (a) if, after considering the factors listed in s. 767.511 (1m), the court finds, by the greater weight of the credible evidence, that the use of the percentage standard is unfair to the child or to any of the parties.
767.59(2)(c) (c) If the court revises a judgment or order providing for child support that was entered under s. 48.355 (2) (b) 4. or (4g) (a), 48.357 (5m) (a), 48.363 (2), 938.183 (4), 938.355 (2) (b) 4. or (4g) (a), 938.357 (5m) (a), or 938.363 (2), the court shall determine child support in the manner provided in s. 49.345 (14) or 301.12 (14), whichever is applicable.
767.59(2s) (2s)Stipulation for revision of support. In an action under sub. (1c), the court may not approve a stipulation for the revision of a judgment or order with respect to an amount of child support or family support unless the stipulation provides for payment of an amount of child support or family support that is determined in the manner required under s. 46.10 (14), 49.345 (14), 301.12 (14), 767.511, 767.805 (4), or 767.89, whichever is appropriate.
767.59(2w) (2w)When revision effective. A revision of a judgment or order with respect to child support, family support, or maintenance payments has the effect of modifying the original judgment or order with respect to the payments to the extent of the revision from the date on which the order revising the payments is effective. The child support, family support, or maintenance payments modified by the order for revision shall cease to accrue under the original judgment or order from the date on which the order revising the payments is effective.
767.59(3) (3)Remarriage; vacating maintenance order. After a final judgment requiring maintenance payments has been rendered and the payee has remarried, the court shall, on application of the payer with notice to the payee and upon proof of the payee's remarriage, or upon receiving notice from the payee of the payee's remarriage, as required under s. 767.58 (1) (c), vacate the order requiring the maintenance payments.
767.59(4) (4)Review when the state is a real party in interest. In any case in which the state is a real party in interest under s. 767.205 (2), the department shall review the support obligation periodically and, if appropriate, petition the court for revision of the judgment or order with respect to the support obligation.
767.59(5) (5)Notice of child support information. A summons or petition, motion, or order to show cause under this section shall include notification of the availability of information under s. 767.105 (2).
767.59 Cross-reference Cross-reference: See also Wisconsin Administrative Code Citations published in the Wisconsin Administrative Code for a list of citations to cases citing chs. DCF 150, HSS 80, HFS 80, and DWD 40, Wis. Adm. Code, the child support percentage of income standard.
767.59 Note NOTE: 2005 Wis. Act 443 contains explanatory notes.
767.59 Note NOTE: The standard for modifying child support orders was significantly changed by 1993 Wis. Act 16.
767.59 Annotation Although one parent took the children out of the state without court approval or letting the other know where the children could be visited, the court could not suspend payment of a support allowance without a hearing as to the effect on the children. Krause v. Krause, 58 Wis. 2d 499, 206 N.W.2d 589 (1973).
767.59 Annotation Even assuming the parties' agreement as to child support gave rise to contractual obligations, these obligations remained subject to modification by the court under this section. Vaccaro v. Vaccaro, 67 Wis. 2d 477, 227 N.W.2d 62 (1975).
767.59 Annotation While a divorced party owes no duty of sexual fidelity to the former spouse, cohabitation by the party can be a change of circumstances affecting the former spouse's responsibility to provide alimony, with the manner and extent of the cohabitation and surrounding circumstances to be considered in determining whether alimony payments should be modified. Taake v. Taake, 70 Wis. 2d 115, 233 N.W.2d 449 (1975).
767.59 Annotation A child support provision reducing payments proportionately as each of several minor children attains majority is not against public policy. Severson v. Severson, 71 Wis. 2d 382, 238 N.W.2d 116 (1976).
767.59 Annotation The trial court abused its discretion in denying the former husband's motion to terminate alimony by failing to consider the former wife's increased estate as the result of an inheritance. Lemm v. Lemm, 72 Wis. 2d 457, 241 N.W.2d 593 (1976).
767.59 Annotation The trial court abused its discretion by terminating maintenance without sufficiently addressing the factors under s. 767.26. Vander Perren v. Vander Perren, 105 Wis. 2d 219, 313 N.W.2d 813 (1982).
767.59 Annotation It was improper to discontinue maintenance payments to a former spouse solely upon the ground of cohabitation. Van Gorder v. Van Gorder, 110 Wis. 2d 188, 327 N.W.2d 674 (1983).
767.59 Annotation When a stipulation required maintenance payments during the wife's lifetime, the husband was estopped from requesting termination of payments under sub. (3) when the wife remarried. Rintelman v. Rintelman, 118 Wis. 2d 587, 348 N.W.2d 498 (1984).
767.59 Annotation A court may revise a judgment incorporating a stipulation regarding limited maintenance if the petition to revise is filed before expiration of a maintenance obligation. Fobes v. Fobes, 124 Wis. 2d 72, 368 N.W.2d 643 (1985).
767.59 Annotation A petition for revision filed 20 days after receipt of the final scheduled maintenance payment was properly dismissed as untimely. Lippstreu v. Lippstreu, 125 Wis. 2d 415, 373 N.W.2d 53 (Ct. App. 1985).
767.59 Annotation A state family court may modify the paying spouse's support obligation following his or her discharge in bankruptcy. Eckert v. Eckert, 144 Wis. 2d 770, 424 N.W.2d 759 (Ct. App. 1988).
767.59 Annotation Orders assigning health care responsibility pursuant to s. 767.25 (4m) are subject to revision under s. 767.32. Kuchenbecker v. Schultz, 151 Wis. 2d 868, 447 N.W.2d 80 (Ct. App. 1989).
767.59 Annotation It is within a trial court's discretion to apply the percentage standards to a child support revision. If applied to a remarried parent, gross income must be computed as if the remarried parent is still single. The trial court retains discretion to adjust the percentage calculation based on the circumstances. Abitz v. Abitz, 155 Wis. 2d 161, 455 N.W.2d 609 (1990).
767.59 Annotation A remarriage, though unlawful in Wisconsin and dissolved through annulment, is sufficient to terminate maintenance under sub. (3). The requirement that maintenance be terminated following remarriage is unconditional. Falk v. Falk, 158 Wis. 2d 184, 462 N.W.2d 547 (Ct. App. 1990).
767.59 Annotation A divorce stipulation waiving or setting a ceiling on child support and preventing modification is against public policy and will not be enforced. Ondrasek v. Tenneson, 158 Wis. 2d 690, 462 N.W.2d 915 (Ct. App. 1990).
767.59 Annotation A party is estopped from seeking a maintenance revision if the parties stipulated to permanent nonmodifiable maintenance that was part of a comprehensive settlement of all property and maintenance issues that was approved by the court and was fair and not illegal or against public policy at the time and relief is being sought on the grounds that the court did not have power to enter the order the parties had agreed to. Nichols v. Nichols, 162 Wis. 2d 96, 469 N.W.2d 619 (1991).
767.59 Annotation A divorce judgment provision waiving maintenance takes precedence over other provisions arguably reserving or awarding maintenance. Tyson v. Tyson, 162 Wis. 2d 551, 469 N.W.2d 913 (Ct. App. 1991).
767.59 Annotation In determining income for maintenance revision, investment income from property awarded in an equal property division may be included. Interest payments to the payee spouse under the division may not to be deducted. Hommel v. Hommel, 162 Wis. 2d 782, 471 N.W.2d 1 (1991).
767.59 Annotation Lottery proceeds won after a divorce may be considered a change in financial circumstances in determining whether a change in maintenance is justified. A maintenance award is to assure the recipient spouse a standard of living comparable to that enjoyed during the marriage. Gerrits v. Gerrits, 167 Wis. 2d 429, 482 N.W.2d 134 (Ct. App. 1992).
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2017-18 Wisconsin Statutes updated through 2019 Wis. Act 18 and through all Supreme Court and Controlled Substances Board Orders filed before and in effect on October 1, 2019. Published and certified under s. 35.18. Changes effective after October 1, 2019, are designated by NOTES. (Published 10-1-19)