961.41 Annotation A delivery conspiracy under sub. (1x) requires an agreement between a buyer and a seller that the buyer will deliver at least some of the controlled substance to a 3rd party. State v. Cavallari, 214 Wis. 2d 42, 571 N.W.2d 176 (Ct. App. 1997), 96-3391.
961.41 Annotation Standing alone, the presence of drugs in someone's system is insufficient to support a conviction for possession, but it is circumstantial evidence of prior possession. Evidence that the defendant was selling drugs is irrelevant to a charge of simple possession. Evidence that the defendant had money but no job does not have a tendency to prove possession. State v. Griffin, 220 Wis. 2d 371, 584 N.W.2d 127 (Ct. App. 1998), 97-0914.
961.41 Annotation Delivery under sub. (1m) requires transfer from one person to another. Intent to transfer drugs to the person from whom they were originally received satisfies this definition. Transfer to a 3rd party is not required. State v. Pinkard, 2005 WI App 226, 287 Wis. 2d 592, 706 N.W.2d 157, 04-2755.
961.41 Annotation A person may be a member of a conspiracy, in particular, a conspiracy to manufacture a controlled substance, based on the person's sale of goods that are not illegal to sell or possess. One does not become a party to a conspiracy by aiding and abetting it, through sales of supplies or otherwise, unless he or she knows of the conspiracy, the inference of which knowledge cannot be drawn from mere knowledge that the buyer will use the goods illegally. The gist of the conspiracy is the seller's intent, when given effect by an overt act to further, promote, and cooperate in the buyer's intended illegal use. There must be clear, unequivocal evidence of the seller's knowledge of the buyer's intended illegal use. State v. Routon, 2007 WI App 178, 304 Wis. 2d 480, 736 N.W.2d 530, 06-2557.
961.41 Annotation Possession requires evidence that the individual had a substance in his or her control. When combined with other corroborating evidence of sufficient probative value, evidence of ingestion can be sufficient to prove possession. State v. Patterson, 2009 WI App 161, 321 Wis. 2d 752, 776 N.W.2d 602, 08-1968.
961.41 Annotation Sub. (3g) (c) requires that the prior conviction be connected to controlled substances if a prior conviction is to trigger penalty enhancement. When the statute underlying a prior conviction presents alternative methods of violating the statute, it is appropriate to consult a limited class of documents to determine what statutory alternative formed the basis for the defendant's prior conviction. A trial court judge, rather than a jury, is allowed to determine the applicability of a defendant's prior conviction for sentence enhancement purposes, when the necessary information concerning the prior conviction can be readily determined from an existing judicial record. State v. Guarnero, 2015 WI 72, 363 Wis. 2d 857, 867 N.W.2d 400, 13-1753.
961.41 Annotation Double jeopardy was not violated when the defendant was convicted of separate offenses under s. 161.41 [now s. 961.41] for simultaneous delivery of different controlled substances. Leonard v. Warden, Dodge Correctional Inst. 631 F. Supp. 1403 (1986).
961.42 961.42 Prohibited acts B — penalties.
961.42(1)(1)It is unlawful for any person knowingly to keep or maintain any store, shop, warehouse, dwelling, building, vehicle, boat, aircraft or other structure or place, which is resorted to by persons using controlled substances in violation of this chapter for the purpose of using these substances, or which is used for manufacturing, keeping or delivering them in violation of this chapter.
961.42(2) (2)Any person who violates this section is guilty of a Class I felony.
961.42 History History: 1971 c. 219; 1995 a. 448 s. 267; Stats. 1995 s. 961.42; 1997 a. 283; 2001 a. 109.
961.42 Annotation “Keeping" a substance under sub. (1) means more than simple possession; it means keeping for the purpose of warehousing or storage for ultimate manufacture or delivery. State v. Brooks, 124 Wis. 2d 349, 369 N.W.2d 183 (Ct. App. 1985).
961.42 Annotation Warehousing or storage under Brooks does not encompass merely possessing an item while transporting it. Cocaine was not warehoused or stored when the cocaine was carried in the defendant's truck while moving from one location to another. State v. Slagle, 2007 WI App 117, 300 Wis. 2d 662, 731 N.W.2d 284, 06-0775.
961.43 961.43 Prohibited acts C — penalties.
961.43(1)(1)It is unlawful for any person:
961.43(1)(a) (a) To acquire or obtain possession of a controlled substance by misrepresentation, fraud, forgery, deception or subterfuge;
961.43(1)(b) (b) Without authorization, to make, distribute or possess any punch, die, plate, stone or other thing designed to print, imprint or reproduce the trademark, trade name or other identifying mark, imprint or device of another or any likeness of any of the foregoing upon any drug or container or labeling thereof so as:
961.43(1)(b)1. 1. To make a counterfeit substance; or
961.43(1)(b)2. 2. To duplicate substantially the physical appearance, form, package or label of a controlled substance.
961.43(2) (2)Any person who violates this section is guilty of a Class H felony.
961.43 History History: 1971 c. 219; 1981 c. 90; 1995 a. 448 s. 268; Stats. 1995 s. 961.43; 1997 a. 283; 2001 a. 109.
961.435 961.435 Specific penalty. Any person who violates s. 961.38 (5) may be fined not more than $500 or imprisoned not more than 30 days or both.
961.435 History History: 1975 c. 190; 1995 a. 448 s. 269; Stats. 1995 s. 961.435.
961.44 961.44 Penalties under other laws. Any penalty imposed for violation of this chapter is in addition to, and not in lieu of, any civil or administrative penalty or sanction otherwise authorized by law.
961.44 History History: 1971 c. 219; 1995 a. 448 s. 271; Stats. 1995 s. 961.44.
961.442 961.442 Penalties; industrial hemp. If a person attempts to conceal the commission of a crime under this chapter while representing that he or she is engaging in the planting, growing, cultivating, harvesting, processing, transporting, importing, exporting, selling, transferring, sampling, testing, or taking possession of industrial hemp, the maximum term of imprisonment prescribed by law for that crime may be increased as follows:
961.442(1) (1)The maximum term of imprisonment for a misdemeanor may be increased by not more than 6 months.
961.442(2) (2)The maximum term of imprisonment for a felony may be increased by not more than 3 years.
961.442 History History: 2017 a. 100.
961.443 961.443 Immunity from criminal prosecution; possession.
961.443(1)(1)Definitions. In this section, “aider" means a person who does any of the following:
961.443(1)(a) (a) Brings another person to an emergency room, hospital, fire station, or other health care facility and makes contact with an individual who staffs the emergency room, hospital, fire station, or other health care facility if the other person is, or if a reasonable person would believe him or her to be, suffering from an overdose of, or other adverse reaction to, any controlled substance or controlled substance analog.
961.443(1)(b) (b) Summons and makes contact with a law enforcement officer, ambulance, emergency medical services practitioner, as defined in s. 256.01 (5), or other health care provider, in order to assist another person if the other person is, or if a reasonable person would believe him or her to be, suffering from an overdose of, or other adverse reaction to, any controlled substance or controlled substance analog.
961.443(1)(c) (c) Calls the telephone number “911" or, in an area in which the telephone number “911" is not available, the number for an emergency medical service provider, and makes contact with an individual answering the number with the intent to obtain assistance for another person if the other person is, or if a reasonable person would believe him or her to be, suffering from an overdose of, or other adverse reaction to, any controlled substance or controlled substance analog.
961.443(2) (2)Immunity from criminal prosecution and revocation of parole, probation, or extended supervision.
961.443(2)(a)(a) No aider may have his or her parole, probation, or extended supervision revoked, and an aider is immune from prosecution under s. 946.49 for bail jumping, under s. 961.573 for the possession of drug paraphernalia, under s. 961.41 (3g) for the possession of a controlled substance or a controlled substance analog, and under s. 961.69 (2) for possession of a masking agent, under the circumstances surrounding or leading to his or her commission of an act described in sub. (1) that occurs on or after July 19, 2017, if the aider's attempt to obtain assistance occurs immediately after the aider believes the other person is suffering from the overdose or other adverse reaction.
961.443(2)(b)1.1. No aided person may have his or her parole, probation, or extended supervision revoked under the circumstances surrounding or leading to an aider's commission of an act described in sub. (1) that occurs on or after July 19, 2017, if the aided person completes a treatment program as a condition of his or her parole, probation, or extended supervision or, if a treatment program is unavailable or would be prohibitive financially, agrees to be imprisoned in the county jail for not less than 15 days.
961.443(2)(b)2. 2. If an aided person is subject to prosecution under s. 946.49 for bail jumping, under s. 961.573 for the possession of drug paraphernalia, under s. 961.41 (3g) for the possession of a controlled substance or a controlled substance analog, or under s. 961.69 (2) for possession of a masking agent under the circumstances surrounding or leading to an aider's commission of an act described in sub. (1) that occurs on or after July 19, 2017, the district attorney shall offer the aided person a deferred prosecution agreement that includes the completion of a treatment program. This subdivision does not apply to an aided person who is on parole, probation, or extended supervision and fails to meet a condition under subd. 1.
Effective date note NOTE: Sub. (2) is repealed and recreated eff. 8-1-20 by 2017 Wis. Act 59 to read:
Effective date text (2) Immunity from criminal prosecution. An aider is immune from prosecution under s. 961.573 for the possession of drug paraphernalia, under s. 961.41 (3g) for the possession of a controlled substance or a controlled substance analog, and under s. 961.69 (2) for possession of a masking agent under the circumstances surrounding or leading to his or her commission of an act described in sub. (1).
961.443 History History: 2013 a. 194; 2015 a. 264; 2017 a. 12, 33, 59, 364.
961.443 Annotation The decision of whether immunity under sub. (2) applies should be made by the court pursuant to a pretrial motion. The defendant bears the burden of proving by a preponderance of the evidence his or her entitlement to immunity. State v. Williams, 2016 WI App 82, 372 Wis. 2d 365, 888 N.W.2d 1, 15-2044.
961.443 Annotation If the legislature had meant to provide immunity for bail jumping offenses founded in part upon violations of the statutes cited in sub. (2), it could have easily written that into this section. It did not. State v. Williams, 2016 WI App 82, 372 Wis. 2d 365, 888 N.W.2d 1, 15-2044.
961.45 961.45 Bar to prosecution. If a violation of this chapter is a violation of a federal law or the law of another state, a conviction or acquittal under federal law or the law of another state for the same act is a bar to prosecution in this state.
961.45 History History: 1971 c. 219; 1995 a. 448 s. 272; Stats. 1995 s. 961.45.
961.45 Annotation Under this section, a “prosecution" is to be equated with a conviction or acquittal. The date on which a sentence is imposed is not relevant to the determination of whether a “prosecution" has occurred. State v. Petty, 201 Wis. 2d 337, 548 N.W.2d 817 (1996), 93-2200.
961.45 Annotation This section bars a Wisconsin prosecution under ch. 961 for the same conduct on which a prior federal conviction is based. The restriction is not limited to the same crime as defined by its statutory elements. State v. Hansen, 2001 WI 53, 243 Wis. 2d 328, 627 N.W.2d 195, 99-1128.
961.45 Annotation If a conspiracy involves multi-layered conduct, and all such conduct is part of the overarching common scheme, this section does not bar prosecution when some other part of the multi-layered conduct has resulted in a prosecution in some other jurisdiction. State v. Bautista, 2009 WI App 100, 320 Wis. 2d 582, 770 N.W.2d 744, 08-1692.
961.452 961.452 Defenses in certain schedule V prosecutions.
961.452(1)(1)A person who proves all of the following by a preponderance of the evidence has a defense to prosecution under s. 961.41 (1) (j) that is based on the person's violation of a condition specified in s. 961.23 with respect to the person's distribution or delivery of a pseudoephedrine product:
961.452(1)(a) (a) The person did not knowingly or recklessly violate the condition under s. 961.23.
961.452(1)(b) (b) The person reported his or her own violation of the condition under s. 961.23 to a law enforcement officer in the county or municipality in which the violation occurred within 30 days after the violation.
961.452(2) (2)A seller who proves all of the following by a preponderance of the evidence has a defense to prosecution under s. 961.41 (1) (j) that is based on the person's violation of a condition specified in s. 961.23 with respect to the person's distribution or delivery of a pseudoephedrine product:
961.452(2)(a) (a) The person did not knowingly or recklessly violate the condition under s. 961.23.
961.452(2)(b) (b) The acts or omissions constituting the violation of the condition under s. 961.23 were the acts or omissions of one or more of the person's employees.
961.452(2)(c) (c) The person provided training to each of those employees regarding the restrictions imposed under s. 961.23 on the delivery of pseudoephedrine products.
961.452(3) (3)A person who proves all of the following by a preponderance of the evidence has a defense to prosecution under s. 961.41 (1) (j) for a violation of s. 961.23 (6):
961.452(3)(a) (a) The purchaser presented an identification card that contained a name or address other than the person's own.
961.452(3)(b) (b) The appearance of the purchaser was such that an ordinary and prudent person would believe that the purchaser was the person depicted in the photograph contained in that identification card.
961.452(3)(c) (c) The sale was made in good faith, in reasonable reliance on the identification card and appearance of the purchaser, and with the belief that the name and address of the purchaser were as listed on the identification card.
961.452(4) (4)A person who proves all of the following by a preponderance of the evidence has a defense to prosecution under s. 961.41 (1) (j) for a violation of s. 961.23 (8):
961.452(4)(a) (a) The purchaser presented an identification card that indicated that he or she was 18 years of age or older.
961.452(4)(b) (b) The appearance of the purchaser was such that an ordinary and prudent person would believe that the purchaser was 18 years of age or older.
961.452(4)(c) (c) The sale was made in good faith, in reasonable reliance on the identification card and appearance of the purchaser, and with the belief that the purchaser was 18 years of age or older.
961.452 History History: 2005 a. 14.
961.453 961.453 Purchases of pseudoephedrine products on behalf of another person.
961.453(1)(a) (a) No person may, with the intent to acquire more than 7.5 grams of pseudoephedrine contained in a pseudoephedrine product within a 30-day period, knowingly solicit, hire, direct, employ, or use another to purchase a pseudoephedrine product on his or her behalf.
961.453(1)(b)1.1. Except as provided in subd. 2., a person who violates par. (a) is guilty of a Class I felony.
961.453(1)(b)2. 2. If the person who is solicited, hired, directed, employed, or used to purchase the pseudoephedrine product is an individual who is less than 18 years of age, the actor is guilty of a Class H felony.
961.453(2) (2)No person may purchase a pseudoephedrine product on behalf of another with the intent to facilitate another person's manufacture of methamphetamine. A person who violates this subsection is guilty of a Class I felony.
961.453 History History: 2005 a. 14, 262.
961.455 961.455 Using a child for illegal drug distribution or manufacturing purposes.
961.455(1)(1)Any person who has attained the age of 17 years who knowingly solicits, hires, directs, employs or uses a person who is under the age of 17 years for the purpose of violating s. 961.41 (1) is guilty of a Class F felony.
961.455(2) (2)The knowledge requirement under sub. (1) does not require proof of knowledge of the age of the child. It is not a defense to a prosecution under this section that the actor mistakenly believed that the person solicited, hired, directed, employed or used under sub. (1) had attained the age of 18 years, even if the mistaken belief was reasonable.
961.455(3) (3)Solicitation under sub. (1) occurs in the manner described under s. 939.30, but the penalties under sub. (1) apply instead of the penalties under s. 939.30.
961.455(4) (4)If the conduct described under sub. (1) results in a violation under s. 961.41 (1), the actor is subject to prosecution and conviction under s. 961.41 (1) or this section or both.
961.455 History History: 1989 a. 121; 1991 a. 153; 1995 a. 27; 1995 a. 448 ss. 273 to 275; Stats. 1995 s. 961.455; 1997 a. 283; 2001 a. 109.
961.46 961.46 Distribution to persons under age 18. If a person 17 years of age or over violates s. 961.41 (1) by distributing or delivering a controlled substance or a controlled substance analog to a person 17 years of age or under who is at least 3 years his or her junior, the applicable maximum term of imprisonment prescribed under s. 961.41 (1) for the offense may be increased by not more than 5 years.
961.46 History History: 1971 c. 219; 1985 a. 328; 1987 a. 339; 1989 a. 121; 1993 a. 98, 118, 490; 1995 a. 27; 1995 a. 448 ss. 276 to 279; Stats. 1995 s. 961.46; 1999 a. 48, 57; 2001 a. 109.
961.47 961.47 Conditional discharge for possession or attempted possession as first offense.
961.47(1)(1)Whenever any person who has not previously been convicted of any offense under this chapter, or of any offense under any statute of the United States or of any state or of any county ordinance relating to controlled substances or controlled substance analogs, narcotic drugs, marijuana or stimulant, depressant or hallucinogenic drugs, pleads guilty to or is found guilty of possession or attempted possession of a controlled substance or controlled substance analog under s. 961.41 (3g) (b), the court, without entering a judgment of guilt and with the consent of the accused, may defer further proceedings and place him or her on probation upon terms and conditions. Upon violation of a term or condition, the court may enter an adjudication of guilt and proceed as otherwise provided. Upon fulfillment of the terms and conditions, the court shall discharge the person and dismiss the proceedings against him or her. Discharge and dismissal under this section shall be without adjudication of guilt and is not a conviction for purposes of disqualifications or disabilities imposed by law upon conviction of a crime, including the additional penalties imposed for 2nd or subsequent convictions under s. 961.48. There may be only one discharge and dismissal under this section with respect to any person.
961.47(2) (2)Within 20 days after probation is granted under this section, the clerk of court shall notify the department of justice of the name of the individual granted probation and any other information required by the department. This report shall be upon forms provided by the department.
961.47 History History: 1971 c. 219; 1985 a. 29; 1989 a. 121; 1991 a. 39; 1995 a. 448 s. 285; Stats. 1995 s. 961.47.
961.47 Annotation A disposition of probation without entering a judgment of guilt, was not appealable because there was no judgment. If a defendant desires either a final judgment or order in the nature of a final judgment for appeal purposes, he or she has only to withhold consent. State v. Ryback, 64 Wis. 2d 574, 219 N.W.2d 263 (1974).
961.47 Annotation The reference to s. 161.41 (3) [now s. 961.41 (3g) (b)] in sub. (1) means that proceedings may only be deferred for convictions for crimes encompassed by s. 161.41 (3) [now s. 961.41 (3g) (b)]. State v. Boyer, 198 Wis. 2d 837, 543 N.W.2d 562 (Ct. App. 1995), 95-0624.
961.472 961.472 Assessment; certain possession or attempted possession offenses.
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2015-16 Wisconsin Statutes updated through 2017 Wis. Act 367 and all Supreme Court and Controlled Substances Board Orders filed before and in effect on December 14, 2018. Published and certified under s. 35.18. Changes effective after December 14, 2018 are designated by NOTES. (Published 12-14-18)