Except as provided in s. 973.032
, all sentences to the Wisconsin state prisons shall be for one year or more. Except as otherwise provided in this section, all sentences commence at noon on the day of sentence, but time which elapses after sentence while the convicted offender is at large on bail shall not be computed as any part of the term of imprisonment.
Except as provided in par. (b)
, the court may impose as many sentences as there are convictions and may provide that any such sentence be concurrent with or consecutive to any other sentence imposed at the same time or previously.
The court may not impose a sentence to the intensive sanctions program consecutive to any other sentence. The court may not impose a sentence to the intensive sanctions program concurrent with a sentence imposing imprisonment, except that the court may impose a sentence to the program concurrent with an imposed and stayed imprisonment sentence or with a prison sentence for which the offender has been released on extended supervision or parole. The court may impose concurrent intensive sanctions program sentences. The court may impose an intensive sanctions program sentence concurrent to probation. The court may impose any sentence for an escape from a sentence to the intensive sanctions program concurrent with the sentence to the intensive sanctions program.
“Determinate sentence" means a bifurcated sentence imposed under s. 973.01
or a life sentence under which a person is eligible for release to extended supervision under s. 973.014 (1g) (a) 1.
“Indeterminate sentence" means a sentence to the Wisconsin state prisons other than one of the following:
Determinate sentences imposed to run concurrent with or consecutive to determinate sentences. 973.15(2m)(b)1.
If a court provides that a determinate sentence is to run concurrent with another determinate sentence, the person sentenced shall serve the periods of confinement in prison under the sentences concurrently and the terms of extended supervision under the sentences concurrently.
If a court provides that a determinate sentence is to run consecutive to another determinate sentence, the person sentenced shall serve the periods of confinement in prison under the sentences consecutively and the terms of extended supervision under the sentences consecutively and in the order in which the sentences have been pronounced.
Determinate sentences imposed to run concurrent with or consecutive to indeterminate sentences. 973.15(2m)(c)1.
If a court provides that a determinate sentence is to run concurrent with an indeterminate sentence, the person sentenced shall serve the period of confinement in prison under the determinate sentence concurrent with the period of confinement in prison under the indeterminate sentence and the term of extended supervision under the determinate sentence concurrent with the parole portion of the indeterminate sentence.
If a court provides that a determinate sentence is to run consecutive to an indeterminate sentence, the person sentenced shall serve the period of confinement in prison under the determinate sentence consecutive to the period of confinement in prison under the indeterminate sentence.
Indeterminate sentences imposed to run concurrent with or consecutive to determinate sentences. 973.15(2m)(d)1.
If a court provides that an indeterminate sentence is to run concurrent with a determinate sentence, the person sentenced shall serve the period of confinement in prison under the indeterminate sentence concurrent with the period of confinement in prison under the determinate sentence and the parole portion of the indeterminate sentence concurrent with the term of extended supervision required under the determinate sentence.
If a court provides that an indeterminate sentence is to run consecutive to a determinate sentence, the person sentenced shall serve the period of confinement in prison under the indeterminate sentence consecutive to the period of confinement in prison under the determinate sentence.
Revocation in multiple sentence cases.
If a person is serving concurrent determinate sentences and extended supervision is revoked in each case, or if a person is serving a determinate sentence concurrent with an indeterminate sentence and both extended supervision and parole are revoked, the person shall concurrently serve any periods of confinement in prison required under those sentences under s. 302.11 (7) (am)
, 302.113 (9) (am)
, or 302.114 (9) (am)
Courts may impose sentences to be served in whole or in part concurrently with a sentence being served or to be served in a federal institution or an institution of another state.
When a court orders a sentence to the Wisconsin state prisons to be served in whole or in part concurrently with a sentence being served or to be served in a federal institution or an institution of another state:
The court shall order the department to immediately inform the appropriate authorities in the jurisdiction where the prior sentence is to be served that the convicted offender is presently available to commence or resume serving that sentence; and
The trial and commitment records required under s. 973.08
shall be delivered immediately to the warden or superintendent of the Wisconsin institution designated as the reception center to receive the convicted offender when he or she becomes available to Wisconsin authorities.
A convicted offender who is made available to another jurisdiction under ch. 976
or in any other lawful manner shall be credited with service of his or her Wisconsin sentence or commitment under the terms of s. 973.155
for the duration of custody in the other jurisdiction.
are applicable to an inmate serving a sentence to the Wisconsin state prisons for a crime committed before December 31, 1999, but confined in a federal institution or an institution in another state.
If a convicted offender escapes, the time during which he or she is unlawfully at large after escape shall not be computed as service of the sentence.
The sentencing court may stay execution of a sentence of imprisonment or to the intensive sanctions program only:
For not more than 60 days, except that the court may not stay execution of a person's sentence of imprisonment or to the intensive sanctions program under this subdivision if the sentence is for a 3rd or subsequent violation that is counted as a suspension, revocation, or conviction under s. 343.307
, or a violation of s. 940.09 (1)
in the person's lifetime, or a combination thereof.
If a court sentences a person under s. 973.03 (5) (b)
, this subsection applies only to the first period of imprisonment.
Judicial Council Note, 1981:
Sub. (2) has been simplified to allow a court, in imposing a criminal sentence, to order that it be concurrent with or consecutive to any other sentence imposed at the same time or previously. The prior statute, although lengthier and more complicated, failed to achieve its apparent purpose of allowing consecutive sentencing in situations involving probation and parole revocations, escapes, etc. See Drinkwater v. State, 69 Wis. 2d 60
(1975); Guyton v. State, 69 Wis. 2d 663
(1975); Bruneau v. State, 77 Wis. 2d 166
(1977); Smith v. State, 85 Wis. 2d 650
(1978); and Donaldson v. State, 93 Wis. 2d 306
This revision allows sentences to be made consecutive to any previously or simultaneously imposed sentence, without regard to whether the offender is “then serving" such sentence, is subject to parole revocation proceedings, or has received a new sentence between the time of an escape and a return to a state facility. The revised statute also governs the sentencing of probationers by virtue of the cross-references in ss. 973.09 (1) (a) and 973.10 (2) (a). [Bill 341-A]
Judicial Council Note, 1981:
Sub. (8) has been added to specify the circumstances under which execution of a sentence of imprisonment may be stayed. Par. (a) references the rule of Reinex v. State, 51 Wis. 152 (1881) and Weston v. State, 28 Wis. 2d 136
(1965), whereby execution can be stayed for “legal cause", such as during the pendency of an appeal. Par. (b) cross-references the probation statute. Par. (c) is new. It allows the court to delay the commencement of a sentence for up to 60 days. The Wisconsin supreme court recently held that courts have no authority to stay execution of a sentence of imprisonment in the absence of such a statutory provision or legal cause. State v. Braun, 100 Wis. 2d 77
(1981). [Bill 736-A]
Under subs. (2) and (3), a court may impose a sentence consecutive to an out-of-state sentence. State v. Toy, 125 Wis. 2d 216
, 371 N.W.2d 386
(Ct. App. 1985).
A sentencing court has authority to stay a sentence and order it be served consecutive to a ss. 345.47 and 973.07 commitment for failure to pay a fine and penalty assessment. State v. Strohbeen, 147 Wis. 2d 566
, 433 N.W.2d 288
(Ct. App. 1988).
An adult sentence cannot run consecutive to a juvenile disposition. State v. Woods, 173 Wis. 2d 129
, 496 N.W.2d 144
(Ct. App. 1992).
The sentence of a defendant convicted of committing a crime while committed under a prior not guilty by reason of mental incompetence commitment under s. 971.17 may not be served concurrent with the commitment. State v. Szulczewski, 209 Wis. 2d 1
, 561 N.W.2d 781
(Ct. App. 1997), 96-1323
A court may not order a prison sentence consecutive to a s. 971.17 commitment. A sentence can only be imposed concurrent or consecutive to another sentence. State v. Harr, 211 Wis. 2d 584
, 568 N.W.2d 307
(Ct. App. 1997), 96-2815
The power under sub. (2) to impose consecutive sentences does not grant authority to impose a sentence to be served consecutively to jail time being served as a condition of probation. State v. Maron, 214 Wis. 2d 384
, 571 N.W.2d 454
(Ct. App. 1997), 97-0790
A commitment under s. 971.17 is legal cause under sub. (8) to stay the sentence of a defendant who commits a crime while serving the commitment. Whether to stay the sentence while the commitment is in effect or to begin the sentence immediately is within the sentencing court's discretion. State v. Szulczewski, 216 Wis. 2d 495
, 574 N.W.2d 660
Sub. (2) authorizes a trial court to impose a sentence consecutive to a previously imposed sentence upon revocation of parole on that sentence. Prior revocation of parole on the earlier sentence is not required before a consecutive sentence may be issued. State v. Cole, 2000 WI App 52
, 233 Wis. 2d 577
, 608 N.W.2d 432
That a sentence begins at noon under sub. (1) was not relevant to a double jeopardy analysis in regard to a sentence pronounced in the morning and then corrected and lengthened the same afternoon before the judgment was entered into the record. State v. Burt, 2000 WI App 126
, 237 Wis. 2d 610
, 614 N.W.2d 42
Double jeopardy prevents a court that, under a mistaken view of the law, entered a valid concurrent sentence from three months later revising the sentence to be a consecutive sentence. State v. Willett, 2000 WI App 212
, 238 Wis. 2d 621
, 618 N.W.2d 881
This section and ss. 302.113 (4) and 973.01 establish that consecutive periods of extended supervision are to be served consecutively, aggregated into one continuous period, so that revocation of extended supervision at any time allows revocation as to all consecutive sentences. State v. Collins, 2008 WI App 163
, 314 Wis. 2d 653
, 760 N.W.2d 438
A sentencing court may consider a Correctional Offender Management Profiling for Alternative Sanctions (COMPAS) risk assessment at sentencing without violating a defendant's right to due process if the risk assessment is used properly with an awareness of the limitations and cautions set forth in the opinion. Risk scores may not be used: 1) to determine whether an offender is incarcerated; or 2) to determine the severity of the sentence. Additionally, risk scores may not be used as the determinative factor in deciding whether an offender can be supervised safely and effectively in the community. Any Presentence Investigation Report (PSI) containing a COMPAS risk assessment must contain a written advisement listing those limitations and informing sentencing courts of certain cautions set forth in the opinion. State v. Loomis, 2016 WI 68
, 371 Wis. 2d 235
, 881 N.W.2d 749
Even if a convicted offender is made available to another jurisdiction, under sub. (5)'s own terms, sentence credit must conform to the terms of s. 973.155. The language of sub. (5) is unambiguous: credit is due under the provision only if it is warranted under s. 973.155, which includes the factual-connection test found in s. 973.155 (1) (a). State v. Lira, 2021 WI 81
, 399 Wis. 2d 419
, 966 N.W.2d 605
Overcrowding does not constitute legal cause under sub. (8) (a). 76 Atty. Gen. 165
A convicted offender shall be given credit toward the service of his or her sentence for all days spent in custody in connection with the course of conduct for which sentence was imposed. As used in this subsection, “actual days spent in custody" includes, without limitation by enumeration, confinement related to an offense for which the offender is ultimately sentenced, or for any other sentence arising out of the same course of conduct, which occurs:
While the offender is awaiting imposition of sentence after trial.
The categories in par. (a)
and sub. (1m)
include custody of the convicted offender which is in whole or in part the result of a probation, extended supervision or parole hold under s. 302.113 (8m)
, 302.114 (8m)
, 304.06 (3)
, or 973.10 (2)
placed upon the person for the same course of conduct as that resulting in the new conviction.
A convicted offender shall be given credit toward the service of his or her sentence for all days spent in custody as part of a substance abuse treatment program that meets the requirements of s. 165.95 (3)
, as determined by the department of justice under s. 165.95 (9)
, for any offense arising out of the course of conduct that led to the person's placement in that program.
After the imposition of sentence, the court shall make and enter a specific finding of the number of days for which sentence credit is to be granted, which finding shall be included in the judgment of conviction. In the case of revocation of probation, extended supervision or parole, the department, if the hearing is waived, or the division of hearings and appeals in the department of administration, in the case of a hearing, shall make such a finding, which shall be included in the revocation order.
The credit provided in sub. (1)
shall be computed as if the convicted offender had served such time in the institution to which he or she has been sentenced.
The credit provided in sub. (1)
shall include earned good time for those inmates subject to s. 302.43
, 303.07 (3)
or 303.19 (3)
serving sentences of one year or less and confined in a county jail, house of correction or county reforestation camp.
If this section has not been applied at sentencing to any person who is in custody or to any person who is on probation, extended supervision or parole, the person may petition the department to be given credit under this section. Upon proper verification of the facts alleged in the petition, this section shall be applied retroactively to the person. If the department is unable to determine whether credit should be given, or otherwise refuses to award retroactive credit, the person may petition the sentencing court for relief. This subsection applies to any person, regardless of the date he or she was sentenced.
A defendant aggrieved by a determination by a court under this section may appeal in accordance with s. 809.30
See also s. DOC 302.28
, Wis. adm. code.
The trial court did not abuse its discretion during resentencing when it refused to give the defendant credit for time served on an unrelated conviction that was voided. State v. Allison, 99 Wis. 2d 391
, 298 N.W.2d 286
(Ct. App. 1980).
This section grants credit for each day in custody regardless of the basis for confinement as long as it is connected to the offense for which sentence is imposed. State v. Gilbert, 115 Wis. 2d 371
, 340 N.W.2d 511
When the intended sentence was valid, but the judge did not follow the procedures under this section, the appropriate remedy was to modify the sentence to conform it to the requirements of this section. State v. Walker, 117 Wis. 2d 579
, 345 N.W.2d 413
“Custody" must result from the occurrence of a legal event, process, or authority that occasions, or is related to, confinement on a charge for which the accused is ultimately sentenced. State v. Demars, 119 Wis. 2d 19
, 349 N.W.2d 708
(Ct. App. 1984).
When an offender committed robbery and 24 hours later fled from an officer, the offender was not entitled to credit toward the robbery sentence for time served under the sentence for fleeing an officer. State v. Gavigan, 122 Wis. 2d 389
, 362 N.W.2d 162
(Ct. App. 1984).
When a probationer is arrested for a second crime and consequently begins serving time for the first crime, no credit toward the second sentence is required for time served under the first sentence. State v. Beets, 124 Wis. 2d 372
, 369 N.W.2d 382
No credit was due for time spent in a drug treatment facility as a condition of probation when the defendant was not in actual “custody" at the facility within the meaning of this section and s. 946.42. State v. Cobb, 135 Wis. 2d 181
, 400 N.W.2d 9
(Ct. App. 1986).
Credit under this section is given on a day-to-day basis, which is not to be duplicatively credited to more than one consecutive sentence. State v. Boettcher, 144 Wis. 2d 86
, 423 N.W.2d 533
Presentence credit must be applied to each of the concurrent terms to which the defendant is sentenced. State v. Ward, 153 Wis. 2d 743
, 452 N.W.2d 158
(Ct. App. 1989).
Out-of-state presentence confinement while the defendant was on parole from Wisconsin may not be credited against subsequent reconfinement in Wisconsin for a parole violation. State v. Rohl, 160 Wis. 2d 325
, 466 N.W.2d 208
(Ct. App. 1991).
When a waiver of juvenile jurisdiction is granted, secure juvenile detention time is eligible for credit consideration under this section as if it were jail time, retroactive to the date of the filing of the juvenile petition. State v. Baker, 179 Wis. 2d 655
, 508 N.W.2d 40
(Ct. App. 1993).
The definition of “custody" in s. 946.42 (1) (a) is used to determine whether a person is in custody for sentence credit purposes. State v. Sevelin, 204 Wis. 2d 127
, 554 N.W.2d 521
(Ct. App. 1996), 96-0729
A person confined on a probation revocation or change in intensive sanctions due to an arrest for a subsequent crime is not entitled to credit under sub. (1) against the sentence for the subsequent crime although the confinement was triggered by the subsequent crime. State v. Abbott, 207 Wis. 2d 624
, 558 N.W.2d 927
(Ct. App. 1996), 96-2051
Sub. (1) (a) provides sentence credit only for custody connected to the charges to which the custody resulted from. Time served as the result of a bail jumping charge was not credited against a sentence for sexual assault, although the bail condition violated was in the sexual assault case. State v. Beiersdorf, 208 Wis. 2d 492
, 561 N.W.2d 749
(Ct. App. 1997), 95-1234
When a defendant is unable to satisfy cash-bail requirements on two or more unrelated charges, the defendant is entitled to sentence credit on both charges. However, if the defendant is committed following a finding of not guilty by reason of mental defect on one charge, there will be no sentence credit from the commitment against a sentence upon conviction on another of the charges as the confinement after the commitment is solely the result of the commitment. State v. Harr, 211 Wis. 2d 584
, 568 N.W.2d 307
(Ct. App. 1997), 96-2815
An 18-year-old on juvenile aftercare parole who was returned to juvenile detention because the parole was revoked pending sentencing after pleading guilty to an adult crime was eligible for sentence credit for the time spent in juvenile detention prior to sentencing. State v. Thompson, 225 Wis. 2d 578
, 593 N.W.2d 875
(Ct. App. 1999), 97-3245
When a sentence has been withheld and probation imposed, sub. (2) gives the court exclusive authority to determine sentence credit in imposing a postprobation sentence. A person subject to electronic monitoring, but not locked in the home at night, was not in custody and not entitled to sentence credit. State v. Olson, 226 Wis. 2d 457
, 595 N.W.2d 460
(Ct. App. 1999), 98-1450
“Course of conduct" in sub. (1) (a) means the specific act for which the defendant is sentenced. As such, a defendant was not entitled to sentence credit on a later imposed sentence for time already served on sentences arising from the same criminal episode, but different criminal acts. State v. Tuescher, 226 Wis. 2d 465
, 595 N.W.2d 443
(Ct. App. 1999), 98-2564
Pretrial confinement on a dismissed charge that is read in at sentencing relates to an offense for which the offender is ultimately sentenced, entitling the offender to sentence credit. State v. Floyd, 2000 WI 14
, 232 Wis. 2d 767
, 606 N.W.2d 155