“Vertical zone of contamination" means that depth of geologic formations, generally near the ground surface, containing connecting pore spaces, crevices or similar openings, including artificial channels, such as unprotected wells or drillholes, through which contaminated water or contaminants gain access to a well or to the groundwater.
“Walkout basement" means a basement, with the floor at ground grade level on at least one side of the structure, from which it is possible to walk directly outside without walking upstairs or uphill.
“Wastewater" means any water carrying wastes created in and conducted away from residences, industrial establishments and public buildings with ground or surface water which may be present including any liquid wastes except clear water wastes.
“Water supply" means the sources, wells, pumps and intake and storage structures from which water is supplied for any purpose.
“Water system" means the water supply, storage, treatment facilities and all structures and piping by which water is provided for any purpose.
“Well" means any drillhole or other excavation or opening deeper than it is wide that extends more than 10 feet below the ground surface constructed for the purpose of obtaining groundwater.
“Well and pressure system" means the water supply and pump installation upstream of a building control valve or pressure tank and including any pressure tank.
“Well cap or seal" means an approved apparatus or device used to cover the top of a well casing pipe.
“Well casing pipe" means pipe meeting standards specified in s. NR 812.17
which is driven or set to seal off the vertical zone of contamination.
“Well constructor" means any person that constructs a well which is not required to be constructed by a licensed individual water well driller or a registered water well drilling business.
“Well drilling" has the meaning specified in s. 280.01 (8)
, Stats., and includes any activity which requires the use of a well drilling rig or similar equipment, or any activity which is conducted using a well drilling rig or similar equipment with the exception of the driving of points having pipe or casing smaller than three inches in diameter. Well drilling also includes constructing a well or performing any activity which changes the characteristics of a drilled well including constructing, reconstructing or deepening a well, sealing the annular space of a well, joining or welding together lengths of well casing pipe or liner pipe, installation of a liner, installing or replacing a screen, well rehabilitation, hydrofracturing, blasting, and chemical conditioning.
NR 812.07 Note
Section 280.01 (8)
, Stats., defines “Well drilling" to mean the industry and procedure employed in obtaining groundwater from a well by digging, boring, drilling, driving or other methods but not including the driving of points for the purpose of obtaining ground water. It shall also include all construction work and installation of well casings in said well involved therein for the protection of such well water against pollution.
NR 812.07 Note
Note: Attaching well casing pipe to the upper portion of a well to extend the well out of a pit is not considered well drilling.
“Well Notification" means a notice provided by a prospective well owner or well driller to the department in accordance with s. 281.34
, Stats., before any new private well is constructed.
NR 812.07 Note
Note: The Well Notification does not apply to proposed high capacity wells, school wells or wastewater treatment plant wells.
“Well-point driving" means constructing a well by joining a drive point screen with lengths of pipe and driving the assembly into the ground with percussion equipment or by hand, but without removing material from a drillhole more than 10 feet below the ground surface.
“Well vent" means a screened opening in a well seal to allow atmospheric pressure to be maintained in the well.
“Well yield" means the quantity of water which may flow or be pumped from the well per unit of time.
“Zone of saturation" means that part of the earth's crust beneath the shallowest water table in which all voids are filled with water under pressure greater than atmospheric.
NR 812.07 History
Cr. Register, January, 1991, No. 421
, eff. 2-1-91; am. (3), (4), (48), (61m), (74) (b), (79), (81), (82), (107) and (119), cr. (27m) (30f), (30m), (30t), (30x), (72m), (79m), (97m) and (110m), renum. (36) and (39) to be (61q) and (61u) and am. Register, September, 1994, No. 465
, eff. 10-1-94; corrections made under s. 13.93 (2m) (b) 7., Stats., Register, September, 1994, No. 465
; correction in (29), (30) and (79m) made under s. 13.93 (2m) (b) 6. and 7., Stats., Register, September, 1996, No. 489
; corrections in (50), (81), (97), (123) and (124) made under s. 13.93 (2m) (b) 7., Stats., Register, December, 1998, No. 516
; correction in (71) made under s. 13.93 (2m) (b) 7., Stats., Register July 2002 No. 559
; CR 05-020
: cr. (24m) and (57w) Register January 2006 No. 601
, eff. 2-1-06; corrections in (28) and (56) made under s. 13.92 (4) (b) 6. and 7., Stats., Register July 2010 No. 655
; correction in (29), (97) made under s. 13.92 (4) (b) 6., 7., Stats., and (29) renumbered to (35g) under s. 13.92 (4) (b) 1., Stats., Register December 2011 No. 672
; CR 13-096
: am. (33) (a), cr. (50e), CR 13-099
: cr. (1d), (1h), (1p), (1t), am. (3), (4), (6), (10), cr. (10m), (17m), (19m), am. (23), (24), cr. (27t), (29m), am. (35), cr. (35e), am. (38), cr. (41m), (47m), am. (49), renum. (51) to (50), (52) to (51), am. (53), (54), cr. (54g), (54r), (55m), am. (57m), cr. (57s), am. (60), cr. (61g), am. (64), (67), (72), (74) (b), cr. (74) (c) to (e), (75c), (75g), (75L), (75p), (75t), (75x), (79e), (79p), (79t), am. (80), cr. (80m), r. and recr. (82), am. (84), cr. (85m), am. (86), (90), (91), (93) (intro.), (a), (94), cr. (94g), (94r), (96g), am. (104) to (108), cr. (108r), (110s), renum. (112g) to (111m), cr. (112m), (112v), (119g), am. (122), r. and recr. (124), cr. (124m) Register September 2014 No. 705
, eff. 10-1-14; correction in (67) made under s. 35.17, Stats., Register September 2014 No. 705
NR 812.08 Water well, heat exchange drillhole, reservoir and spring location. NR 812.08(1)
Any potable or nonpotable well, reservoir, or spring shall be located:
So the well and its surroundings can be kept in a sanitary condition.
At the highest point on the property consistent with the general layout and surroundings if reasonably possible, but in any case protected against surface water flow and flooding.
As far away from any known or possible source of contamination as the general layout of the premises and the surroundings allow.
NR 812.08 Note
Section PSC 114.234 (6)
requires that a horizontal clearance of at least 3/4 of the vertical clearance of the conductors, including overhead power lines to the ground required by Rule 232 shall be maintained between open conductors and wells. Persons installing wells must comply with this requirement.
Such that any potential contaminant source, not identified in this section or in Table A, is a minimum of 8 feet from the well, reservoir, or spring.
Every well shall be located so that it is reasonably accessible with proper equipment for cleaning, treatment, repair, testing, inspection and any other maintenance that may be necessary.
(2) Relation to buildings.
In relation to buildings, the location of any potable or nonpotable well shall be as follows:
When a well is located outside it shall be located so that the top of the well casing pipe extends at least 12 inches above the final established ground grade and in a manner such that it is not directly in line with a rainwater downspout outlet or other similar clear water discharge that creates a sanitary hazard to the well.
NR 812.08 Note
Note: The department recommends that when a well is located adjacent to a building, it be located so the center line of the well extended vertically will clear the overhang of any building by not less than 2 feet to allow for well reconstruction and for pulling the pump.
When a structure is built over a drilled well, it shall have an easily removable access hatch, or provide other practicable access to allow for pulling and servicing the pump. The well casing pipe shall extend at least 12 inches above ground grade or above the ground-grade floor of the building and shall be sealed watertight at the point where it extends through the floor.
No well may be located, nor a building constructed, such that the well casing pipe will terminate in a basement or extend through the basement of any building or terminate under the floor of a building having no basement. A well may not terminate in or extend through a crawl space having a below ground grade depression or excavation.
NR 812.08 Note
Note: Wells terminating in basements and below-grade crawl spaces often pose a sanitary hazard to safe drinking water so they have not been allowed to be constructed, nor have screens been allowed to be replaced since April 10, 1953. Many wells terminating in basements or crawl spaces do not meet the requirements of Subchapter IV.
NR 812.08 Note
Note: This paragraph does not apply to wells located in alcoves or subsurface pumprooms adjoining a basement.
The top of a well casing pipe may terminate in a walkout basement if the following conditions are met:
It is possible to walk directly outside from the walkout basement without walking upstairs or upslope.
The surface of the ground around the outside exit door of the walkout basement slopes down away from the door.
The well and pump installation are accessible for repair and removal.
The well produces water continuously free from contaminants in excess of the drinking water standards of s. NR 812.06
The well and pump installation are in compliance with all other requirements of this chapter.
A well may not terminate in or extend through a crawl space having a below grade depression or excavation.
If a well must be located in a driveway, parking area, walkway or other high traffic area due to lot size or to meet minimum required separation distances between the well and contaminant sources, the well may be contained within a driveway ramp structure without department approval providing the driveway ramp meets the specifications of s. NR 812.36
. Driveway ramps may not be constructed or located in a floodway or floodplain.
A yard hydrant may not be installed within or on a well.
A potable or nonpotable well may be constructed, reconstructed or replaced in a floodfringe provided that the top of the well is terminated at least 2 feet above the regional flood elevation for the well site.
A well may be reconstructed or replaced in a floodway provided that the top of the well is terminated at least 2 feet above the regional flood elevation for the well site.
A well may not be constructed on a floodway property that is either undeveloped or has building structures but no existing well.
The regional flood elevation may be obtained from the department.
(4) Relation to contamination sources.
Minimum separating distances between any new potable or nonpotable well, heat exchange drillhole, reservoir or spring and existing sources of contamination; or between new sources of contamination and potable or nonpotable wells, heat exchange drillholes, reservoirs or springs shall be maintained as described in this subsection. The minimum separating distances of this subsection do not apply to dewatering wells approved under s. NR 812.09 (4) (a)
. Greater separation distances may be required for wells requiring plan approval under s. NR 812.09
. Separation distance requirements to possible sources of contamination will not be waived because of property lines. Separation distances shall be measured from the edge of the well, reservoir or spring, to the nearest edge of the contamination source. Minimum separating distances are listed in Table A and are as follows:
Fertilizer or pesticide storage tank with a capacity of less than 1,500 gallons, but only if the well is nonpotable and if the tank is not buried;
NR 812.08 Note
Note: For potable wells and buried tanks, see par. (d) 1.
Dog or other small pet house, pet animal shelter or kennel housing not more than 5 adult pets on a residential lot;
NR 812.08 Note
Note: For the minimum separating distance to a river or a stream, see par. (b) 7.
A septic tank, a POWTS treatment component, or a wastewater sump;
NR 812.08 Note
Note: A POWTS treatment component includes a private wastewater treatment tank.
Buried sanitary building drain or sanitary building sewer having pipe not conforming to ch. SPS 384
Lake, pond, river, stream, or stormwater detention basin, measured to the regional high water elevation in the case of a lake or pond, to the edge of the floodway in the case of a river or stream, or to the edge in the case of a stormwater detention basin;
NR 812.08 Note
Note: The separation distance requirements of this subsection do not apply to synthetically-lined decorative yard ponds located on residential lots.
Buried pressurized sewer pipe conveying manure provided that the pipe meets ASTM specification D-2241, with standard dimension ratio of 21 or less or pressure pipe meeting the requirements of s. NR 110.13
Fuel oil tank, serving a single family residence including any associated surface or buried piping;
Vertical shaft installed below grade used for intake of air for a heating or air conditioning system; or
Buried sanitary collector sewer serving 4 or fewer living units or having a diameter of 6 inches or less; or
Surface or basement liquid petroleum product tank with a capacity less than 1,500 gallons.
NR 812.08 Note
Note: The department recommends that potable wells be installed at least 25 feet from an agricultural crop field, sludge or septage landspreading or drying area.
POWTS dispersal component or a soil absorption unit receiving less than 12,000 gallons per day of design wastewater flow, including any existing, replacement or abandoned POWTS dispersal component or a soil absorption unit, within 3 years of abandonment, but not including a school soil absorption unit or a POWTS dispersal component. This subdivision includes absorption units both regulated and not regulated by ch. SPS 383
, but does not include a separation requirement for school wells;