NR 812.15(3)(b)2.b. b. An outer upper enlarged drillhole at least 2 inches larger in diameter than the nominal diameter of the outer well casing pipe shall be constructed, by circulating drilling mud, from the ground surface to about halfway, if known, through the unconsolidated confining bed, but to a depth not less than the depth required by Tables I to IV.
NR 812.15(3)(b)2.c. c. An outer well casing pipe meeting the specifications of temporary outer casing described in s. NR 812.17 and assembled with welded joints shall be set to the bottom of the outer upper enlarged drillhole. Threaded and coupled well casing pipe may be used if the upper enlarged drillhole is constructed 4 inches larger in diameter than the nominal diameter of the well casing pipe. The annular space shall be sealed according to the requirements of s. NR 812.20 with clay or sodium bentonite slurry and cuttings having a mud weight of at least 11 pounds per gallon, or with neat cement grout.
NR 812.15(3)(b)2.d. d. An inner upper enlarged drillhole, the same diameter as the inside diameter of the outer well casing pipe, shall be constructed, by circulating drilling mud and cuttings with a mud weight of at least 11 pounds per gallon, through the remainder of the unconsolidated confining bed and either into an unconsolidated aquifer or to the top of a bedrock aquifer.
NR 812.15(3)(b)2.e. e. The inner well casing pipe shall have a nominal diameter 2 inches smaller than the nominal diameter of the outer well casing pipe, shall meet s. NR 812.17 and Table V requirements and shall be set to the bottom of the inner upper enlarged drillhole, and, if the aquifer is bedrock, driven to a firm seat with a drive-shoe. The annular space may be sealed with the drilling mud and cuttings or with neat cement grout, except when the inner upper enlarged drillhole extends more than 5 feet into bedrock, in which case the annular space shall be sealed with neat cement grout according to the requirements of s. NR 812.20.
NR 812.15(3)(b)2.f. f. The well shall be completed in the manner prescribed in Tables I to IV and by s. NR 812.14.
NR 812.15(3)(c) (c) Aquifer is confined, is more than 40 feet from the ground surface and the confining bed is bedrock. Flowing wells constructed in areas where the aquifer is confined, is more than 40 feet from the ground surface and where the confining bed is bedrock shall be constructed as follows:
NR 812.15(3)(c)1. 1. When such a flowing well is constructed using percussion methods:
NR 812.15(3)(c)1.a. a. As depicted in figure 9, a temporary outer casing at least 4 inches larger in diameter than the nominal diameter of the well casing pipe shall be driven, while drilling, from the ground surface to a firm seat in the top of bedrock confining bed.
NR 812.15(3)(c)1.b. b. An upper enlarged drillhole the same diameter as the inside diameter of the temporary outer casing shall be constructed from the bottom of the temporary outer casing about halfway, if known, through the bedrock confining bed. The depth of this upper enlarged drillhole may not be less than the depth required in Tables I to IV.
NR 812.15(3)(c)1.c. c. The well casing pipe with a drive shoe shall be set to the bottom of the upper enlarged drillhole and driven to a firm seat in the bedrock confining bed.
NR 812.15(3)(c)1.d. d. The annular space shall be sealed with neat cement grout according to the requirements of s. NR 812.20 and the temporary outer casing shall be removed if possible.
NR 812.15(3)(c)1.e. e. After waiting 24 hours following grouting, a lower drillhole the same diameter of the inside diameter of the permanent well casing pipe shall be constructed from the bottom of the permanent well casing pipe through the remainder of the confining bed into the bedrock aquifer.
NR 812.15(3)(c)1.f. f. For confined aquifers under high artesian pressure that produce a flow from the well greater than or equal to 70 gallons per minute, the department recommends that a flow pipe meeting Table V requirements be installed watertight with a packer from the bottom of the well casing pipe at least 10 feet into the aquifer to prevent the erosive action of the water entering the well so as to reduce the danger of water cutting a channel around the well casing pipe. In addition, the department recommends that a suitable piping arrangement, with a watertight packer or seal, be provided for the top of the well casing pipe to prevent excess pressure build-up or unnecessary flow or loss of artesian pressure.
NR 812.15(3)(c)1.g. g. The department recommends that a flow pipe as described in subd. 1. f. also be installed when the confining bed produces turbid water.
NR 812.15(3)(c)2. 2. When such a flowing well is constructed using rotary methods:
NR 812.15(3)(c)2.a. a. As depicted in figure 10, an upper enlarged drillhole at least 2 inches larger in diameter than the nominal diameter of the well casing pipe shall be constructed about halfway, if known, through the bedrock confining bed. The depth of the upper enlarged drillhole may not be less than that required by Tables I to IV.
NR 812.15(3)(c)2.b. b. The well casing pipe assembled with welded joints shall be set to the bottom of the upper enlarged drillhole and driven to a firm seat in the bedrock confining bed. Threaded and coupled well casing pipe may be used if the upper enlarged drillhole is constructed 4 inches larger in diameter than the nominal diameter of the well casing pipe.
NR 812.15(3)(c)2.c. c. The annular space shall be sealed with neat cement grout by using an approved pressure method according to the requirements of s. NR 812.20.
NR 812.15(3)(c)2.d. d. The well shall be completed according to the percussion method requirements of subd. 1. e. to g.
NR 812.15(3)(d) (d) Aquifer is confined and less than 40 feet from the ground surface. When flowing wells are constructed in areas where the aquifer is confined and lies less than 40 feet below the ground surface, the wells shall be double-cased as follows:
NR 812.15(3)(d)1. 1. An upper enlarged drillhole shall be constructed for both the outer well casing pipe and the inner well casing pipe. The size of the upper enlarged drillholes for both the outer and inner well casing pipes and the methods of their construction are the same as described in pars. (b) and (c) when the aquifer is greater than 40 feet below the ground surface.
NR 812.15(3)(d)2. 2. The outer well casing pipe shall extend about halfway through the overlying confining bed and shall be sealed in place according to the grouting and sealing requirements of s. NR 812.20. If the confining bed is bedrock, the portion of the upper enlarged drillhole constructed into the overlying unconsolidated material above the confining bed shall be constructed by driving, while drilling, a temporary outer casing to the top of the confining bed. The outer well casing pipe shall meet, at a minimum, the specifications for temporary outer casing of s. NR 812.17 (1) (a).
NR 812.15(3)(d)3. 3. The inner well casing pipe shall extend into the aquifer to a depth not less than the depth required in Tables I to IV. It shall be set in the inner upper enlarged drillhole, driven to firm seat if in bedrock and shall be sealed in place according to the grouting and sealing requirements of s. NR 812.20.
NR 812.15(3)(d)4. 4. The methods of placement of the outer and inner well casing pipes shall also be the same as described in pars. (b) and (c) for those cases where the aquifer is encountered at a depth greater than 40 feet below the ground surface.
NR 812.15(3)(d)5. 5. The size of the inner well casing pipe shall have a nominal diameter not less than 4 inches for unconsolidated formation wells and not less than 6 inches for bedrock wells.
NR 812.15(3)(d)6. 6. When the confining bed is limestone or dolomite and lies 10 feet or less below the ground surface, the inner upper enlarged drillhole and the inner well casing pipe shall extend to at least the 60-foot depth.
NR 812.15 History History: Cr. Register, January, 1991, No. 421, eff. 2-1-91; am. (2) and (3) (intro.), (b) 2. e. and Figure 6, Register, September, 1994, No. 465, eff. 10-1-94; CR 13-099: r. and recr. Figures (5) (b) 1., (6) (b) 1., (7) (b) 2., (9) (c) 1., (10) (c) 2., Register September 2014 No. 705, eff. 10-1-14.
NR 812.16 NR 812.16Gravel-pack well construction.
NR 812.16(1) (1)Conditions. Gravel-pack well construction may be used under any of the following conditions:
NR 812.16(1)(a) (a) In an unconsolidated formation well when the natural formation comprising the aquifer is very fine grained or when the aquifer formation is highly variable in size.
NR 812.16(1)(b) (b) In loosely-cemented sandstone aquifers that require screening to prevent sand pumping conditions.
NR 812.16(1)(c) (c) In badly fractured or decomposed crystalline bedrock formations.
NR 812.16(2) (2)Material. The gravel or coarse sand to be used for the gravel-pack shall be uniformly graded, well rounded, washed and sterilized silica-based rock gravel or coarse sand, shall be free from other material and shall comply with the requirements of AWWA A100-84, section 6. The size of the gravel-pack should be based on a sieve analysis of the aquifer material. The 70% retained size of the gravel-pack shall be 4 to 6 times greater than the 70% retained size of the aquifer sample. The uniformity coefficient of the gravel-pack may not exceed 2.5.
NR 812.16(3) (3)Screens. Screens to be placed in gravel-pack wells shall have a set of centering guides on the top and bottom of the screen to ensure an even gravel-pack. The screen slot openings shall be sized to retain 90% of the gravel-pack.
NR 812.16(3)(a) (a) Screen type. Screens installed within gravel-packs for nonpotable high capacity wells and for low capacity wells, including school and wastewater treatment plant wells, shall be continuous-slot. Screens for potable high capacity wells shall be continuous-slot, V-shaped wire wrap on a rod base. As an alternative, louvered, shutter-type screens may be used with gravel-packs for any type of well provided they are designed and installed in a manner such that water from the well is practicably free of sand. Screen selection for dewatering wells is optional.
NR 812.16(3)(b) (b) Screen material. For potable wells, the screen material shall be stainless steel, everdur, monel or brass. Brass screens may not have a lead content of more than 8%. Low carbon steel or low carbon steel-galvanized screens may also be used for nonpotable wells, but burlap or other organic material may not be used as a filter wrap surrounding screens.
NR 812.16(3)(c) (c) Method of screen attachment. The screen may either be permanently welded or threaded onto the bottom of the well casing pipe or may be installed with the telescope method.
NR 812.16(4) (4)Placement. The gravel-pack shall be placed through an adequately sized metal conductor pipe placed in the annular space. The gravel-pack shall surround the entire screen and shall extend at least 2 feet above the top of the screen. At least a 2-foot sand seal shall be placed upon the top of the gravel-pack to prevent the required annular space sealing material from entering the gravel-pack. The gravel-pack may not extend closer to the ground surface than the minimum depth for the upper enlarged drillhole specified in Tables I to IV.
NR 812.16(5) (5)Thickness. To allow for adequate well development the department recommends that the gravel-pack not exceed 4 inches in thickness, on one side. The gravel-pack may not be less than 2 inches in thickness, on one side. The diameter of the upper enlarged drillhole shall be sized to accommodate the thickness of the gravel-pack.
NR 812.16 History History: Cr. Register, January, 1991, No. 421, eff. 2-1-91; am. (3) (a), Register, September, 1994, No. 465, eff. 10-1-94.
NR 812.17 NR 812.17Well casing and heat exchange pipe, liner pipe and materials.
NR 812.17(1) (1)General. Well and heat exchange drillhole casing pipe, heat exchange loop pipe, and liner pipe shall be new, unused, and nonreclaimed pipe except as specified in s. NR 812.26 (5). The pipe shall meet ASTM or API standards and shall also meet the following requirements:
NR 812.17(1)(a) (a) Temporary casing. Temporary casing pipe for all wells and heat exchange drillholes, or well casing pipe greater than 12-inch diameter used for nonpotable wells may be a lighter weight steel pipe than specified for a given diameter in Table V. Pipe for nonpotable wells greater than 12-inch diameter shall have a minimum wall thickness of at least 0.250 inches and be able to withstand the structural stress imposed by construction conditions. Thermoplastic pipe meeting the minimum requirements of sub. (3) may be used for temporary casing for heat exchange drillholes in caving formations.
NR 812.17(1)(b) (b) Pipe for liners. Liner pipe installed solely to seal off a caving or sloughing zone in a well or heat exchange drillhole shall be new, unused and nonreclaimed steel or thermoplastic pipe. Steel pipe shall also meet the specifications of Table V except that it may have a lesser wall thickness than what is required in Table V for the diameter of pipe used. Steel pipe for such liners shall have a minimum wall thickness of 0.216 inches. The pipe may have the largest practical diameter allowing installation in the well. When thermoplastic pipe is used for such liners, it shall meet the minimum requirements of sub. (3). Liner pipe used in all other situations shall meet the specifications in Table V for steel pipe or the requirements of sub. (3), and the cement grout annular space seal thickness for thermoplastic pipe may not exceed 1-1/2 inches. For the requirements for the installation of liner pipe see s. NR 812.21.
NR 812.17(1)(c) (c) Diameter uniformity. Within any separate string of well casing pipe, all lengths of pipe used shall be of the same diameter.
NR 812.17(2) (2)Steel well casing pipe.
NR 812.17(2)(a)(a) Specifications. Steel well casing pipe shall have the dimensions and weights specified in Table V except as exempted in sub. (1) (a) and (b). ASTM A 120 pipe may not be used. Well casing pipe used in initial well construction or liner pipe used for reconstruction of a well with water containing contaminant levels exceeding the drinking water standards in s. NR 812.06 shall be new steel pipe meeting one of the following standards:
NR 812.17(2)(a)1. 1. ASTM A 53;
NR 812.17(2)(a)2. 2. ASTM A 106;
NR 812.17 Note Note: The ASTM specification for A 120 well casing pipe was withdrawn in 1987.
NR 812.17(2)(a)3. 3. ASTM A 589—Type I, Grade A or B—Type II, Grade A, Type III—driven well pipe;
NR 812.17(2)(a)4. 4. API 5CT;
NR 812.17(2)(a)5. 5. API 5D; or
NR 812.17(2)(a)6. 6. API 5L.
NR 812.17(2)(b) (b) Water well driller, heat exchange driller; well constructor responsibilities. Well and heat exchange drillers and well constructors may not use unmarked or inadequately marked well or heat exchange drillhole casing pipe for permanent well or heat exchange drillhole casing pipe. It is the well and heat exchange driller's or well constructor's responsibility to use well casing pipe that meets the requirements of this chapter. The well and heat exchange driller or well constructor shall examine all shipments of well or heat exchange drillhole casing pipe received and shall reject any defective length of pipe and return it to the manufacturer or supplier. When the well and heat exchange drillhole casing pipe or the pipe markings are of questionable condition, the well and heat exchange driller or well constructor shall supply the department with the manufacturer's mill certification papers listing the pipe specifications including the heat numbers.
NR 812.17(2)(c) (c) Defective pipe. Well and heat exchange drillhole casing or heat exchange loop pipe may be inspected by the department. Any defective length may be rejected by the department and may not be used in well construction. Reject pipe may include:
NR 812.17(2)(c)1. 1. Pipe with girth welded joints;
NR 812.17(2)(c)2. 2. Pipe with welded patches;
NR 812.17(2)(c)3. 3. Pipe not conforming to the marking requirements of par. (d);
NR 812.17(2)(c)4. 4. Pipe with defects, such as cracks, open welds, partial or incomplete welds, open seams, laminations in pipe wall which exceed 12-1/2% of wall thickness, or slivers which exceed 12-1/2% of wall thickness.
NR 812.17(2)(c)5. 5. Pipe with coatings containing contaminants on the inside of the pipe.
NR 812.17(2)(c)6. 6. Pipe with heavy coatings of paint on the outside of the pipe.
NR 812.17(2)(d) (d) Marking requirements. Each length of well casing pipe 2 inches or larger in diameter shall meet the requirements in Table V and shall be legibly marked in conformance with the ASTM or API marking specifications including color identification in the form of bands. Except where identified in this subdivision, each length of pipe shall show the manufacturer's name or trademark; ASTM marking or API monogram, specification number and grade; diameter in inches; wall thickness or weight in pounds per foot; whether seamless or welded and type of weld. Specific well casing pipe marking requirements are as follows:
NR 812.17(2)(d)1. 1. ASTM A 53: manufacturer's name or mark; ASTM designation, specification number and grade;process of manufacture, continuous welded (type F), electric-resistance—welded A, electric-resistance—welded B, seamless, or seamless B, XS for extra strong, XXS for double extra strong.
NR 812.17(2)(d)2. 2. ASTM A 106: manufacturer's name or mark; ASTM designation and specification number; schedule number; hydrostatic test pressure when tested, the letters “NH" when not tested;symbol “S" if the section of pipe conforms to the supplementary requirements for chemical composition, transverse tension and flattening tests and metal structure and etching tests;weight of pipe if pipe is greater than 4 inches in diameter.
NR 812.17(2)(d)3. 3. ASTM A 589: manufacturer's name or mark; ASTM designation, specification number and grade; wall thickness; nominal or outside diameter; process of manufacture, butt-welded, electric-resistance—welded, or seamless; grade, for Type I—Drive Pipe;type number, Type I—Drive Pipe, Type II—Water-Well Reamed and Drifted Pipe, Type III—Driven Well Pipe.
NR 812.17(2)(d)4. 4. API 5A, API 5AX, API 5L and API 5LX: manufacturer's name or mark; API monogram and specification; size, outside diameter; weight per foot; grade of pipe; process of manufacture, S for seamless, E for electric weld, and F for butt weld pipe; hydrostatic test pressure.
NR 812.17(2)(d)5. 5. API 5D: manufacturer's name or mark; API specification; Compatible standards; Unfinished pipe (UF), if plain-end; Size and weight designation; Grade.
NR 812.17(2)(d)6. 6. API 5L: manufacturer's name or mark; API specification; Compatible standards; Size and weight designation; Grade; Process of manufacture, S for seamless, E for electric weld, F for continuous-weld pipe; Heat treatment symbol; Hydrostatic test pressure, if higher than standard pressure.
NR 812.17(2)(d)7. 7. API 5CT: manufacturer's name or mark; API specification; Compatible Standards; Unfinished pipe (UF), if plain-end; Size and weight designation; Grade; Process of manufacture; Test pressure; Type of thread (if used); Heat treatment.
NR 812.17 Note Note: The listed ASTM and API specifications are available for inspection at the offices of the department of natural resources, the secretary of state, and the legislative reference bureau and may be obtained for personal use from the American Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103 and the American Petroleum Institute, Publication and Distribution Section, 1220 L Street, Northwest, Washington, D.C. 20005.
NR 812.17(2)(e) (e) Assembly and installation. When steel well casing pipe is driven or installed it shall be accomplished in a manner such that injury to the well casing pipe does not result which may affect the quality of the water supply. Steel well casing pipe shall be assembled watertight by correctly mated, recessed type couplings having the weights and diameters as listed in Table V or by means of joints welded in accordance with the specifications in the American Welding Society manual, AWS D10.12-89, “Recommended Practices and Procedures for Welding Low Carbon Steel Pipe." No other means of assembly may be used without approval. Steel well casing pipe to be assembled with welded joints shall have beveled ends. The weld shall fill the bevel. The department recommends that a minimum of 2 welding passes be made for any pipe having a diameter larger than 7 inch outside diameter.
NR 812.17(3) (3)Thermoplastic well casing pipe.
NR 812.17(3)(a)(a) Pipe and material specifications:
NR 812.17(3)(a)1.1. Thermoplastic well casing pipe and couplings shall be new polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) material produced to and meeting the ASTM F 480 standard and shall have a standard dimension ratio (SDR) of 21, 17 or 13.5. Styrene-rubber thermoplastic well casing pipe, including ASTM F 480 may not be used.
NR 812.17(3)(a)2. 2. The nominal well casing pipe diameter shall be at least 4 inches.
NR 812.17(3)(a)3. 3. The thermoplastic well casing pipe, pipe couplings, cement, primer and other components used shall be approved for well casing pipe in potable water supplies by the NSF Standard Number 14 as it relates to well casing pipe, or an approved equivalent organization. Approval of alternate organizations shall be based on demonstration of unbiased and appropriate testing methods at least as stringent as NSF methods.
NR 812.17(3)(a)4. 4. The well and heat exchange drillhole casing pipe shall be marked in accordance with the ASTM F 480 specification and this section. The pipe shall be marked at least every 5 feet showing the nominal size; standard dimension ratio or schedule number; type of material; the wording — “well casing" — followed by impact classification; designation “ASTM F 480" including year of issue of the standard with which the well casing pipe complies; manufacturer's name or trademark; manufacturer's code for resin manufacture, lot number and date of manufacture; and the NSF-WC designation or other approved laboratory's seal or mark.
NR 812.17(3)(a)5. 5. Prior to use the thermoplastic well casing pipe shall be inspected for defects. Pipe with defects shall not be used for permanent well casing pipe.
NR 812.17(3)(a)6. 6. The thermoplastic pipe shall be assembled with either flush-threaded joints, integral-bell, solvent-cemented joints or one-piece solvent cemented couplings in a manner according to the specifications in ASTM F 480. A permanent tag bearing the message“plastic well casing" shall be attached to the top of the well casing pipe, the full pitless unit, or the riser pipe extending up from a short-model pitless unit.
NR 812.17(3)(a)7. 7. When thermoplastic well casing pipe is extended above the depth of the buried pump discharge pipe, the thermoplastic pipe shall be contained in a pump house or in a oversized steel pipe extending to the top of the thermoplastic pipe.
NR 812.17(3)(a)8. 8. The listed ASTM and NSF standards are available for inspection at the offices of the department of natural resources, the secretary of state and the legislative reference bureau, and may be obtained for personal use from the American Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103 and from the National Sanitation Foundation Testing Laboratories, Inc.; P.O. Box 1468, Ann Arbor, MI 48106.
NR 812.17 Note Note: The requirements for the installation of pitless adapters, pitless units or above-ground discharges for wells constructed with thermoplastic well casing pipe are in s. NR 812.31 (4).
NR 812.17 History History: Cr. Register, January, 1991, No. 465, eff. 2-1-91; am. (1) (a) and (b), (2) (a), (b), (c) (intro.) and 3., (3) (a) 1. and 6., cr. (1) (c), (2) (c) 6. and (d) 5. to 7., renum. (2) (d) 1. a. to d. and (f) to be (2) (d) 1. to 4. and (e) and am. (2) (d) 1. and 3., r. (2) (d) 2., Register, September, 1994, No. 465, eff. 10-1-94; correction in (3) (a) 8. made under s. 13.92 (4) (b) 6., Stats., Register July 2010 No. 655; CR 13-096: am. (title), (1), (2) (b), (c) (intro.), (3) (a) 4. Register September 2014 No. 705, eff. 10-1-14. - See PDF for table PDF
NR 812.18 NR 812.18Welding procedures.
NR 812.18(1) (1) Welding procedures for plain end well casing pipe shall be made watertight in accordance with the specifications in the American Welding Society manual, AWS D10.12-89, “Recommended Practices and Procedures for Welding Low Carbon Steel Pipe". Well casing pipe to be welded shall conform to the specifications of s. NR 812.17 (2). Welding procedures for pitless adapter connections to well casing pipe shall be made watertight in accordance with welding procedures in the AWS Structural Welding Code, AWS D1.1.
NR 812.18(2) (2) The referenced AWS manuals are incorporated by reference. They are available for inspection at the department, the legislative reference bureau and the secretary of state's office and may be obtained for personal use from the American Welding Society, P.O. Box 351040, Miami, Florida 33135.
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Published under s. 35.93, Stats. Updated on the first day of each month. Entire code is always current. The Register date on each page is the date the chapter was last published.