SPS 321.26(8)(a)1.1. Flashing shall be installed in accordance with this section to drain any water outward away from structural members, sheathing and insulation.
SPS 321.26(8)(a)2. 2. Open joints or weep holes shall be provided in the facing immediately above the flashing at a horizontal spacing not exceeding 2 feet.
SPS 321.26(8)(a)3. 3. Flashing that will be exposed to ultraviolet light shall consist of materials which are durable and permanently UV-resistant, such as sheet metal or heavy-gauge PVC.
SPS 321.26 Note Note: Materials including house wrap, asphalt-impregnated building paper, plastic sheeting, peel-and-stick rubberized sheet material, and light-gauge PVC are not acceptable as meeting this requirement.
SPS 321.26(8)(b) (b) Location.
SPS 321.26(8)(b)1.1. `Lintels and chimneys.' In exterior hollow masonry walls, flashing shall be installed at the backsides of chimneys and at the bottom of the cavity formed by openings such as lintels over doors and windows.
SPS 321.26(8)(b)2. 2. `Veneer.' Flashing shall be installed at the bottom of veneer and shall extend over the top of the foundation and up at least 8 inches and be embedded in the backing course.
SPS 321.26(8)(c) (c) Weep holes.
SPS 321.26(8)(c)1.1. Weep holes may not be placed below final grade.
SPS 321.26(8)(c)2. 2. Rope or similar material used to form a weep hole shall be removed as soon as the mortar sets.
SPS 321.26(8)(c)3. 3. Weep holes shall be 3/8-inch minimum diameter.
SPS 321.26 Note Note: See s. SPS 321.24 (3) for further requirements relating to flashing for masonry.
SPS 321.26(9) (9)Bearing.
SPS 321.26(9)(a)(a) Concentrated loads. Beams, girders, trusses, joists and other members producing concentrated loads shall bear a minimum of 3 inches on one of the following:
SPS 321.26(9)(a)1. 1. `Concrete beam.' The equivalent of a nominally reinforced 2,500 psi concrete beam 8 inches in height.
SPS 321.26(9)(a)2. 2. `Solid masonry.' At least 8 inches in height of masonry composed of solid masonry units with all voids and joints completely filled with mortar.
SPS 321.26(9)(a)3. 3. `Metal plate.' A metal plate of sufficient thickness and size to distribute the load to masonry units. For piers and columns, the bearing plate shall not exceed 60% of the cross-sectional area of the pier or column and the resultant reaction of all vertical and horizontal loads shall fall within the middle third of the member.
SPS 321.26(9)(a)4. 4. `Bond beam.' The bond beam shall be the equivalent of not less than an 8-inch lintel (bond beam) block with 2 No. 4 bars embedded in high strength mortar fill or equivalent. The loads shall bear on the fill.
SPS 321.26(9)(b) (b) Continuous loads. Joists, trusses and beams other than wood, spaced 4 feet or less on center and 40 feet or less in length, slabs or other members causing continuous loads shall be transmitted to masonry with a minimum bearing of 3 inches upon solid masonry at least 2½ inches in height, or as indicated for concentrated loads.
SPS 321.26(9)(c) (c) Stack bond walls. Concentrated loads shall be distributed into masonry laid in stack bond by a concrete beam or bond beam as defined in par. (a). For masonry of solid units, 2 additional rows of a continuous tie assembly may be used instead of a concrete beam or bond beam.
SPS 321.26(9)(d) (d) Support of wood floor members. Where a wood structural member is buried in masonry for support, it shall be firecut or a self-releasing device shall be used. Where the end of a wood structural member is built into an exterior wall, a ½-inch air space shall be provided at the sides, top and end of such member.
SPS 321.26(10) (10)Bonding. Unless designed through structural analysis, all masonry walls shall be bonded as follows:
SPS 321.26(10)(a) (a) Single-wythe walls. Masonry units in single-wythe walls shall be lapped at least 2 inches or one-third the height of the masonry unit, whichever is greater, or through the use of continuous tie assemblies spaced at 16-inch vertical intervals.
SPS 321.26(10)(b) (b) Multi-wythe walls. Adjacent wythes shall be bonded with continuous tie assemblies spaced at vertical intervals not exceeding 16 inches; or individual ties of at least 3 /16-inch diameter for each 4½ square feet of wall area, spaced at a maximum vertical distance of 18 inches and a maximum horizontal distance of 36 inches; or bonded with a full course of masonry headers every seventh course. The clear distance between bond courses shall not exceed 16 inches for solid masonry units and 24 inches for hollow masonry units. Hollow walls shall not be bonded with headers.
SPS 321.26(11) (11)Bolts and anchors. The allowable shear on steel bolts and anchors shall not exceed the values given in Table 321.26. - See PDF for table PDF
SPS 321.26(12) (12)Joints. Joints in masonry construction shall be constructed in accordance with ACI 530.1.
SPS 321.26(13) (13)Cleaning. Chemical cleaning agents shall be prevented from harming the metal reinforcement of structural components and shall not be of a strength which will adversely affect the mortar.
SPS 321.26 History History: Cr. Register, November, 1979, No. 287, eff. 6-1-80; am. (3) and cr. Table 21.26-B1 Register, February, 1985, No. 350, eff. 3-1-85; am. (9) (b), Register, January, 1989, No. 397, eff. 2-1-89; am. (6) (b), Register, March, 1992, No. 435, eff. 4-1-92; r. and recr. (2), am. (5) (c), (7) (a) 3., 4., (b), r. (14), Register, November, 1995, No. 479, eff. 12-1-95; CR 02-077: am. (7) (a) 4. Register May 2003 No. 569, eff. 8-1-03; CR 08-043: r. and recr. (1), (5) (a), (8) and (12), renum. (3) (intro.) and (a) to be (3) (a) and (b) and am. (3) (a), am. (4) (b) and (7) (a) 2., r. (5) (c), Tables 21.26-B and B1, cr. (7) (a) 5. to 7. and (c) Register March 2009 No. 639, eff. 4-1-09; CR 09-104: am. (8) (a) 3. Register December 2010 No. 660, eff. 1-1-11; correction in (9) (c) made under s. 13.92 (4) (b) 7., Stats., Register January 2011 No. 661; correction in (3) (a), (6) (b), (7) (a) 6., (11) made under s. 13.92 (4) (b) 7., Stats., Register December 2011 No. 672.
subch. VIII of ch. SPS 321 Subchapter VIII — Roof and Ceilings
SPS 321.27 SPS 321.27Roof design and framing.
SPS 321.27(1) (1)Structural design.
SPS 321.27(1)(a)(a) General. Roof and roof-ceiling assemblies shall support all dead loads plus the minimum live loads under par. (c) and s. SPS 321.02.
SPS 321.27(1)(b) (b) Applicability of tables. The joist and rafter tables in ch. SPS 325 Appendix A are valid for roofs with a minimum slope of 3 in 12. Lesser slopes require engineering analysis or shall be provided with a ridge beam.
SPS 321.27(1)(c) (c) Sloped roof snow loads. Snow loads specified in s. SPS 321.02 (1) (b) 2. may be reduced for roof slopes greater than 30° by multiplying the snow load by Cs. The value of Cs shall be determined by the following: - See PDF for diagram PDF
where a is the slope of the roof expressed in degrees.
SPS 321.27 Note Note: A roof pitch of 7 in 12 is equal to 30°.
SPS 321.27(2) (2)Lateral restraint of walls. Provisions shall be taken to absorb the horizontal thrust produced by a sloping roof through the use of wall ties, ceiling joists, beams at the ridge or at the wall or a system designed through structural analysis.
SPS 321.27(3) (3)Uplift and suction forces.
SPS 321.27(3)(a)(a) General.
SPS 321.27(3)(a)1.1. Roofs shall withstand a pressure of at least 20 pounds per square foot acting upward normal to the roof surface.
SPS 321.27(3)(a)2. 2. Roof overhangs, eaves, canopies and cornices shall withstand an upward wind pressure of at least 20 pounds per square foot applied to the entire exposed area.
SPS 321.27(3)(b) (b) Anchorage.
SPS 321.27(3)(b)1.1. Roof framing members spanning more than 6 feet measured from the outermost edge of the roof shall be permanently fastened to the top plate of load bearing walls using engineered clips, straps or hangers.
SPS 321.27(3)(b)2. 2. Roof framing members spanning 6 feet or less measured from the outermost edge of the roof shall be permanently fastened to the top plate of load bearing walls using toe-nailing or engineered clips, straps or hangers.
SPS 321.27 Note Note: For information on toe nailing, see the fastener schedule table in the ch. SPS 325 Appendix A.
SPS 321.27(4) (4)Roof rafters.
SPS 321.27(4)(a)(a) General.
SPS 321.27(4)(a)1.1. Rafters shall be notched to fit the exterior wall plate and fastened to the wall.
SPS 321.27(4)(a)2. 2. Collar ties shall be installed on the upper third of every third pair of abutting roof rafters or every 48 inches, whichever is less.
SPS 321.27 Note Note: Collar ties are intended to provide stability to the roof at the ridge. Lateral restraint for the walls must be provided in accordance with sub. (2).
SPS 321.27(4)(b) (b) Ridge boards.
SPS 321.27(4)(b)1.1. Where rafters meet to form a ridge, the rafters shall be attached to a ridge board.
SPS 321.27(4)(b)2. 2. The ridge board shall have a depth at least equal to the length of the cut end of the rafter abutting it.
SPS 321.27(4)(b)3. 3. Where all rafters are placed directly opposite each other or are offset at the ridge board by less than the thickness of the rafter, the ridge board shall have a nominal thickness of at least 1 inch.
SPS 321.27(4)(b)4. 4. Where one or more rafters are offset at the ridge board by more than the thickness of the rafter, the ridge board shall have a nominal thickness of at least 2 inches.
SPS 321.27(4)(c) (c) Ridge beams. Rafters shall be attached to ridge beams using engineered clips, straps or hangers or the connection shall be designed through structural analysis.
SPS 321.27(4)(d) (d) Bearing. The required bearing for wood rafters shall be in accordance with the NDS adopted in Table 320.24-6m, except in no case shall the bearing be less than 1 1/2 inches on wood or metal or less than 3 inches on masonry or concrete.
SPS 321.27(4)(e) (e) Ladders.
SPS 321.27(4)(e)1.1. Overhangs at gable end walls of more than 12 inches shall be provided with ladders which extend into the structure a distance no less than the length of the overhang.
SPS 321.27(4)(e)2. 2. The ladders shall be fastened at the wall.
SPS 321.27(4)(e)3. 3. The interior end of each ladder shall be attached to a rafter or truss with a hanger.
SPS 321.27 Note Note: For the purposes of this section, a ladder is defined as a perpendicular projection extending beyond the face of the wall below.
SPS 321.27(5) (5)Ceiling joists.
SPS 321.27(5)(a)(a) Ceiling joists shall be nailed to exterior walls and to the ends of rafters.
SPS 321.27(5)(b) (b) Ends of ceiling joists shall be lapped at least 3 inches and be fastened either with 3-16d nails or in accordance with the floor joist requirements under s. SPS 321.22 (4) (a) 1. d.
SPS 321.27 Note Note: See the fastener table in the ch. SPS 325 Appendix A for a nailing schedule for ceiling joists.
SPS 321.27(5)(c) (c) Where ceiling joists are placed at right angles to the rafters, the lookout joist or ties shall be fastened to the parallel ceiling joists or rafters using engineered clips, straps or hangers or the connection shall be designed through structural analysis.
SPS 321.27(6) (6)Valley and hip rafters.
SPS 321.27(6)(a)(a) Valley rafters.
SPS 321.27(6)(a)1.1. Where no bearing is provided under valley rafters at the intersection of 2 roof areas, the valley rafters shall be doubled in thickness and shall be at least 2 inches deeper than the required common rafter to permit full bearing at the beveled end.
SPS 321.27(6)(a)2. 2. Where ridges are provided at different elevations, vertical support shall be provided for the interior end of the lower ridge board or ridge beam.
SPS 321.27(6)(b) (b) Hip rafters. Where no bearing is provided under hip rafters, the hip rafters shall be of the same thickness as common rafters and shall be at least 2 inches deeper than required to permit full contact with the jack rafter.
SPS 321.27(7) (7)Roof trusses.
SPS 321.27(7)(a)(a) Metal plate connected wood roof trusses shall be designed in accordance with TPI 1 and the NDS adopted under s. SPS 320.24.
SPS 321.27(7)(b) (b) Truss members shall not be cut, bored or notched, except as allowed under sub. (8) (d).
SPS 321.27(7)(c) (c) If connection is provided to stabilize a non-load bearing wall, a slotted expansion joint or clip shall be used.
SPS 321.27(8) (8)Notching and boring.
SPS 321.27(8)(a)(a) General.
SPS 321.27(8)(a)1.1. Notching and boring of beams or girders is prohibited unless determined through structural analysis.
SPS 321.27(8)(a)2. 2. Notching and boring of ceiling joists and rafters shall comply with pars. (b) and (c).
SPS 321.27(8)(b) (b) Notching.
SPS 321.27(8)(b)1.1. Notches located in the top or bottom of ceiling joists and rafters are prohibited from all of the following:
SPS 321.27(8)(b)1.a. a. Having a depth exceeding 1/6 the depth of the member.
SPS 321.27(8)(b)1.b. b. Having a length exceeding 1/3 the depth of the member.
SPS 321.27(8)(b)1.c. c. Being located in the middle 1/3 of the span of the member.
SPS 321.27(8)(b)2. 2. Where ceiling joists or rafters are notched at the ends, the notch may not exceed ¼ the depth of the member.
SPS 321.27(8)(b)3. 3. Bird mouth cuts may not exceed 1/3 the depth of the rafter unless the seat cut bears fully on the wall plate.
SPS 321.27(8)(c) (c) Boring.
SPS 321.27(8)(c)1.1. Holes bored within 2 inches of the top or bottom of ceiling joists or rafters may not be located in the middle 1/3 of the span of the member.
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Published under s. 35.93, Stats. Updated on the first day of each month. Entire code is always current. The Register date on each page is the date the chapter was last published.