SPS 321.26(3)(a)(a) Mortar specifications. The type of mortar shall be determined from Table 321.26-A. The mortar shall conform to the requirements of ASTM C-270.
SPS 321.26(3)(b) (b) Surface bond mortars. Surface bond mortars for masonry walls shall be mixed in accordance with the proportions specified on the bag.
SPS 321.26(4) (4)Mortar components. Mortar components shall comply with the following requirements:
SPS 321.26(4)(a) (a) Water. Water shall be clean and free of deleterious amounts of acids, alkalies, or organic materials.
SPS 321.26(4)(b) (b) Admixtures or mortar colors. Admixtures or mortar colors shall not be added to the mortar unless the resulting mortar conforms to the mortar specifications. Only mineral oxide may be used as mortar color and shall not exceed 10% by weight of the cement.
SPS 321.26(4)(c) (c) Mixing. Mortar shall be mixed for at least 3 minutes after all ingredients have been added with the maximum amount of water to produce a workable consistency. Mortars that have stiffened due to water evaporation shall be retempered by adding water as frequently as needed to restore the required consistency. Mortars shall be used and placed in final position within 2½ hours after mixing.
SPS 321.26 Note Note: To ensure proper mortar mixing, machine mixing is recommended. - See PDF for table PDF
SPS 321.26(4)(d) (d) Cementitious material. Cementitious material shall conform to the standards approved by the department.
SPS 321.26 Note Note: The department will accept cementitious material conforming to the following standards: ASTM C91, Masonry Cement; ASTM C150, Portland Cement; ASTM C595, Portland Blast-Furnace Slag Cement; ASTM C207, Hydrated Lime for Masonry Purposes; and ASTM C5, Quick Lime for Structural Purposes.
SPS 321.26(4)(e) (e) Aggregates. Aggregates for use in masonry mortar shall consist of natural sand or manufactured sand and shall be graded.
SPS 321.26 Note Note: The department will accept aggregates in accordance with ASTM C144.
SPS 321.26(5) (5)Cavity wall.
SPS 321.26(5)(a)(a) Corbels. Corbels shall be constructed in accordance with ACI 530.
SPS 321.26(5)(b) (b) Projections. The projection of a wall beyond the edge of a supporting member other than masonry, such as a shelf angle or edge of a beam, shall not exceed 1¼ inches, unless at least 2/3 the mass of the wythe of masonry involved is located directly over the load-carrying member.
SPS 321.26(6) (6)Openings and lintels.
SPS 321.26(6)(a)(a) Openings. The masonry above openings shall be supported. The bearing length of structural elements which support the masonry above the opening shall be not less than 4 inches.
SPS 321.26(6)(b) (b) Lintels. Unless designed through structural analysis, lintels shall be provided using either steel angles or reinforcing bars in accordance with Table 321.26-C. - See PDF for table PDF
SPS 321.26(7) (7)Masonry veneers.
SPS 321.26(7)(a)(a) Veneer over frame construction.
SPS 321.26(7)(a)1.1. Masonry veneers may be corbeled over the foundation wall, but the corbeling shall not exceed one inch.
SPS 321.26(7)(a)2. 2. A minimum one-inch air space shall be provided between the veneer and the sheathing unless a manufactured offset material is used.
SPS 321.26(7)(a)3. 3. Where no brick ledge is formed in the foundation wall, corrosion resistant metal or other water-resistant flashing shall extend over the top of the foundation wall from the outside face of the wall and shall extend at least 6 inches up on the sheathing. The flashing shall be installed to drain any water outward.
SPS 321.26(7)(a)4. 4. Weep holes shall be provided at the bottom masonry course at maximum intervals of 2 feet.
SPS 321.26(7)(a)5. 5. Ventilation openings shall be provided at the top of the wall.
SPS 321.26 Note Note: The ventilation opening could be other than a weep hole.
SPS 321.26(7)(a)6. 6. Studs and sheathing behind masonry veneer shall be covered with material used to construct the water-resistive barrier as required under s. SPS 321.24 (4).
SPS 321.26 Note Note: Acceptable water-resistive barrier materials include polymeric-based house wraps and #15 or greater asphalt-saturated felts that comply with ASTM D 226 for type I felt.
SPS 321.26(7)(a)7. 7. Masonry or brick veneer shall be above final exterior grade unless there is through-wall flashing at grade or within 2 courses above grade.
SPS 321.26(7)(b) (b) Veneer over masonry back-up. Corrosion-resistant metal or other water-resistant base flashing shall be provided at the bottom of the veneer and shall extend over the top of the foundation and up at least 6 inches and be embedded in the back-up course. The flashing shall be installed to drain any water outward. Weep holes shall be provided at maximum intervals of 3 feet.
SPS 321.26(7)(c) (c) Veneer attachment. Veneers shall be anchored or adhered in accordance with ACI 530 and ACI 530.1.
SPS 321.26(8) (8)Flashing.
SPS 321.26(8)(a)(a) General.
SPS 321.26(8)(a)1.1. Flashing shall be installed in accordance with this section to drain any water outward away from structural members, sheathing and insulation.
SPS 321.26(8)(a)2. 2. Open joints or weep holes shall be provided in the facing immediately above the flashing at a horizontal spacing not exceeding 2 feet.
SPS 321.26(8)(a)3. 3. Flashing that will be exposed to ultraviolet light shall consist of materials which are durable and permanently UV-resistant, such as sheet metal or heavy-gauge PVC.
SPS 321.26 Note Note: Materials including house wrap, asphalt-impregnated building paper, plastic sheeting, peel-and-stick rubberized sheet material, and light-gauge PVC are not acceptable as meeting this requirement.
SPS 321.26(8)(b) (b) Location.
SPS 321.26(8)(b)1.1. `Lintels and chimneys.' In exterior hollow masonry walls, flashing shall be installed at the backsides of chimneys and at the bottom of the cavity formed by openings such as lintels over doors and windows.
SPS 321.26(8)(b)2. 2. `Veneer.' Flashing shall be installed at the bottom of veneer and shall extend over the top of the foundation and up at least 8 inches and be embedded in the backing course.
SPS 321.26(8)(c) (c) Weep holes.
SPS 321.26(8)(c)1.1. Weep holes may not be placed below final grade.
SPS 321.26(8)(c)2. 2. Rope or similar material used to form a weep hole shall be removed as soon as the mortar sets.
SPS 321.26(8)(c)3. 3. Weep holes shall be 3/8-inch minimum diameter.
SPS 321.26 Note Note: See s. SPS 321.24 (3) for further requirements relating to flashing for masonry.
SPS 321.26(9) (9)Bearing.
SPS 321.26(9)(a)(a) Concentrated loads. Beams, girders, trusses, joists and other members producing concentrated loads shall bear a minimum of 3 inches on one of the following:
SPS 321.26(9)(a)1. 1. `Concrete beam.' The equivalent of a nominally reinforced 2,500 psi concrete beam 8 inches in height.
SPS 321.26(9)(a)2. 2. `Solid masonry.' At least 8 inches in height of masonry composed of solid masonry units with all voids and joints completely filled with mortar.
SPS 321.26(9)(a)3. 3. `Metal plate.' A metal plate of sufficient thickness and size to distribute the load to masonry units. For piers and columns, the bearing plate shall not exceed 60% of the cross-sectional area of the pier or column and the resultant reaction of all vertical and horizontal loads shall fall within the middle third of the member.
SPS 321.26(9)(a)4. 4. `Bond beam.' The bond beam shall be the equivalent of not less than an 8-inch lintel (bond beam) block with 2 No. 4 bars embedded in high strength mortar fill or equivalent. The loads shall bear on the fill.
SPS 321.26(9)(b) (b) Continuous loads. Joists, trusses and beams other than wood, spaced 4 feet or less on center and 40 feet or less in length, slabs or other members causing continuous loads shall be transmitted to masonry with a minimum bearing of 3 inches upon solid masonry at least 2½ inches in height, or as indicated for concentrated loads.
SPS 321.26(9)(c) (c) Stack bond walls. Concentrated loads shall be distributed into masonry laid in stack bond by a concrete beam or bond beam as defined in par. (a). For masonry of solid units, 2 additional rows of a continuous tie assembly may be used instead of a concrete beam or bond beam.
SPS 321.26(9)(d) (d) Support of wood floor members. Where a wood structural member is buried in masonry for support, it shall be firecut or a self-releasing device shall be used. Where the end of a wood structural member is built into an exterior wall, a ½-inch air space shall be provided at the sides, top and end of such member.
SPS 321.26(10) (10)Bonding. Unless designed through structural analysis, all masonry walls shall be bonded as follows:
SPS 321.26(10)(a) (a) Single-wythe walls. Masonry units in single-wythe walls shall be lapped at least 2 inches or one-third the height of the masonry unit, whichever is greater, or through the use of continuous tie assemblies spaced at 16-inch vertical intervals.
SPS 321.26(10)(b) (b) Multi-wythe walls. Adjacent wythes shall be bonded with continuous tie assemblies spaced at vertical intervals not exceeding 16 inches; or individual ties of at least 3/16-inch diameter for each 4½ square feet of wall area, spaced at a maximum vertical distance of 18 inches and a maximum horizontal distance of 36 inches; or bonded with a full course of masonry headers every seventh course. The clear distance between bond courses shall not exceed 16 inches for solid masonry units and 24 inches for hollow masonry units. Hollow walls shall not be bonded with headers.
SPS 321.26(11) (11)Bolts and anchors. The allowable shear on steel bolts and anchors shall not exceed the values given in Table 321.26. - See PDF for table PDF
SPS 321.26(12) (12)Joints. Joints in masonry construction shall be constructed in accordance with ACI 530.1.
SPS 321.26(13) (13)Cleaning. Chemical cleaning agents shall be prevented from harming the metal reinforcement of structural components and shall not be of a strength which will adversely affect the mortar.
SPS 321.26 History History: Cr. Register, November, 1979, No. 287, eff. 6-1-80; am. (3) and cr. Table 21.26-B1 Register, February, 1985, No. 350, eff. 3-1-85; am. (9) (b), Register, January, 1989, No. 397, eff. 2-1-89; am. (6) (b), Register, March, 1992, No. 435, eff. 4-1-92; r. and recr. (2), am. (5) (c), (7) (a) 3., 4., (b), r. (14), Register, November, 1995, No. 479, eff. 12-1-95; CR 02-077: am. (7) (a) 4. Register May 2003 No. 569, eff. 8-1-03; CR 08-043: r. and recr. (1), (5) (a), (8) and (12), renum. (3) (intro.) and (a) to be (3) (a) and (b) and am. (3) (a), am. (4) (b) and (7) (a) 2., r. (5) (c), Tables 21.26-B and B1, cr. (7) (a) 5. to 7. and (c) Register March 2009 No. 639, eff. 4-1-09; CR 09-104: am. (8) (a) 3. Register December 2010 No. 660, eff. 1-1-11; correction in (9) (c) made under s. 13.92 (4) (b) 7., Stats., Register January 2011 No. 661; correction in (3) (a), (6) (b), (7) (a) 6., (11) made under s. 13.92 (4) (b) 7., Stats., Register December 2011 No. 672.
subch. VIII of ch. SPS 321 Subchapter VIII — Roof and Ceilings
SPS 321.27 SPS 321.27Roof design and framing.
SPS 321.27(1) (1)Structural design.
SPS 321.27(1)(a)(a) General. Roof and roof-ceiling assemblies shall support all dead loads plus the minimum live loads under par. (c) and s. SPS 321.02.
SPS 321.27(1)(b) (b) Applicability of tables. The joist and rafter tables in ch. SPS 325 Appendix A are valid for roofs with a minimum slope of 3 in 12. Lesser slopes require engineering analysis or shall be provided with a ridge beam.
SPS 321.27(1)(c) (c) Sloped roof snow loads. Snow loads specified in s. SPS 321.02 (1) (b) 2. may be reduced for roof slopes greater than 30° by multiplying the snow load by Cs. The value of Cs shall be determined by the following: - See PDF for diagram PDF
where a is the slope of the roof expressed in degrees.
SPS 321.27 Note Note: A roof pitch of 7 in 12 is equal to 30°.
SPS 321.27(2) (2)Lateral restraint of walls. Provisions shall be taken to absorb the horizontal thrust produced by a sloping roof through the use of wall ties, ceiling joists, beams at the ridge or at the wall or a system designed through structural analysis.
SPS 321.27(3) (3)Uplift and suction forces.
SPS 321.27(3)(a)(a) General.
SPS 321.27(3)(a)1.1. Roofs shall withstand a pressure of at least 20 pounds per square foot acting upward normal to the roof surface.
SPS 321.27(3)(a)2. 2. Roof overhangs, eaves, canopies and cornices shall withstand an upward wind pressure of at least 20 pounds per square foot applied to the entire exposed area.
SPS 321.27(3)(b) (b) Anchorage.
SPS 321.27(3)(b)1.1. Roof framing members spanning more than 6 feet measured from the outermost edge of the roof shall be permanently fastened to the top plate of load bearing walls using engineered clips, straps or hangers.
SPS 321.27(3)(b)2. 2. Roof framing members spanning 6 feet or less measured from the outermost edge of the roof shall be permanently fastened to the top plate of load bearing walls using toe-nailing or engineered clips, straps or hangers.
SPS 321.27 Note Note: For information on toe nailing, see the fastener schedule table in the ch. SPS 325 Appendix A.
SPS 321.27(4) (4)Roof rafters.
SPS 321.27(4)(a)(a) General.
SPS 321.27(4)(a)1.1. Rafters shall be notched to fit the exterior wall plate and fastened to the wall.
SPS 321.27(4)(a)2. 2. Collar ties shall be installed on the upper third of every third pair of abutting roof rafters or every 48 inches, whichever is less.
SPS 321.27 Note Note: Collar ties are intended to provide stability to the roof at the ridge. Lateral restraint for the walls must be provided in accordance with sub. (2).
SPS 321.27(4)(b) (b) Ridge boards.
SPS 321.27(4)(b)1.1. Where rafters meet to form a ridge, the rafters shall be attached to a ridge board.
SPS 321.27(4)(b)2. 2. The ridge board shall have a depth at least equal to the length of the cut end of the rafter abutting it.
SPS 321.27(4)(b)3. 3. Where all rafters are placed directly opposite each other or are offset at the ridge board by less than the thickness of the rafter, the ridge board shall have a nominal thickness of at least 1 inch.
SPS 321.27(4)(b)4. 4. Where one or more rafters are offset at the ridge board by more than the thickness of the rafter, the ridge board shall have a nominal thickness of at least 2 inches.
SPS 321.27(4)(c) (c) Ridge beams. Rafters shall be attached to ridge beams using engineered clips, straps or hangers or the connection shall be designed through structural analysis.
SPS 321.27(4)(d) (d) Bearing. The required bearing for wood rafters shall be in accordance with the NDS adopted in Table 320.24-6m, except in no case shall the bearing be less than 1 1/2 inches on wood or metal or less than 3 inches on masonry or concrete.
Published under s. 35.93, Stats. Updated on the first day of each month. Entire code is always current. The Register date on each page is the date the chapter was last published.