A complaint alleging a conspiracy for the purpose of injuring another by means of perjury and resulting damage states a claim upon which relief can be granted. Radue v. Dill, 74 Wis. 2d 239
, 246 N.W.2d 507
A doctor's personal service corporation was merely the alter ego of the doctor. The doctor and the corporation did not constitute “two or more persons" under this section. Wausau Medical Center v. Asplund, 182 Wis. 2d 274
, 514 N.W.2d 34
(Ct. App. 1994).
Malicious injury to reputation and business claims do not require the existence of a contract in order to lie. The economic loss doctrine does not apply in the case of an independent tort based on allegations distinct from any contract allegations that seeks separate, non-economic damages. Brew City Redevelopment Group, LLC v. Ferchill Group, 2006 WI 128
, 297 Wis. 2d 606
, 724 N.W.2d 879
This section is a criminal statute, but Wisconsin courts have found an implied private right for victims of such conspiracies. To prove a claim under this section, a plaintiff must show that: 1) the defendants acted together; 2) with a common purpose to injure the plaintiff's reputation or business; 3) with malice; and 4) the plaintiff suffered financial harm. Kuryakyn Holdings, LLC v. Ciro, LLC, 242 F. Supp. 3d 789
Blacklisting and coercion of employees. 134.02(1)(1)
Any 2 or more persons, whether members of a partnership or company or stockholders in a corporation, who are employers of labor and who shall combine or agree to combine for any of the following purposes shall be fined not less than $100 nor more than $500, which fine shall be paid into the state treasury for the benefit of the school fund:
Preventing any person seeking employment from obtaining employment.
Procuring or causing the discharge of any employee by threats, promises, circulating blacklists or causing blacklists to be circulated.
After having discharged any employee, preventing or attempting to prevent the employee from obtaining employment with any other person, partnership, company or corporation by the means described in par. (a)
Authorizing, permitting or allowing any of their agents to blacklist any discharged employee or any employee who has voluntarily left the service of his or her employer.
Circulating a blacklist of an employee who has voluntarily left the service of an employer to prevent the employee's obtaining employment under any other employer.
Coercing or compelling any person to enter into an agreement not to unite with or become a member of any labor organization as a condition of his or her securing employment or continuing therein.
Nothing in this section shall prohibit any employer from giving any other employer, to whom a discharged employee has applied for employment, or to any bondsman or surety, a truthful statement of the reasons for the employee's discharge, when requested to do so by any of the following:
The person to whom the discharged employee has applied for employment.
It shall be a violation of this section to give a statement of the reasons for the employee's discharge with the intent to blacklist, hinder or prevent the discharged employee from obtaining employment.
Nothing contained in this section shall prohibit any employer from keeping for the employer's own information and protection a record showing the habits, character and competency of the employer's employees and the cause of the discharge or voluntary quitting of any of them.
History: 1993 a. 482
; 1995 a. 225
Preventing pursuit of work.
Any person who by threats, intimidation, force or coercion of any kind shall hinder or prevent any other person from engaging in or continuing in any lawful work or employment, either for himself or herself or as a wage worker, or who shall attempt to so hinder or prevent shall be punished by fine not exceeding $100 or by imprisonment in the county jail not more than 6 months, or by both fine and imprisonment in the discretion of the court. Nothing herein contained shall be construed to prohibit any person or persons off of the premises of such lawful work or employment from recommending, advising or persuading others by peaceful means to refrain from working at a place where a strike or lockout is in progress.
History: 1993 a. 482
An allegation of employment discrimination was not covered by this section. McCluney v. Jos. Schlitz Brewing Co., 489 F. Supp. 24
Sale of certain merchandise by employers to employees prohibited; penalty. 134.04(1)(1)
No person, firm or corporation engaged in any enterprise in this state shall by any method or procedure directly or indirectly by itself or through a subsidiary agency owned or controlled in whole or in part by such person, firm or corporation, sell or procure for sale or have in its possession or under its control for sale to its employees or any person any article, material, product or merchandise of whatsoever nature not of the person's, firm's or corporation's production or not handled in the person's, firm's or corporation's regular course of trade, excepting meals, candy bars, cigarettes and tobacco for the exclusive use and consumption of such employees of the employer, and excepting tools used by employees in said enterprise and such specialized appliances and paraphernalia as may be required in said enterprise for the employees' safety or health and articles used by employees or other persons which insure better sanitary conditions and quality in the manufacture of food or food products. The provisions of this subsection shall not apply to lumber producers, loggers and dealers nor to any cooperative association organized under ch. 185
. This section shall not be construed as authorizing the sale of any merchandise at less than cost as defined in s. 100.30
Any person, firm or corporation violating the provisions of this section shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and upon conviction thereof shall be punished for the first offense by a fine of not less than $100 nor more than $500 and for second or subsequent offense by a fine of not less than $500 nor more than $1,000. Each act prohibited by this section shall constitute a separate violation and offense hereunder.
Bribery of agent, etc. 134.05(1)(1)
Whoever corruptly gives, offers or promises to an agent, employee or servant, any gift or gratuity whatever, with intent to influence the agent's, employee's or servant's action in relation to the business of the agent's, employee's or servant's principal, employer or master shall be penalized as provided in sub. (4)
An agent, employee or servant who does any of the following shall be penalized as provided in sub. (4)
Corruptly requests or accepts a gift or gratuity or a promise to make a gift or to do an act beneficial to himself or herself, under an agreement or with an understanding that he or she shall act in any particular manner in relation to the business of the agent's, employee's or servant's principal, employer or master.
Being authorized to procure materials, supplies or other articles either by purchase or contract for his or her principal, employer or master, or to employ service or labor for his or her principal, employer or master, receives directly or indirectly, for himself or herself or for another, a commission, discount or bonus from the person who makes such sale or contract, or furnishes such materials, supplies or other articles, or from a person who renders such service or labor.
A person who gives or offers an agent, employee or servant authorized as described in sub. (2) (b)
a commission, discount or bonus of the type described in sub. (2) (b)
, shall be penalized as provided in sub. (4)
Whoever violates sub. (1)
may be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned for not more than 9 months or both.
See s. 885.15
for provision as to granting immunity for testifying as to offenses charged under this section.
Bonus to chauffeurs for purchases, forbidden.
It shall be unlawful for any chauffeur, driver or other person having the care of a motor vehicle for the owner to receive or take directly or indirectly without the written consent of such owner any bonus, discount or other consideration for supplies, or parts furnished or purchased for such motor vehicle or upon any work or labor done thereon by others or on the purchase of any motor vehicle for the chauffeur's, driver's or other person's employer and no person furnishing such supplies or parts, work or labor or selling any motor vehicle shall give or offer any such chauffeur or other person having the care of a motor vehicle for the owner thereof, directly or indirectly without such owner's written consent, any bonus, discount or other consideration thereon. Any person violating this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and punished by a fine not exceeding $25.
History: 1993 a. 482
Invading right to choose insurance agent or insurer by persons engaged in financing. 134.10(1)(1)
Any person engaged in the business of financing the purchase of real or personal property or of lending money on the security of real or personal property, and any trustee, director, officer, agent or employee of any such person, who requires, or conspires with another to require, as a condition precedent to financing the purchase of such property or to loaning money upon the security of a mortgage thereon, or as a condition prerequisite for the renewal or extension of any such loan or mortgage or for the performance of any other act in connection therewith, that the person for whom such purchase is to be financed or to whom the money is to be loaned or for whom such extension, renewal or other act is to be granted or performed, negotiate any policy of insurance or renewal thereof covering such property through a particular insurance agent, shall be fined not less than $50 nor more than $200 or imprisoned not more than 6 months or both.
It is the duty of every person engaged in such business and of every trustee, director, officer, agent or employee of any such person, when financing the purchase of such property or loaning money upon the security of a mortgage thereon, or renewing or extending any such loan or mortgage, or performing any other act in connection therewith, to advise the person for whom such purchase is to be financed or to or for whom the money is to be loaned or for whom such extension, renewal or other act is to be granted or performed, that the person is free to choose the insurance agent or insurer through which the insurance covering such property is to be negotiated.
This section shall not be construed to prevent the reasonable exercise of any person so engaged, or his or her trustee, director, officer, agent or employee, of his or her right to approve or disapprove the insurer selected to underwrite the insurance or to determine the adequacy of the insurance offered.
History: 1993 a. 482
Invading of right to choose insurance agent or insurer by persons engaged in selling property. 134.11(1)(1)
Any person engaged in the business of selling real or personal property, and any trustee, director, officer, agent or employee of any such person, who requires, as a condition precedent to the selling of such property, or to the performance of any other act in connection therewith, that the person to whom such property is being sold, negotiate any policy of insurance or renewal thereof covering such property through a particular insurance agent, shall be fined not less than $50 nor more than $200 or imprisoned not more than 6 months or both.
It is the duty of every person engaged in the business of selling real property or personal property and of every trustee, director, officer, agent or employee of any person so engaged, when negotiating the sale or selling any real or personal property, to advise the person to whom the property is being sold that the person is free to choose the insurance agent or insurer through which the insurance covering the property is to be negotiated.
This section shall not be construed to prevent the reasonable exercise by any person so engaged, or his or her trustee, director, officer, agent or employee, of his or her right to approve or disapprove, on behalf of himself or herself or his or her principal, the insurer selected to underwrite the insurance or to determine the adequacy of the insurance offered.
History: 1993 a. 482
Issuing and using what is not money; contracts void. 134.15(1)(1)
Any person who shall knowingly issue, pay out or pass, and any body corporate, or any officer, stockholder, director or agent thereof who shall issue, pay out or pass, or receive in this state, as money or as an equivalent for money, any promissory note, draft, order, bill of exchange, certificate of deposit or other paper of any form whatever in the similitude of bank paper, circulating as money or banking currency, that is not at the time of such issuing, paying out, passing or receiving expressly authorized by some positive law of the United States or of some state of the United States or of any other country, and redeemable in lawful money of the United States, or current gold or silver coin at the place where it purports to have been issued, such person shall be punished by imprisonment in the county jail not more than 6 months or by fine not exceeding $100, and such body corporate shall forfeit all its rights, privileges and franchises and shall also forfeit to the state and pay for each offense the sum of $500.
All contracts of any kind whatever the consideration of which, in whole or in part, shall consist of any such paper as is prohibited in sub. (1)
and all payments made in such unauthorized paper shall be null and void.
Fraudulently receiving deposits.
Any officer, director, stockholder, cashier, teller, manager, messenger, clerk or agent of any bank, banking, exchange, brokerage or deposit company, corporation or institution, or of any person, company or corporation engaged in whole or in part in banking, brokerage, exchange or deposit business in any way, or any person engaged in such business in whole or in part, who shall accept or receive, on deposit, or for safekeeping, or to loan, from any person any money, or any bills, notes or other paper circulating as money, or any notes, drafts, bills of exchange, bank checks or other commercial paper for safekeeping or for collection, when he or she knows or has good reason to know that such bank, company or corporation or that such person is unsafe or insolvent is guilty of a Class F felony.
Corporate name, recording, amendment, discontinuance, unlawful use. 134.17(1)(1)
Any person who engages in or advertises any mercantile or commission business under a name purporting or appearing to be a corporate name, with the intent to obtain credit, and which name does not disclose the real name of one or more of the persons engaged in the business, without first recording in the office of the register of deeds of the county in which his or her principal place of business is located, a verified statement disclosing and showing the name of all persons using the name, shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned in the county jail for not more than one year.
Any use of corporate name may be amended by recording a verified statement clearly setting forth all changes and signed by all parties concerned with the register of deeds where the original declaration was filed or recorded.
A discontinuance of use of corporate name signed by all interested parties and verified may be recorded with the register of deeds where the original declaration was filed or recorded.
For each recording, the register of deeds shall receive the fee specified for recording under s. 59.43 (2) (ag)
Use of, evidence of obtaining credit.
The adoption of and advertising of any business under any name in its form corporate and not disclosing the name of one or more persons connected with said business, shall be legal evidence that such name is or was adopted or used for the purpose of obtaining credit.
Fraud on exemption laws.
Any person who shall, whether as principal, agent or attorney, with intent thereby to deprive any bona fide resident of this state of the resident's rights under the statutes thereof relating to the exemption of property or earnings from sale or garnishment, send or cause to be sent out of this state any claim for debt for the purpose of having the same collected by proceedings in attachment, garnishment or other mesne process, when the creditor and debtor and the person or corporation owing the debtor the money intended to be reached by any such proceedings are within the jurisdiction of the courts of this state; or who directly or indirectly assigns or transfers any claim for debt against such a resident for the purpose of having the same collected by such proceedings or any of them out of the wages or personal earnings of the debtor or of the debtor's minor children, whose earnings contribute to the support of the debtor's family, in courts without this state, when the creditor and debtor and person or corporation owing the money intended to be reached by such proceedings are each and all within the jurisdiction of the courts of this state, shall be fined not more than $50 nor less than $10 for each offense.
History: 1993 a. 482
Fraudulent issuance or use of warehouse receipts or bills of lading. 134.20(1)(1)
Whoever, with intent to defraud, does any of the following is guilty of a Class H felony:
Issues a warehouse receipt or bill of lading covering goods which, at the time of issuance of the receipt or bill, have not been received or shipped in accordance with the purported terms and meaning of such receipt or bill.
Issues a warehouse receipt or bill of lading which the person knows contains a false statement.
Issues a duplicate or additional warehouse receipt or bill of lading, knowing that a former receipt or bill for the same goods or any part of them is outstanding and uncanceled.
Issues a warehouse receipt covering goods owned by the warehouse keeper, either solely or jointly or in common with others, without disclosing such ownership in the receipt.
Delivers goods out of the possession of such warehouse keeper or carrier to a person who he or she knows is not entitled thereto or with knowledge that the goods are covered by a negotiable warehouse receipt or bill of lading which is outstanding and uncanceled and without obtaining possession of such receipt or bill at or before the time of delivery and either canceling it or conspicuously noting thereon any partial deliveries made.
In any manner removes beyond the immediate control of a warehouse keeper or carrier any goods covered by a warehouse receipt or bill of lading issued by such warehouse keeper or carrier, contrary to the terms and meaning of such receipt or bill and without the consent of the holder thereof.
Negotiates or transfers for value a warehouse receipt or bill of lading covering goods which he or she knows are subject to a lien or security interest, other than the warehouse keeper's or carrier's lien, or to which he or she does not have title or which he or she knows have not been received or shipped in accordance with the purported terms and meaning of the warehouse receipt or bill of lading and fails to disclose those facts to the purchaser thereof.
“Bill of lading" means a document evidencing the receipt of goods for shipment issued by a person engaged in the business of transporting or forwarding goods, and includes an airbill. “Airbill" means a document serving for air transportation as a bill of lading does for marine or rail transportation, and includes an air consignment note or air waybill.
“Warehouse receipt" means a receipt issued by a person engaged in the business of storing goods for hire.
Warehouse keepers to keep register; liability for damages; penalty for fraud. 134.205(1)(1)
Every warehouse keeper shall keep in the office in which the business of the warehouse is transacted a register in which shall be entered with reference to each receipt issued, the facts specified in s. 407.202 (2)
. When the warehouse keeper ceases to be responsible for the delivery of the property described in the receipt, the fact and date of the delivery of the property and such other facts as may terminate liability on such receipt shall be entered in such register in connection with the original entry.
Such register shall be open to the inspection of the owner or holder of any such receipt, or of any person who presents the same at the office of the warehouse keeper.
The warehouse keeper shall be responsible to any person relying on such entries in good faith for any loss or damage which the person sustains through any failure to make the entries required by this section.
Whoever, with intent to defraud, issues a warehouse receipt without entering the same in a register as required by this section is guilty of a Class H felony.
Penalty for unauthorized presentation of dramatic plays, etc.
Any person who sells a copy or a substantial copy, or who causes to be publicly performed or represented for profit, any unpublished or undedicated dramatic play or musical composition, known as an opera, without the written consent of its owner or proprietor, or, who, knowing that such dramatic play or musical composition is unpublished or undedicated, and, without the written consent of its owner or proprietor, permits, aids, or takes part in such a performance or representation, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof shall be fined not less than $5 nor more than $100, or by imprisonment not exceeding 60 days.
Motion picture fair practices. 134.23(1)(1)
As used in this section:
“Blind bidding" means offering, bidding for, negotiating for or agreeing to any term for the licensing or exhibition of a motion picture in this state prior to a trade screening of the motion picture.
“Distributor" means a person who rents, sells, licenses or otherwise distributes to an exhibitor a motion picture for exhibition in this state.
“License agreement" means a contract, agreement, understanding or condition between a distributor and an exhibitor relating to the exhibition of a motion picture in this state.