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283.01(12)(a) (a) A discernible, confined and discrete conveyance, including but not limited to any pipe, ditch, channel, tunnel, conduit, well, discrete fissure, container, rolling stock, concentrated animal feeding operation or vessel or other floating craft from which pollutants may be discharged either into the waters of the state or into a publicly owned treatment works except for a conveyance that conveys only storm water.
283.01(12)(b) (b) A discernible, confined and discrete conveyance of storm water for which a permit is required under s. 283.33 (1).
283.01(13) (13) "Pollutant" means any dredged spoil, solid waste, incinerator residue, sewage, garbage, refuse, oil, sewage sludge, munitions, chemical wastes, biological materials, radioactive substance, heat, wrecked or discarded equipment, rock, sand, cellar dirt and industrial, municipal and agricultural waste discharged into water.
283.01(14) (14) "Pollution" means man-made or man-induced alteration of the chemical, physical, biological or radiological integrity of water.
283.01(15) (15) "Schedule of compliance" means a schedule of remedial measures including an enforceable sequence of actions or operations leading to compliance with an effluent limitation or other limitation, prohibition or standard.
283.01(16) (16) "Secretary" means the secretary of natural resources or his or her designee.
283.01(17) (17) "Toxic pollutants" means those pollutants or combinations of pollutants, including disease-causing agents, which after discharge and upon exposure, ingestion, inhalation or assimilation into any organism, either directly from the environment or indirectly by ingestion through food chains, will, on the basis of information available to the department, cause death, disease, behavioral abnormalities, cancer, genetic mutations, physiological malfunctions, including malfunctions in reproduction or physical deformations, in such organisms or their offspring.
283.01(18) (18) "Treatment work" means any devices and systems used in the storage, treatment, recycling, and reclamation of municipal sewage or industrial waste of a liquid nature or necessary to recycle or reuse water at the most economical cost over the estimated life of the work, including intercepting sewers, outfall sewers, sewage collection systems, cooling towers and ponds, pumping, power and other equipment, and their appurtenances; extensions, improvements, remodeling, additions, and alterations thereof; elements essential to provide a reliable recycled supply such as standby treatment units and clear well facilities; and any works, including site acquisition of the land that will be an integral part of the treatment process or is used for ultimate disposal of residues resulting from such treatment. Additionally, "treatment work" means any other method or system for preventing, abating, reducing, storing, treating, separating or disposing of municipal waste, including storm water runoff, or industrial waste, including waste in combined storm water and sanitary sewer systems.
283.01(19) (19) "Vessel" means any watercraft or other artificial contrivance used or capable of being used as a means of transportation on water.
283.01(20) (20) "Waters of the state" means those portions of Lake Michigan and Lake Superior within the boundaries of Wisconsin, all lakes, bays, rivers, streams, springs, ponds, wells, impounding reservoirs, marshes, water courses, drainage systems and other surface water or groundwater, natural or artificial, public or private within the state or under its jurisdiction, except those waters which are entirely confined and retained completely upon the property of a person.
283.01 History History: 1973 c. 74; 1979 c. 221; 1983 a. 189; 1987 a. 403; 1993 a. 16, 112, 482; 1995 a. 227 s. 847; Stats. 1995 s. 283.01.
283.01 Annotation A concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) under sub. (12) includes not only where the animals are confined, but also the equipment that applies the animal waste to fields outside the confinement area, whether owned by the fields are owned by the CATO operator or others. Any overapplication of manure by the operator is a discharge under sub. (5) whether because of runoff to surface waters or percolation to groundwater. Maple Leaf Farms v. DNR, 2001 WI App 170, 247 Wis. 2d 96, 633 N.W.2d 720, 00-1389.
subch. III of ch. 283 SUBCHAPTER III
STANDARDS; EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
283.11 283.11 State and federal standards.
283.11(1) (1) Department to establish standards. The department shall promulgate by rule effluent limitations, standards of performance for new sources, toxic effluent standards or prohibitions and pretreatment standards for any category or class of point sources established by the U.S. environmental protection agency and for which that agency has promulgated any effluent limitations, toxic effluent standards or prohibitions or pretreatment standards for any pollutant.
283.11(2) (2)Compliance with federal standards.
283.11(2)(a)(a) Except for rules concerning storm water discharges for which permits are issued under s. 283.33, all rules promulgated by the department under this chapter as they relate to point source discharges, effluent limitations, municipal monitoring requirements, standards of performance for new sources, toxic effluent standards or prohibitions and pretreatment standards shall comply with and not exceed the requirements of the federal water pollution control act, 33 USC 1251 to 1387, and regulations adopted under that act.
283.11(2)(b) (b) Rules concerning storm water discharges may be no more stringent than the requirements under the federal water pollution control act, 33 USC 1251 to 1387, and regulations adopted under that act.
283.11(3) (3)Standards for nitrogen, phosphorus and disinfection in the absence of federal standards.
283.11(3)(a)(a) Standards for nitrogen and disinfection. Notwithstanding sub. (1) or (2), the department may promulgate by rule effluent limitations representing the best available demonstrated control technology, processes, operating methods or other alternatives concerning the discharge of nitrogen compounds and concerning the disinfection of sanitary wastewaters if the U.S. environmental protection agency has not promulgated an effluent limitation, effluent standard or prohibition concerning this type of discharge or disinfection.
283.11(3)(am) (am) Standards for phosphorus. Notwithstanding sub. (1) or (2), the department shall promulgate by rule effluent limitations representing the best available demonstrated control technology, processes, operating methods or other alternatives concerning the discharge of phosphorus if the U.S. environmental protection agency has not promulgated an effluent limitation, effluent standard or prohibition concerning this type of discharge.
283.11(3)(b) (b) Exemptions. The department may exempt by rule specified types of discharges from the effluent limitations concerning the discharge of phosphorus or nitrogen compounds established under par. (a) or (am) based upon:
283.11(3)(b)1. 1. The amount of phosphorus or nitrogen discharged;
283.11(3)(b)2. 2. The impact of nonpoint sources on the waters affected by the discharge;
283.11(3)(b)3. 3. The additional cost of treatment per unit of phosphorus or nitrogen removed;
283.11(3)(b)4. 4. The type of waters affected by the discharge; or
283.11(3)(b)5. 5. The impact of the discharge on the maintenance or achievement of water quality standards.
283.11(3)(c) (c) Advisory committee. In promulgating rules under pars. (a), (am) and (b), the department shall establish an advisory committee under s. 227.13 composed of representatives of municipal dischargers, industrial point sources, farm groups, environmental groups, nonpoint sources and the public to assist in drafting the rules, evaluating technical studies and advising the department.
283.11(3)(d) (d) Impact of subsequent federal standards. If the U.S. environmental protection agency promulgates an effluent limitation, effluent standard or prohibition concerning a type of discharge or disinfection specified under par. (a) or (am) for a category or class of point sources which is applicable to a permit holder, the department may modify, and at the request of the permit holder shall modify, the effluent limitation specified in the permit to conform with the effluent limitation, effluent standard or prohibition promulgated by the U.S. environmental protection agency.
283.11(3)(e) (e) Compliance dates. A publicly owned treatment works shall comply with effluent limitations established under par. (a) by July 1, 1983. Any point source other than a publicly owned treatment works shall comply with effluent limitations established under par. (a) by July 1, 1984.
283.11(4) (4)Standards for toxic pollutants in the absence of federal standards.
283.11(4)(a)(a) Authorization. Notwithstanding sub. (1) or (2), the department may promulgate by rule, under s. 283.21, a toxic effluent standard or prohibition applicable to a category or class of point sources for the discharge of an identified toxic pollutant, if the U.S. environmental protection agency has not done either of the following for that identified toxic pollutant:
283.11(4)(a)1. 1. Promulgated, under 33 USC 1311 (b) (2), an effluent limitation applicable to the specified category or class of point sources.
283.11(4)(a)2. 2. Promulgated, under 33 USC 1317, an effluent standard or prohibition applicable to the specified category or class of point sources.
283.11(4)(b) (b) Identification. An identified toxic pollutant is:
283.11(4)(b)1. 1. Any toxic pollutant or combination of pollutants on the list prepared under s. 283.21 (1) (a).
283.11(4)(b)2. 2. Any toxic pollutant or combination of pollutants on a list prepared under 33 USC 1317.
283.11(4)(b)3. 3. Any other substance which the department has proposed to be added to the list of toxic pollutants under s. 283.21 (1) (a).
283.11(4)(c) (c) Concurrent rule making. A toxic effluent standard or a prohibition for a substance identified under par. (b) 3. may not be promulgated before the list of toxic pollutants has been revised under s. 283.21 (1) (a) to include that substance. The revision under s. 283.21 (1) (a) and the toxic effluent standard or prohibition under s. 283.21 (1) (b) may be promulgated concurrently.
283.11(4)(d) (d) Additional procedures. As part of the rule-making process for a rule to which this subsection applies, the department shall do all of the following:
283.11(4)(d)1. 1. Specify in the proposed rule whether it applies to all waters of the state or to designated portions of the waters of the state.
283.11(4)(d)2. 2. Consider whether there are available removal technologies which provide the capability of achieving compliance at or for representative point sources likely to be affected by the rule and whether there are alternative control strategies which provide the capability of achieving compliance.
283.11(4)(d)3. 3. If the department finds that the level of pollutant control resulting from the application of available removal technologies or alternative control strategies is inadequate to protect public health, safety or welfare or the environment, consider any evidence presented on the relationship of the economic and social costs of the proposed standard or prohibition, including any social or economic dislocation in representative communities likely to be affected by the rule, to the social and economic benefits likely to be obtained, including attainment of the objectives of this chapter.
283.11(4)(e) (e) Impact of subsequent federal standards.
283.11(4)(e)1.1. If the U.S. environmental protection agency, under 33 USC 1317, promulgates a toxic effluent standard or prohibition for a toxic pollutant after the department promulgates a toxic effluent standard or prohibition, the department may modify its standard or prohibition to conform to the federal standard or prohibition. At the request of a permittee to which the standard or prohibition promulgated by the department applies under the terms of a permit, the department shall modify the permit to conform to the federal standard or prohibition.
283.11(4)(e)2. 2. If the U.S. environmental protection agency, under 33 USC 1311 (b) (2), promulgates an effluent limitation applicable to the discharge of a toxic pollutant from a point source after the department promulgates a toxic effluent standard or prohibition, the department may modify its standard or prohibition to conform to the federal toxic effluent limitation. A permittee to which the standard or prohibition promulgated by the department applies under the terms of a permit may request that the department modify the permit to conform to the federal effluent limitation. The department shall use the procedures specified under s. 283.53 (2) (b) to (f) to determine whether to grant the request. The department shall grant the request unless it finds that the resulting limitation, as applied to the permittee and to any other permittees subject to the department's standard or prohibition which discharge into the receiving water, would be inadequate to protect the public health, safety or welfare or the environment in the receiving water or any other waters directly affected by the discharge. A decision by the department not to grant the request is reviewable under s. 283.63.
283.11(5) (5)Nonapplicability. This section does not apply to any water quality based effluent limitation established under s. 283.13 (5).
283.11 History History: 1973 c. 74; 1979 c. 221 ss. 650c, 650e; 1985 a. 29; 1985 a. 182 s. 57; 1987 a. 27; 1991 a. 39; 1993 a. 16; 1995 a. 227 s. 859; Stats. 1995 s. 283.11; 2013 a. 173 s. 33.
283.11 Cross-reference Cross-reference: See also NR 200-, Wis. adm. code.
283.11 Annotation Sub. (2) does not unlawfully delegate legislative power. Niagara of Wisconsin Paper Corp. v. DNR, 84 Wis. 2d 32, 268 N.W.2d 153 (1978).
283.11 Annotation The DNR violated sub. (2) by adopting chlorine limitations in pollution discharge elimination system permits that were more stringent than federal limitations. Wisconsin Electric Power Co. v. DNR, 93 Wis. 2d 222, 287 N.W.2d 113 (1980).
283.13 283.13 Effluent limitations.
283.13(1) (1) Categories and classes of point sources. The department shall promulgate a list of categories and classes of point sources which is at least as comprehensive as the list appearing in section 1316 (b) (1) (A) of the federal water pollution control act, as amended, 33 USC 1251 to 1376.
283.13(2) (2)Sources other than public treatment works. The discharge from any point source, other than a publicly owned treatment works or a source of storm water permitted under s. 283.33, shall comply with the following requirements:
283.13(2)(a) (a) Best practicable technology. The application of the best practicable control technology currently available.
283.13(2)(b) (b) Requirements for certain pollutants. For pollutants identified under pars. (c), (d) and (f):
283.13(2)(b)1.a.a. The application of the best available technology economically achievable for a point source or a category or class of point sources which will result in reasonable further progress toward the national goal of eliminating the discharge of all pollutants as stated in the federal water pollution control act, as amended, 33 USC 1251 to 1376; or
283.13(2)(b)1.b. b. The application of the best available technology which will result in the elimination of the discharge of all pollutants if the department finds on the basis of information available to it that the elimination is technologically and economically achievable for a category or class of point sources.
283.13(2)(b)2. 2. The application of any applicable pretreatment requirements or any other requirements under s. 283.21 to any point source discharging pollutants into a publicly owned treatment works.
283.13(2)(c) (c) Certain toxic pollutants; compliance by July 1, 1984. Compliance with the effluent limitations under par. (b) with respect to all toxic pollutants referred to in table 1 of committee print number 95-30 of the committee on public works and transportation of the U.S. house of representatives by no later than July 1, 1984.
283.13(2)(d) (d) Other toxic pollutants; compliance within 3 years after limitations are established. Compliance with effluent limitations under par. (b) with respect to all toxic pollutants included on the list promulgated under s. 283.21 (1) (a) but which are not included in the table referred to under par. (c) not later than 3 years after the date the effluent limitations are established.
283.13(2)(e) (e) Conventional pollutants; compliance by July 1, 1984. The application of the best conventional pollutant control technology for pollutants identified under section 1314 (a) (4) of the federal water pollution control act, as amended, 33 USC 1251 to 1376 by no later than July 1, 1984.
283.13(2)(f) (f) Other pollutants. Compliance with effluent limitations under par. (b) with respect to all pollutants not included under pars. (c) to (e) not later than 3 years after the date effluent limitations are established, but in no case before July 1, 1984 or after July 1, 1987.
283.13(2)(g) (g) Certain innovative processes; compliance before July 1, 1987.
283.13(2)(g)1.1. For a facility which proposes to comply with the requirements of par. (b) by utilizing an innovative production process, innovative control technique or innovative system by a date established by the department after consulting with U.S. environmental protection agency but not later than July 1, 1987.
283.13(2)(g)2. 2. An innovative production process is a process to replace existing production capacity with a process which will result in an effluent reduction significantly greater than that required by the applicable effluent limitation and which moves toward the goal of eliminating the discharge of all pollutants.
283.13(2)(g)3. 3. An innovative control technique is a technique which has a substantial likelihood of enabling the facility to achieve a significantly greater effluent reduction than that required by the applicable effluent limitation and which moves toward the national goal of eliminating the discharge of all pollutants as stated under the federal water pollution control act, as amended, 33 USC 1251 to 1376.
283.13(2)(g)4. 4. An innovative system is a system which has the potential for significantly lower costs than the systems which the department has determined to be economically achievable if the department determines that the system has the potential for industrywide application.
283.13(3) (3)Modifications.
283.13(3)(a)(a) Maximum use of technology and reasonable progress. The department may modify the requirements of sub. (2) (f) in accordance with s. 283.63 for any point source for which a permit application is filed after July 1, 1977 if the owner or operator of the point source satisfactorily demonstrates to the department that the modified requirements will represent the maximum use of technology within the economic capability of the owner or operator and will result in reasonable further progress toward the national goal of elimination of the discharge of pollutants as stated in the federal water pollution control act, as amended, 33 USC 1251 to 1376.
283.13(3)(b) (b) Minimum compliance.
283.13(3)(b)1.1. The department with the concurrence of the U.S. environmental protection agency shall modify the requirements of sub. (2) (f) with respect to the discharge of any pollutant other than heat from any point source upon a showing by the owner or operator of the point source satisfactory to the department in a proceeding under s. 283.63 that:
283.13(3)(b)1.a. a. The modified requirements will result in compliance with the requirements of sub. (2) (a) or (5), whichever is applicable;
283.13(3)(b)1.b. b. The modified requirements will not result in any additional requirements for any other point or nonpoint source; and
283.13(3)(b)1.c. c. The modification will not interfere with the attainment or maintenance of water quality which assures protection of public water supplies, which assures the protection and propagation of a balanced population of shellfish, fish, and wildlife and which allows recreational activities in and on the water and that the modification will not result in the discharge of pollutants in quantities which reasonably may be anticipated to pose an unacceptable risk to human health or the environment because of bioaccumulation, persistency in the environment, acute toxicity, chronic toxicity including carcinogenicity, mutagenicity or teratogenicity or synergistic propensities.
283.13(3)(b)2. 2. If an owner or operator of a point source applies for a modification under this paragraph with respect to the discharge of any pollutant, that owner or operator is eligible to apply for modification under this subsection with respect to that pollutant only during the same time period as the owner or operator is eligible to apply for a modification under this paragraph.
283.13(3)(c) (c) Applications for modification.
283.13(3)(c)1.1. Any application filed under this subsection for a modification of the requirements of sub. (2) (b) as it applies to pollutants identified in sub. (2) (f) shall be filed not later than 270 days after the date of promulgation of an applicable effluent limitation by the department under this chapter.
283.13(3)(c)2. 2. Any application for a modification filed under this subsection does not operate to stay any requirement under this chapter, unless in the judgment of the department the stay or the modification sought will not result in the discharge of pollutants in quantities which may reasonably be anticipated to pose an unacceptable risk to human health or the environment because of bioaccumulation, persistency in the environment, acute toxicity, chronic toxicity, including carcinogenicity, mutagenicity or teratogenicity, or synergistic propensities and there is a substantial likelihood that the applicant will succeed on the merits of the application. If an application is filed under this subsection, the department may condition any stay granted under this subdivision upon the filing of a bond or other appropriate security to assure timely compliance with the requirements from which a modification is sought.
283.13(3)(d) (d) No modification for toxic pollutants. Notwithstanding pars. (a) and (b), the department may not modify any requirement of this subsection or sub. (2) applicable to any toxic pollutant which is on the list promulgated under s. 283.21 (1).
283.13(4) (4)Effluent limitations for public treatment works. Discharges from publicly owned treatment works, except storm water discharges for which a permit is issued under s. 283.33, shall comply with the following requirements:
283.13(4)(a) (a) Secondary treatment for certain works. Secondary treatment by no later than July 1, 1977, for all publicly owned treatment works in existence on that date or approved prior to June 30, 1974, and for which construction is completed within 4 years of approval;
283.13(4)(b) (b) Best practicable waste treatment technology. The application of the best practicable waste treatment technology over the life of the works consistent with the purposes of this chapter by no later than July 1, 1983.
283.13(4)(c) (c) Other limitations for combined sewer overflows. In lieu of pars. (a) and (b), effluent limitations required by subs. (2) (a) and (5) for combined sewer systems tributary to treatment works owned and operated by any metropolitan sewerage district created under ss. 200.21 to 200.65.
283.13(5) (5)More stringent limitations. The department shall establish more stringent effluent limitations than required under subs. (2) and (4) and shall require compliance with such water quality based effluent limitations in any permit issued, reissued or modified if these limitations are necessary to meet applicable water quality standards, treatment standards, schedules of compliance or any other state or federal law, rule or regulation. The department shall require compliance with these water quality based effluent limitations by no later than July 1, 1977, or by a later date as specified in the water quality standard, treatment standard, schedule of compliance or other state or federal law, rule or regulation.
283.13(6) (6)Modification of time limits.
283.13(6)(a)(a) Except as provided under par. (d), the department may modify the time limitations specified under subs. (4) and (5) for any publicly owned treatment works to increase the period of time for compliance with effluent limitations.
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2011-12 Wisconsin Statutes updated though 2013 Wis. Act 200 and all Supreme Court Orders entered before April 11, 2014. Published and certified under s. 35.18. Changes effective after April 11, 2014 are designated by NOTES. (Published 4-11-14)